Anise – Pimpinella anisum – Also called aniseed

Anise - Pimpinella anisum

Anise - Pimpinella anisum - seeds

Anise - Pimpinella anisum - (15-05-2018)

Anise - Pimpinella anisum - Growing plant

Anise - Plant

Aniseed - Pimpinella anisum

Pimpinella anisum

Pimpinella anisum

Anise – Pimpinella anisum – Also called aniseed

Anise – Pimpinella anisum – Also called aniseed, is one of the oldest known spices in the world. Whose tradition goes back to ancient Rome. Anise has a unique flavor and smell reminiscent of the Sun, the Mediterranean Sea, reminiscent of pastis, rakija, ouzo and licorice.

It is often used in the production of sweets, creams, cakes and other sweets. But anise is also used in salty dishes. Like fennel, it is added to soups, sauces, and is used as a spice for meat dishes and exotic vegetarian dishes.

TOI 700 d – Exoplanet from constellation Dorado

TOI 700 d - Exoplanet from constellation DoradoTOI 700 d - Exoplanet in planetary systemTOI 700 d - Dorado constellation mapDorado constellation

TOI 700 d – Exoplanet from constellation Dorado

TOI 700 d – In early 2020, astronomers managed to discover a planet about the size of the Earth. They discovered it thanks to the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellit (TESS) – NASA’s space telescope. Designed to search for extrasolar planets by transit. The planet TOI 700 d, located relatively close to our solar system, orbits its own star. It is located approximately 100 light-years from Earth.


 
An Earth-sized planet lies within the habitable zone of its parent star. That is, circulating at such a distance from it that there are suitable conditions for maintaining the presence of liquid water on the surface. This, in turn, gives rise to presumptions about the existence of life there. TOI700 is a small, cool M dwarf with a mass of 30% of the mass of the Sun. Three planets orbit a star within the constellation Dorado.

Several similar planets were found in the TRAPPIST-1 system, named after the TRAPPIST telescope in Chile. Another was discovered thanks to the Spitzer Space Telescope.

TOI-700 is approximately 20% larger than Earth. The year on it lasts 37 earthly days. It receives 86% of the energy supplied by the Sun to Earth from the star. The exact conditions on it are unknown. But with the information gathered, the scientists prepared 20 models of potential environments. Able to reign on TOI-700. Some of these models suggest that the planet may be livable and colonized in the future.

AuReus system – Solar panels from vegetable waste

AuReus system - Montreal Convention Centre - Montreal, Canada

AuReus system - Montreal Convention Centre - Canada

AuReus system - Panorama - Exterior of Montreal Convention Centre

AuReus system - View on enter to Montreal Convention Centre - Montreal, Canada

AuReus system - Montreal Convention Centre - Montreal, Canada

Montreal Convention Centre - Montreal, Canada

Montreal Convention Centre interior - Montreal, Canada

Montreal Convention Centre - Montreal, Canada - panorama

AuReus system – Solar panels from vegetable waste

AuReus system – Student at engineering department of Mapua University in the Philippine capital of Manila – Carvey Ehren Maigue – created the thin cladding. They generate energy from ultraviolet rays. Traditional photovoltaic panels only perform work when they are directly exposed to the sun. On cloudy days, their energy production efficiency drops. On the other hand, a young inventor uses the material he create, which transforms UV rays directly into energy. Capable of penetrating through clouds. The new material is even able to catch rays that reflects from other surfaces.

Technology AuReus (named after the Latin term aurora borealis, which means the northern lights). It bases on molecules responsible for bioluminescence. Which occur, among others in chlorophyll. Maigue extracted them from plant waste bought back from farmers. Their crops destroy the weather disruptions caused by the climate change.

The ability of these compounds is to convert UV rays into visible light. Such light is captured. But they also converting into electricity by ordinary photovoltaic cells. They surround the outer part of this lining.

The young inventor’s future plan is to change the AuReus base into threads, but also to form them into fabrics. Which have mounting to vehicles and also to airplanes.

25 percent of the Philippines population lives from agriculture. Between 2006 and 2013, over 6 million ha of crops in the Philippines which destroy extreme weather events. AuReus produces energy roughly 50 percent of the time. Standard solar panels only produce energy about 15 – 20 percent of the time.

