Berkut – Spacesuit for spacecraft Voskhod 2

Space suit - BerkutSpace suit - Memorial Museum of AstronauticsBerkut - Smithsonian National Air and Space MuseumBerkut - Smithsonian Air and Space Museum

Berkut – Spacesuit for spacecraft Voskhod 2

 

  • In use over the years: 1964 – 1965
  • Space ships: Voskhod 2.
  • Mass: 20 kg plus backpack 21 kg.

 
Berkut – Created on the order of the conversion of a one-person cabin from Vostok to Voskhod. Adapted to a three-person crew. The equipment of the cabin had to be kept to a minimum, and this also applied to the suits. On October 12, 1964, the Voskhod 1 spacecraft took off into space. There were three cosmonauts in it, dressed only in woolen trousers and jackets. The mission was surprisingly successful, but the risk was very high. Another goal of the competing US and USSR was to go out into the open space (EVA).

In order to save space in the cabin, the new Soviet suit, called Berkut, i.e. the golden eagle, chose a soft construction for itself. To keep it supplied with oxygen for an extended period of time, a backpack containing three 2-liter oxygen cylinders is included. Providing its inflow for 45 minutes. With this equipment, on March 18, 1965, the Voschod 2 spacecraft set off into space. The crew was made up of Pavel Belyayev and Alexey Leonov. Under the conditions of space vacuum, his suit expanded in volume and literally turned into concrete. On his way back to the ship, Leonov realized that he simply couldn’t fit into the pressure chamber anymore.

He started fighting for his life. He lowered the pressure to the critical 270 hPa, which corresponds to a pressure of 10,000 meters above sea level. It reduced the stiffness of the suit and eventually got into the chamber, but head first. So he had to flexibly get into the correct position for returning to the ship. During this maneuver, he got stuck in the narrower part of the chamber, but eventually succeeded. He spent 23 minutes outside the ship, 12 of them in open space. Cooling the suit turned out to be problematic as well, Leonov was overheating during the space walk and he was in danger of collapsing.

Thermonuclear energy – Obtained by fusion

Thermonuclear energy - JET - Aerial view

Thermonuclear energy - JET - Telemanipulator

Thermonuclear energy - JET - Interior view

Thermonuclear energy - JET - Vessel internal view - Plasma blend

Thermonuclear energy - ITER - Aerial view

ITER - Tokamak complex

ITER - Aerial view - (26-03-2018)

ITER - Tokamak and Plant Systems

Thermonuclear energy – Obtained by fusion

Thermonuclear energy – Obtained by fusion – combining the nuclei of light elements. Under earthly conditions, it is possible to use isotopes, i.e. heavier forms of hydrogen: deuterium and tritium. The former has a proton and a neutron in its nucleus, and it is quite common in water. The second one, made of a proton and two neutrons, does not occur naturally. But it can be easily obtained from another light element – lithium.

JET (Joint European Torus)

Tritium is used in experiments at JET (Joint European Torus). Which is near Oxford, UK. It is a tokamak reactor – a bagel-shaped chamber in which the hot gas, i.e. plasma, will be trapped by the magnetic field. It must reach enormous temperatures, on the order of 100 million degrees Celsius, for the thermonuclear reactions to begin. – We have come to the point where we can try out in practice what we have been preparing for years. – explains Dr. Joelle Mailloux, co-leader of the JET science team.

This is the first major experiment with tritium since 1997. Because the use of this isotope as a fuel, along with deuterium, increases the level of radiation in the reactor. All the equipment had to be adapted to the new working conditions. It took two years. – Once the research begins, the inside of the reactor will be too dangerous for humans to enter. Everything must work or be repairable remotely, as on an unmanned spacecraft – says Prof. Ian Chapman, head of JET.

If successful in the UK trials, they will open the way to efficient and relatively clean energy production. One gram of hydrogen “burned” in a fusion reactor can yield as much as 8 tons of crude oil or 11 tons of coal. A few hundred kilograms of deuterium and tritium per year would be enough to meet the energy needs of the whole world. Relatively little radioactive waste is also expected to be generated in fusion reactors.

ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor)

The results of the JET experiments will be used in the development of ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor). This is a huge reactor under construction in Cadarache, France. Funded by the European Union, China, India, Japan, South Korea, Russia and the USA at a cost of $ 22 billion. The first launch of ITER is scheduled for 2025, 10 years later the reactor is to run on a mixture of deuterium and tritium. If all goes to plan, it will be the first plant to get more energy from fusion than was needed to initiate it.

