Meadow ant – Formica pratensis

Meadow ant - Formica pratensis - profileMeadow ant - Formica pratensis - Queen - dorsal viewFormica pratensis - Queen - ventral viewFormica pratensis - Queen - Haute-Savoie, FranceFormica pratensis - (20-08-2006)Formica pratensis - Head viewFormica pratensis - QueenFormica pratensis - Queen - Dorsal

Meadow ant – Formica pratensis – It is common throughout Eurasia

Meadow ant – Belongs to the smallest ants: worker bees reach 4 to 9 mm, queens and males can grow up to 11 mm. It is quite common throughout Eurasia, in the Alps it lives even at altitudes of about 2,000 m above sea level, but lowlands and delicate hills are more typical for them. This species of ants prefers open meadows, steppes, meadows, pastures, etc.

He builds anthills with above-ground and underground parts. The above-ground part is made of larger materials, such as plant fragments, needles or clay. Anthills can be monogamous or polygamous, that is, with one queen or with several.

Annual pepper – Capsicum annuum – Popular as chilli

Annual pepper - Philippines

Annual pepper - Capsicum-annuum

Annual pepper - Capsicum annuum

Capsicum-annuum fruit - Red Annual Pepper

Capsicum annuum - Red Annual pepper

Capsicum annuum-Red - Ripened and dried

Mexican Capsicum annuum

Capsicum annuum dried - Nanglo, India

Annual pepper – Capsicum annuum – Popular as chilli

Annual pepper – More popular under the name chilli pepper, it is quite a popular plant that gives spice to dishes. It is eaten at virtually any degree of maturity. Its color ranges from dark green, through yellow, orange, red, to dark red or purple. The smaller and darker the fruits are, the sharper they are.

They owe their spicy taste to capsaicin. If we do not overdo it with the amount of peppers added to the dish, we can enjoy many health-promoting benefits. Especially vitamin C and beta-carotene. It aids digestion, appetite, and some believe that it acts as an aphrodisiac. However, if we over-consume it, we can irritate our stomach and urinary tract.

Marjoram – Origanum majorana – Also pot marjoram

Marjoram - Jerusalem, Israel

Marjoram - In a plastic bin

Marjoram - dried leaves

Marjoram - Origanum majorana - Seedlings

Marjoram - Origanum majorana - Czech Republic

Origanum majorana - Czech Republic - (02-07-2019)

Origanum majorana - Botanical Garden NY, USA

Origanum majorana - Plant - Puertollano, Spain

Marjoram – Origanum majorana – Also pot marjoram

Marjoram – So the well-known pot marjoram is a low, bushy and rapidly growing plant. Coming from the Mediterranean region and the Middle East. It is sometimes used not only as a spice, but also as a medicinal plant.

Origanum majorana herb is rich in essential oil containing many valuable ingredients, tannin compounds, routine and ascorbic acid. It helps with digestive problems, gastritis and diarrhea. The oil is sometimes used for inhalation in the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections.

Herb is used as a spice in hard-to-digest dishes, such as pea soup, legume dishes, and fatty meats.

Dill – Anethum graveolens – Vitamins C, B, A source

Dill - Anethum graveolens

Dill - Anethum graveolens - Saarbrucken

Dill - For sale at grocery store

Dill - Anethum graveolens - Saarbrucken, Germany

Dill - Anethum graveolens - Germany

Anethum graveolens - (24-07-2019)

Anethum graveolens - Saarbrucken, Germany - (17-06-2017)

Saarbrucken, Germany - (18-04-2019)

Dill – Anethum graveolens – Vitamins C, B, A source

Dill – Is a plant rich in vitamins C, B, A. It contains a lot of minerals, including iron, calcium, magnesium, potassium and copper. There is a fiber source, an omega-3 fatty acid and a 6 fatty acids, and folic and pantothenic acid. In addition, it can be, above all, it is an extremely tasty plant. Which goes perfectly with vegetables, sauces, soups or as a sprinkle for new potatoes and sandwiches.

You can eat virtually the entire plant, its leaves, flowers, and fresh or dried seeds. Which have a sweet, slightly anise flavor and aroma. Always use fresh shoots and flowers.