Space probe Voyager 1 – Duration and range record

Voyager1 - Space simulatorSpace probe Voyager 1 - digital recorderSpace probe Voyager 1 - Reencapsulated 27.08.1977Voyager 1 - Spacecraft modelHeliopause - Graphic - 11.08.2011Space probe Voyager 1 - Transitional regions

Space probe Voyager 1 – Duration and range record

Space probe Voyager 1 – It’s so far from Earth that it sends out radio signals. They need 20 hours to reach us. This is a record not only in terms of duration, but also coverage. The Voyager 1 probe, launched in 1977, is currently the furthest sent object made by our civilization.

In 2012 passed the so-called heliopause.

The area where the solar wind pressure becomes less than the interstellar wind pressure. Thus leaving the solar system. More importantly, the probe is still working and sending data. Its plutonium battery should ensure operation at least until 2025.

Even then, Voyager 1 will fly ahead.

Although it moves at a huge speed of over 60,000 km / h. If we measure it in relation to the position of the sun. Only for 30 thousand years will pass the Oort cloud – the furthest cluster of matter gravitationally connected to the solar system. He will leave us for good, heading toward the constellation Ophiuchus.

Sunspots registry – Program run since 1826

Sunspots registry - Solar rotationSunspots registry - Largest Sunspot of the Solar Cycle - NASASunspots registry - Sunspots - TaiwanSunspots registry - Surface of the Sun - HMI-NASASunspots registry - Monster Sunspot AR1476 - NASA

 

Sunspots registry - X-flares - X1.4 and X1.9 - NASA, SDOSunspots registry - Big Sunspot 1520 - Releases X1.4 flare - NASASunspots registry - Sunspot 1112Sunspots sunset - Xihu, HangzhouSunspots

 

Sunspot butterfly - graphPeriodic changes of Sunspot numbersSunspot diagramChanges in total solar irradiance and monthly sunspot numbers - 1975-2013Samuel Heinrich Schwabe Astronomer - Plaque in Dessau

Sunspots registry – Program run since 1826

Sunspots registry – The longest regular scientific research in the world is the record of the number of spots on the Sun created since 1826.
The research program was initiated by the German amateur astronomer Samuel Heinrich Schwabe. He watched the Sun regularly for 17 years because he wanted to observe a planet previously unknown to science called the Volcano.
Moving against the backdrop of the solar disk. Of course, he found nothing – only Mercury and Venus are between Earth and the Sun. Known since antiquity – but his observations have determined that the activity of our nearest star changes regularly.
Schwabe’s achievements inspired Rudolf Wolf, head of the Bern observatory. Which from 1848 continued to record spots and collected historical data on this subject. Dating back to the early 17th century

Spot counting system developed by Wolf.

Accepted astronomers around the world. Almost 100 observatories are currently observing this phenomenon. Both professionals and amateurs.

Aurora Borealis – Causes lightning by making noises

Aurora BorealisAurora Borealis - AuroraAurora Borealis - Northern lightsAurora Borealis - Amundsen-Scott - South Pole stationAurora Borealis - Aurora Australis from ISSAurora Borealis - Aurora Australis

Aurora Borealis – Causes lightning by making noises

Aurora Borealis – arise when the charged particles from the Sun (the so-called solar wind) hit the Earth’s magnetic field. Along its lines are directed to the poles, where they collide with molecules of air. There was a belief that between fairy tales you should put in the history that polar lights sometimes made sounds, even “whispered” – until the case was investigated by scientists from the University of Aalto in Finland. The truth is that when the nights are cold and silent, auroras create rustlings and cracks. Audible for hundreds of kilometers. The reason is the so-called inversion layer. It arises when it is colder near the surface of the planet than at higher levels of the atmosphere. It causes that negatively charged particles from the Sun are trapped in the cold zone. If their accumulation exceeds the critical point. By reacting with positive ions in the atmosphere and causing discharges, rustling and crackling.