Giant Wisteria – In California largest in the world

Giant WisteriaGiant WisteriaGiant WisteriaGiant WisteriaWistaria Festival 2016 - Sierra MadreWistaria Festival 2016

Giant Wisteria – In California largest in the world

Giant Wisteria – In California largest of world. In the wild state occurs, among others in Japan and the USA. It resembles a tree, but it is actually a climbing plant of the bean family. One of the most famous specimens is found in Ashikaga Park in Japan. It is supported by special piles. It is 150 years old and is recognized as the oldest plant of this species in the whole country. Although it covers an area of nearly 2 thousand. m², it is still more than half the size of the largest in the world. Record holder is growing in Sierra Madre, California. It covers an area of nearly 4 thousand. m², which corresponds to more than half of the football field. Its weight is estimated at about 259 tons. It’s about the same as the weight of 5 trucks loaded to the brim.

Long-lived companies – Record holders are real Methuselah’s

Kongo Gumi

Long-lived companies - Kongo Gumi

Nishiyama Onsen Keiunkan

Staffelter Hof

Zum Roten Bären

Long-lived companies

The Olde Bell

Long-lived companies

Sudo Honke

Sudo Honke

Long-lived companies - Sudo-Honke

Frapin

Long-lived companies - Frapin

R. Durtnell and Sons

R. Durtnell and Sons

Long-lived companies - Poundsbridge-Manor

Long-lived companies – Record holders are real Methuselah’s

Long-lived companies – Record holders are real Methuselah’s, operating continuously for over ten centuries. Tokyo Shoko Research agency dealing with market research since 1892. It found over 5.5 thousand enterprises that have existed for at least 200 years.
More than half of long-lived companies operate in Japan. There are six in the top ten. Among the aforementioned 5.5 thousand – up to 3100. As the reason for this dominance, scientists point to the island’s location of the country and centuries-old isolation.
Most of these long-lived businesses are family businesses, emphasizes prof. Toshio Goto from Japan University of Economics. He sees the root cause of their longevity in the system known as Ie. It is a set of rules determining the position of individual family members, and most importantly – the rules of inheritance of property.

Ie system

It began to take shape in the XII century, when Japan plunged into the chaos of civil wars. The survival of families living in constant danger depended on the strength and intellect of their leaders. According to eternal tradition, the eldest son should be the head of the family. In wartime, however, this only worked if he had the warrior’s qualities and talents. If he did not have them, the family was in grave danger.
To prevent it, the so-called adoption Ie. It consisted in the fact that the aging patriarch of the family found a young, promising man. Which he provided with appropriate education. When the chosen one met his expectations and proved himself in battle, he became the official heir. All other family members had to submit to him. The Ie system thus replaced traditional blood ties and prevented the division of property between heirs. As a result, the estate, workshop, and trading company passed from generation to generation in an unchanged form.
Rules tested in warrior families were adopted by other social groups, especially merchants and craftsmen. In the XVII century, Ie was formally introduced into the legal system and was in force until the end of World War II. When civil law changed under pressure from Americans, it gave all children equal shares in the parents’ estate. This threatened old family businesses, but the tradition turned out to be strong enough that many of them survived to this day. Professor Toshio Goto calls them the Japanese treasure.

Record holders list:

Kongo Gumi – Japanese construction company is record holder. 1427 years of existence,

Nishiyama Onsen Keiunkan – Traditional Japanese hotel – ryokan. 1315 years of existence,

Staffelter Hof – Oldest winery in Europe. 1158 years of existence,

Zum Roten Bären – Hotel The Red Bear. 900 years of existence,

The Olde Bell – Oldest english hotel in Hurley. 885 years of existence,

Sudo Honke – Sake brewery oldest of world. 879 years of existence,

Frapin – Cognac producer from Grande Champagne. 750 years of existence,

R. Durtnell and Sons – Oldest european construction company. 429 years of existence,

Fort Jefferson – Florida, USA – In left fortress-reserve

Fort Jefferson - Florida, USAFort Jefferson - Florida, USAFort Jefferson - Florida, USAFort Jefferson - Florida, USAFort Jefferson - Florida, USAFort Jefferson - Florida, USAGarden and Bush Keys - FloridaGarden and Bush Keys - FloridaFlorida Keys - (02-05-2014)Florida Keys - (02-05-2014)

Fort Jefferson – Florida, USA – In left fortress-reserve

Fort Jefferson – On the Florida Keys, it was supposed to be a fortress for eternity, but life verified these bold plans. It gave shelter to soldiers for only a few years. This is one of the most ambitious construction projects in US history: thousands of workers worked on the Garden Key island. Who used nearly 16 million bricks for nearly 30 years to build the largest fort on the American coast. It was built on a hexagon plan, its walls were 14 m high, and the space in it was enough for: 450 cannons, 1500 soldiers.