AuReus system – Solar panels from vegetable waste

AuReus system - Montreal Convention Centre - Montreal, Canada

AuReus system - Montreal Convention Centre - Canada

AuReus system - Panorama - Exterior of Montreal Convention Centre

AuReus system - View on enter to Montreal Convention Centre - Montreal, Canada

AuReus system - Montreal Convention Centre - Montreal, Canada

Montreal Convention Centre - Montreal, Canada

Montreal Convention Centre interior - Montreal, Canada

Montreal Convention Centre - Montreal, Canada - panorama

AuReus system – Solar panels from vegetable waste

AuReus system – Student at engineering department of Mapua University in the Philippine capital of Manila – Carvey Ehren Maigue – created the thin cladding. They generate energy from ultraviolet rays. Traditional photovoltaic panels only perform work when they are directly exposed to the sun. On cloudy days, their energy production efficiency drops. On the other hand, a young inventor uses the material he create, which transforms UV rays directly into energy. Capable of penetrating through clouds. The new material is even able to catch rays that reflects from other surfaces.

Technology AuReus (named after the Latin term aurora borealis, which means the northern lights). It bases on molecules responsible for bioluminescence. Which occur, among others in chlorophyll. Maigue extracted them from plant waste bought back from farmers. Their crops destroy the weather disruptions caused by the climate change.

The ability of these compounds is to convert UV rays into visible light. Such light is captured. But they also converting into electricity by ordinary photovoltaic cells. They surround the outer part of this lining.

The young inventor’s future plan is to change the AuReus base into threads, but also to form them into fabrics. Which have mounting to vehicles and also to airplanes.

25 percent of the Philippines population lives from agriculture. Between 2006 and 2013, over 6 million ha of crops in the Philippines which destroy extreme weather events. AuReus produces energy roughly 50 percent of the time. Standard solar panels only produce energy about 15 – 20 percent of the time.

Diatoms – Microscopic size, single-celled algae

Diatoms - McMurdo Station, South Antarctica

Diatoms - Under Light Microscope

Diatoms - Under Light Microscope 40x

Diatoms - Lorella Kennedy Diatomea (silica algae)
 
 
 
Diatoms - Shell of the fossil diatom - Trinacria ariesStar stick diatomStephanopyxis grunow - Bottom view, under light microscopyWagon wheel diatom - NOAA

Diatoms – Microscopic size, single-celled algae

Diatoms – A component of the ocean plant plankton, diatoms are microscopic size, single-celled algae. The cell wall of these organisms is made of hard silica (noble opal, by the way), and forms a kind of box with a bottom and a lid. During reproduction by division, the new diatom takes with it a part of the “parent” shell and adds a smaller bottom to it. As a result, the next generations of these algae are getting smaller and smaller

However, the process does not last forever. When the minimum size limit is exceeded, the generally unarmored sexual generation (the so-called auxospore) appears in the sea. Which has the ability to grow unhindered – and then the cycle starts all over again …

We owe 25 percent of the oxygen in the Earth’s atmosphere to diatoms that produce it in the process of photosynthesis. They also account for a quarter of the biomass of all seas and oceans.

Evergreen plants secrets – Retain metabolic activity

Evergreen plants secrets - Tree infested by MistletoeEvergreen plants secrets - Entrance to High Castle, MalborkEvergreen plants secrets - Common ivy (Hedera helix) - Botanical Garden of University in WroclawEvergreen plants secrets - Holly in winterEvergreen plants secrets - Holly (Ilex aquifolia) plantation
 
 
 
Evergreen plants secrets - Hollies (Ilex aquifolia) - Along Westside Linear TrailHolly (Ilex aquifolia)Lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea)Ribes viburnifolium - Botanical Garden in El Chorro Regional ParkRibes viburnifolium - University of California - UC Davis Arboretum

Evergreen plants secrets – Retain metabolic activity

Evergreen plants secrets – Retain metabolic activity – Adapting it to winter conditions. They do it, among others preventing the formation of intracellular ice crystals. Their specific structure also helps them to survive the difficult conditions.
Conifer pins are narrow, which reduces the evaporation surface and prevents water loss. In this trees, the pins covers with a thick layer of wax skin, and the buds covers with thick shells. This makes the conifers able to survive even the most severe frosts.
Green in winter also remain, among others mosses, club moss, and some shrubs, such as rhododendrons. The leaves of the latter covers a special protective layer, and additionally, on frosty and sunny days, they curl or change from horizontal to vertical. This limits the amount of light reaching them. As a result, their evaporation surface is reduced and the plant protects itself against moisture loss.