Light pillar – Sun pillar – Optical phenomenon in atmosphere

Light pillar - Sun pillar (1) - NOAALight pillar - Sun pillar and Sun dog (parhelion) - NOAALight pillar - Sun pillar forms as the sun rises over the Arctic plain - NOAALight pillar - Sun pillar - (NOAA Photo Library)Light pillar - Sun pillar - Optical effect march sunset - NOAALight pillar - Sun pillar - Halos, arcs and sundogs - Antarctica, South Pole Station, 1981(NOAA Photo Library)Light pillar - Sun pillar - Illuminated Clean Air Facility - NOAALight pillar - Sun pillar - December sundog - NOAA
 
 
 
Light pillar - Sun Dog and Turbo TrainLight pillar - Sun pillar (2) - NOAALight pillar - Sun pillar (3) - NOAALight pillar - Sun pillar (4) - NOAALight pillar - Sun pillar (5) - NOAALight pillar - Sun Dog - Ice crystals formed in the stable morning airLight pillar - Sun pillar - Lake LucerneLight pillar - Sunset at the port of Plouhinec Pors Poulhan in Brittany
 
 
 
Light pillar - Sun pillar - Seen when the sun is still behind the horizon - False SunriseLight pillar - Sun pillar - Susak, island in Croatia, view from the islandLight pillar - Sun pillar - Seen when the sun is still behind the horizon - False Sunrise (parhelion)

Light pillar – Sun pillar – Optical phenomenon in atmosphere

Light pillar is an optical phenomenon. That arises in very cold weather when there are ice crystals in the shape of tiles in the air. They are also visible in clearly illuminated parts of cities. They are typical of the clouds of the high floor, but in the big cold they form at earth. They reflect then light from strong sources such as lanterns or fireworks on new year’s eve. As a result of such a source of light, the observer can see high light. Most often you can see them just before sunrise, or soon after his west. Another name of the whole phenomenon is a solar pillar.

KEPLER-442b – Stony exoplanet in superearth class

KEPLER-442bKEPLER-442b - Comparison of exoplanets from the Kepler system to EarthKEPLER-442b

KEPLER-442b – Stony exoplanet in superearth class

KEPLER-442b – Stony exoplanet in superearth class, which the parent star is the orange dwarf.

ESI: 0,84
Size: 1,3 Earth
Mass: 2,3 Earth
Equivalent temperature: -65°C

The planet KEPLER-442b, from which light has been running for 1115 years, belongs to the so-called Super-Earth. In this way, rocky exoplanets are determined whose mass does not exceed tenfolds Earth. The parent star of this planet is an orange dwarf. The star larger than a red dwarf, but smaller than a yellow dwarf, which is the Sun. This type of star has calmer youth, and therefore does not send its planetary children too much UV. In addition, the planet is in the ecosphere, so it can not be ruled out that the ocean is splashing on its rocky surface. If it has a more complex atmosphere, it does not have to be at the same time a kingdom of cold. According to some calculations, it is the smaller superearth that are most suitable for life, even more than our own planet.

Ross-128b – 11 light years away from Earth

Ross-128b
Ross-128b

Ross-128b – 11 light years away from Earth

Ross-128b – The planetary system around the red dwarf Ross 128 for about 70,000 years will become our closest star neighbor.

ESI: 0,86
Size: 1,2 Earth
Mass: 1,3 Earth
Equivalent temperature: 7°C

Even closer than the GJ 273b is the Ross-128b exoplanet. It is away from us, just like a star. Which is a very quiet red dwarf, less than 11 light-years away and gradually approaching us. Based on the obtained data, astronomers have discovered that planet Ross 128b circulates around its star twenty times closer than Earth circulates the Sun. Despite such a short distance, the planet gets only 1.38 times more energy than our planet. Thanks to the cool and stable star, whose surface temperature in comparison with the sun is halved, the equivalent temperature on its surface is estimated to be from -60°C to 20°C.

TRAPPIST-1d – Representative of TRAPPIST-1 sys

TRAPPIST-1d - Artistic impression of exoplanetTRAPPIST-1d - Statistics tableTRAPPIST-1d - Comparison of the sizes of TRAPPIST-1 planets with Solar System bodies

TRAPPIST-1d – Representative of TRAPPIST-1 sys

TRAPPIST-1d – One of representatives of the TRAPPIST-1 planetary system

ESI: 0,91
Size: 0,8 Earth
Mass: 0,3 Earth
Equivalent temperature: 15°C

The relatively small weight of this planet indicates that its surface can be flooded by a deep ocean.
According to some speculations, here is 250 times more water than in the Earth’s oceans.
The first measurements showed that the planet is moving outside of the living zone, but now it seems that it will enter it safely. Exoplanet can boast a dense atmosphere and is so close to its star that it circulates in four days. It only drops by 4.3% more light than on Earth. Although TRAPPIST-1d circulates its star in synchronous rotation, a dense atmosphere in which there should be a lot of water vapor helps in thermal exchange. The difference between the illuminated and the dark hemisphere is not like that of other celestial bodies.

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