The problem was that the fortress was named after President Thomas Jefferson. Most of the time it was simply unnecessary. That is why the government began to use it as a place of isolation for political prisoners in the Civil War. That was until 1867.
When an epidemic of yellow fever broke out in the fort. One of her first victims was a prison doctor. So, to stop the rampant disease, he began, Dr. Samuel Mudd – serving life imprisonment for participating in the plot for the life of Abraham Lincoln. He succeeded: he saved hundreds of prisoners and guards. Mudd was pardoned and the prison was soon closed.

Today there is a bird sanctuary in the abandoned fortress. It is also one of the favorite diving spots on the Florida Keys.

Centralia – Pennsylvania, USA – Under city eternal fire

Centralia - Pennsylvania, USACentralia - Pennsylvania, USACentralia - Pennsylvania, USAPennsylvania - (01-01-2005)Columbia County, Pennsylvania, USACity Skyline (06-07-2010)

Centralia – Pennsylvania, USA – Under city eternal fire

Centralia – Although a fire goes crazy underneath, a handful of residents still refuse to leave it. They hide from the authorities, which gives the city a mysterious aura. Until the 1960s, Centralia was a town like many in the east of Pennsylvania. About 1500 people lived and worked there. Most of them were employed in the mines – until in 1962 the spark from a nearby garbage dump jumped to the adit, setting fire to coal.

In the following years

Flames gradually expanded under the city. In buildings suddenly started fires, whose flames ​​penetrated earth. Embracing home gardens, and the trees turned into ashes from day to day. Centralia’s underground has become a hell. The government announced the evacuation – it was estimated that the flames had enough fuel to burn for 250 years. Putting out this fire would cost over $ 660 million. That is why politicians decided on a much cheaper option: resettlement of residents.

Top 10 night fighter planes – WWI & WWII and post-war era

Top 10 night fighter planesTop 10 night fighter planesTop 10 night fighter planesTop 10 night fighter planesTop 10 night fighter planesTop 10 night fighter planesTop 10 night fighter planesTop 10 night fighter planesTop 10 night fighter planesTop 10 night fighter planes

Top 10 night fighter planes – WWI & WWII and post-war era

Top 10 night fighter planes:


  • World War I:


  • Royal Aircraft Factory B.E.2c

    Top 10 night fighter planes - Royal Aircraft Factory B.E.2cRoyal Aircraft Factory B.E.2cRoyal Aircraft Factory B.E.2c – Night flights were already taking place during World War I. It was not machines specially designed for these purposes. But fighters usually reworked. Such an example was a single-engine, two-seat, biplane – Royal Aircraft Factory B.E.2c.

  • Sopwith Camel “Comic” Nightfighter

    Top 10 night fighter planes - Sopwith Camel Sopwith Camel Sopwith Camel – “Comic” Nightfighter – A modified version of the British military aircraft Sopwith Camel also participated in World War I. Manufactured by Sopwith Aviation Company. Equipped with an improved Neame sight.


  • World War II:


  • Messerschmitt Bf 110 G-4

    Top 10 night fighter planes - Messerschmitt Bf 110 G-4Messerschmitt Bf 110 G-4Messerschmitt Bf 110 G-4 – Was a heavy twin-engine fighter aircraft. One of the best machines for conducting night raids. Because the machine was poorly manoeuvrable, the Germans decided to use it as a bombing and intercepting fighter.

  • Heinkel He 219 UHU

    Top 10 night fighter planes - Heinkel He 219 UHUHeinkel He 219 UHUHeinkel He 219 UHU – In the summer of 1943, the German Luftwaffe I/NJG 1 with a base in Venlo, the Netherlands, received a prototype of the Heinkel He 219 UHU night fighter. During tests it proved to be reliable and quickly gained recognition in battle. Throwing down 15 enemy bombers.

  • Focke-Wulf Ta 154

    Top 10 night fighter planes - Focke-Wulf Ta 154Focke-Wulf Ta 154Focke-Wulf Ta 154 – Nazi Germany, for the third time. This time with a machine inspired by a hostile multi-purpose aircraft: de Havilland Mosquito. The original had a fairly old wooden structure. But it troubled the Germans so much that they decided to build something similar.

  • Northrop P-61 Black Widow

    Top 10 night fighter planes - Northrop P-61 Black WidowNorthrop P-61 Black WidowNorthrop P-61 Black Widow – The “Black Widow” aircraft from the manufacturer Northrop Corporation was the only fighter of World War II. From the beginning, designed exclusively for night flying.


  • Post-war era:


  • Northrop F-89 Scorpion

    Top 10 night fighter planes - Northrop F-89 ScorpionNorthrop F-89 ScorpionNorthrop F-89 Scorpion – Trying to replace the “Black Widow” Northrop P-61. A slightly better night fighter, American designers developed the F-89. It was a self-supporting medium wing.