Wintering plants – Systematics of Christen Raunkiaer

Wintering plants - Life forms after Raunkiaer

Wintering plants - Raunkiaer Christen

Wintering plants - Table of Raunkiaer lifeforms

Wintering plants – The systematics of Christen Raunkiaer

Wintering plants – The systematics of Christen Raunkiaer – A classification system created by the Danish botanist Christian Raunkiaer in 1905. He divides plants according to how they survive the unfavorable season. Depending on how their buds are arranged and protected, Raunkiaer has distinguished five types:

Wintering plants - Corylus avellana male catkins in winterWintering plants - Corylus avellanaPhanerophyte (open bud) – durable plants, woody shoots with winter-hardy buds located more than 50 cm above the ground (eg trees and shrubs).
 
 
Wintering plants - Saxifraga wahlenbergii - West Tatra MountainsWintering plants - Saxifraga wahlenbergiiHemicryptophyte (ground buds) – perennials whose wintering buds are placed on the shoots near the soil surface. Live or dead leaves and snow cover protect them.
 
 
Wintering plants - Crocuses in the snowTwo Crocuses in the snowCryptophyte (cache-donuts)plants, the ground part of which dies completely, and in the spring the plant sprouts from the buds of the underground spore organs.
 
 
Yellow foxglove - Digitalis grandifloraDigitalis grandifloraChamaephyte (low bud) – woody shrubs and permanent herbaceous plants with buds located less than 50 cm above the ground. Their buds are hidden in ground shoots covered with a layer of leaves and snow.
 
Frozen sunflowerField of frozen SunflowersTerophyte – annual plants surviving unfavorable season in the form of seeds.

Giant Wisteria – In California largest in the world

Giant WisteriaGiant WisteriaGiant WisteriaGiant WisteriaWistaria Festival 2016 - Sierra MadreWistaria Festival 2016

Giant Wisteria – In California largest in the world

Giant Wisteria – In California largest of world. In the wild state occurs, among others in Japan and the USA. It resembles a tree, but it is actually a climbing plant of the bean family. One of the most famous specimens is found in Ashikaga Park in Japan. It is supported by special piles. It is 150 years old and is recognized as the oldest plant of this species in the whole country. Although it covers an area of nearly 2 thousand. m², it is still more than half the size of the largest in the world. Record holder is growing in Sierra Madre, California. It covers an area of nearly 4 thousand. m², which corresponds to more than half of the football field. Its weight is estimated at about 259 tons. It’s about the same as the weight of 5 trucks loaded to the brim.

Svalbard Global Seed Vault – On Spitsbergen island

Svalbard Global Seed Vault

Svalbard Global Seed Vault

Svalbard Global Seed Vault

Svalbard Global Seed Vault

Svalbard Global Seed Vault

Storage containers - (27-02-2008)

Aluminium bags for seed storage - (20-05-2007)

Global Seed Vault in Spitsbergen - (30-09-2011)

Svalbard Global Seed Vault – On Spitsbergen island

Svalbard Global Seed Vault – Global seed bank on the island of Spitsbergen, in the Norwegian Svalbard archipelago. In the Arctic Sea, approx. 1000 km north of the Scandinavian Peninsula. In permafrost, a tunnel was drilled for about 150 meters and a warehouse with an area of ​​1000 m². There is room for 4.5 million seeds. Only for edible plants that are important for scientific research or biodiversity. Currently there are just over a million, representing about 5,000. species. Seed storage is free – donors (individual countries and scientific organizations) are still the owners of the seeds. The Kingdom of Norway only provides a place for storage. The location and construction of the bank protect valuable seeds against wars, natural disasters and climate change.

The building is monitored by motion sensors and cameras. Access to the interior of the warehouse is protected by armored doors, digital locks and walls of reinforced concrete, 1 m thick. It is located at a depth of 90 meters below the Plataberget mountain. Covered with snow and permafrost. It has been designed so that even without power the seeds will remain frozen for 200 years.

Only visible element of the structure is a concrete gate with armored doors. Above which is an artistic installation with 200 optical fibers.

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