  • Gloster Javelin

    Top 10 night fighter planes - Gloster JavelinGloster JavelinGloster Javelin – First fighter manufactured by Gloster Aircraft Company was Meteor – with a jet propulsion. The first night machine, from this factory was Gloster Javelin.

  • Sud Aviation Vautour II

    Top 10 night fighter planes - Sud Aviation Vautour IISud Aviation Vautour IISud Aviation Vautour II – The first test flight of the French machine, took place on 16th October 1952. But it was not included in active service until 1958. The prototype was improved and finally created in three versions: IIA, IIB, IIN.

  • Jakovlev Jak-25

    Top 10 night fighter planes - Jakovlev Jak-25Jakovlev Jak-25Jakovlev Jak-25 – The first in the USSR created to operate on the areas of Siberia and the Far East. A twin-engine long-range fighter, adapted to all weather conditions. And for day and night flights.


During the war, the time of day does not matter. The fight lasts around the clock, regardless of weather conditions or time. That’s why the designers created night fighters. Which could have carried out the attack when most people calmly rest.

Northrop F-89 Scorpion – Top 10 night fighter planes

Northrop F-89 Scorpion - (01-01-1954)Northrop F-89 Scorpion - (14-10-2006)Northrop F-89 ScorpionUSAF - Northrop F-89 Scorpion - 59th Fighter-Interceptor-Squadrons437th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron - (01.01.1955)119th Fighter Group - The Happy Hooligans - North Dakota-(01.01.1965)433d Fighter-Interceptor Squadron - Ladd-AFB-Alaska-(01.01.1956)USAF-Dyess Linear Air-Park - Dyess - AFB-Texas-USA - (28-04-2009)

Northrop F-89 Scorpion – Top 10 night fighter planes

  • Place: USA
  • First flight: 1948
  • Built: 1050 pcs.

Northrop F-89 Scorpion – Trying to replace the “Black Widow” Northrop P-61. A slightly better night fighter, American designers developed the F-89 Scorpion. It was a self-supporting medium wing, capable of operating regardless of weather conditions. It had: 2 seats, 2 Allison J35 engines, all-metal construction. It was the first aircraft armed with nuclear weapons – intended for aerial combat.

Northrop P-61 – Top 10 night fighter planes

Northrop P-61 Black WidowNorthrop P-61 Black WidowNorthrop P-61 Black Widow - NACANorthrop P-61 Black Widow - CaliforniaBlack Widow - 427th Night Fighter Squadron - (01-01-1944)Black Widow - 548th Night Fighter Squadron - The Spook - (01-01-1944)Green airborne - (05-06-2005)Black Widow - San-Diego - Air-and-Space-Museum - (01-07-2016)

Northrop P-61 Black Widow – Top 10 night fighter planes

  • Place: USA
  • First flight: 1942
  • Built: 742 pcs.

Northrop P-61 Black Widow – The “Black Widow” aircraft from the manufacturer Northrop Corporation was the only fighter of World War II. From the beginning, designed exclusively for night flying. The basic equipment included: a large American SCR-720 Al radar mounted on the bow, a turret with 4 12.7 mm machine guns, and four 20 mm cannons mounted permanently under the fuselage. Immediately after the war, several dozen of these aircraft were rebuilt to the F-15 Reporter version. Dedicated only to take photographic images. From 1955, the US withdrew both types of aircraft.

Deepwater Horizon – Biggest oil spills

Deepwater Horizon - Fire on the drilling rigDeepwater Horizon - Dark smoke and fire on drilling rig (6 May 2010) Deepwater Horizon - Coast cleanupDeepwater Horizon - Oil spillGulf of Mexico - 28-04-2010Aerial view reconnaissance of Louisiana coastline, USAU.S. Coast-Guard, BP, other federal agencies working after explosion in Gulf of Mexico

Deepwater Horizon – Biggest oil spills

  • Place: Gulf of Mexico
  • Date: 22 april 2010
  • Amount of spill: 779 100 000 liters
  • Costs: $ 5 billion

Deepwater Horizon – It was a floating oil rig. Built in 2001. In 2009, it bore the largest well in history – 10 km. A year later, this record was overshadowed by a tragic explosion. Which created biggest oil spill in history. This tragedy happened at a depth of 1500 m. Two days after the explosion the platform sank. A few months later, technicians managed to introduce a special sealing compound into the damaged well. Which blocked the crack.

The explosion kills

The accident occurred due to highly compressed methane. Which tore the top cover of the drilling rig and exploded after contact with air. It killed 11 people on the spot and then disrupted the platform statistics. Within days, the stain reached the shores of Louisiana. Ravaging nature on the way. The coast of five US states was affected by this. Including the rare Mississippi wetlands. As a result of this disaster, died 6,000 sea turtles, 26 thousand dolphins and whales, 82 thousand birds and huge numbers of fish and invertebrates.

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