TOI 700 d – Exoplanet from constellation Dorado

TOI 700 d - Exoplanet from constellation DoradoTOI 700 d - Exoplanet in planetary systemTOI 700 d - Dorado constellation mapDorado constellation

TOI 700 d – Exoplanet from constellation Dorado

TOI 700 d – In early 2020, astronomers managed to discover a planet about the size of the Earth. They discovered it thanks to the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellit (TESS) – NASA’s space telescope. Designed to search for extrasolar planets by transit. The planet TOI 700 d, located relatively close to our solar system, orbits its own star. It is located approximately 100 light-years from Earth.

An Earth-sized planet lies within the habitable zone of its parent star. That is, circulating at such a distance from it that there are suitable conditions for maintaining the presence of liquid water on the surface. This, in turn, gives rise to presumptions about the existence of life there. TOI700 is a small, cool M dwarf with a mass of 30% of the mass of the Sun. Three planets orbit a star within the constellation Dorado.

Several similar planets were found in the TRAPPIST-1 system, named after the TRAPPIST telescope in Chile. Another was discovered thanks to the Spitzer Space Telescope.

TOI-700 is approximately 20% larger than Earth. The year on it lasts 37 earthly days. It receives 86% of the energy supplied by the Sun to Earth from the star. The exact conditions on it are unknown. But with the information gathered, the scientists prepared 20 models of potential environments. Able to reign on TOI-700. Some of these models suggest that the planet may be livable and colonized in the future.

Deep Space Network – Transmit-receive antennas

Deep Space Network - Antenna

Deep Space Network - Deep Dish Communications Complex - Canberra

Deep Space Network - Communication Complex - Canberra, Australia

Deep Space Network - Canberra, Australia
Deep Space Network - Deep Space StationDSS-43 - Canberra, AustraliaDeep Space Communication Complex-2017NASA complex - outside - Canberra, Australia

Deep Space Network – Transmit-receive antennas

Deep Space Network – Transmit-receive global network of large antennas, managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. It is a NASA interplanetary dashboard that allows constant communication with spacecraft. In March 2020, modernization works began at one of the largest antennas of this network – Deep Space Station 43 (DSS-43) in Canberra, Australia.

DSN, one of NASA’s three Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) program networks. It is located in three places in the world – in California, Spain and Australia. This allows mission controllers to communicate continuously with spacecraft on and off the Moon despite the rotation of the Earth.

DSS-43, a 70-meter antenna located in the southern hemisphere, is the only one that can send commands to the Voyager 2 probe, which travels southwards in relation to the Earth’s. orbit. (Other antennas at the Canberra complex can also receive Voyager 2 signals, but only the DSS-43 can send commands to it.)

Voyager 2, launched in 1977, is more than 11 billion miles (17.6 billion kilometers) from Earth. Therefore, it requires a powerful radio antenna to transmit its commands. Such a possibility is offered by a special transmitter operating in the S band of Deep Space Station 43.

This upgrade will not only benefit Voyager 2, but also improve connectivity with the Perseverance Mars rover. In addition, it will facilitate future activities in the field of exploration of the Moon and Mars. This network will play a key role in navigating and communicating with initial missions to the Moon and Mars, such as the manned Artemis mission.

Antenna was turned off in early March 2020. And will be turn on again when upgrade is completed in January 2021.

Earth atmosphere – High layers emit music

Earth atmosphere - NASA

Earth atmosphere - Happy New Year planet Earth

Earth atmosphere - Planetatierra - (07-12-1972)

The Amazing Earth atmosphere

Earth atmosphere - Top Images from NASA

Earth atmosphere - Blue Marble Rotation

Earth - NASA-EPIC-Team

Blue Marble Eastern Hemisphere

NASA-Earth - 17-April-2010

Stringed instruments - Musical Instrument Museum

Earth atmosphere – High layers emit music

Earth atmosphere – High layers emit music – Sound waves appear in the atmosphere of our planet. Which are between 1,000 and 10,000 kilometers long. Able to run at speeds of up to 1000 km / h. When their speed and the altitude at which they appear are properly aligned. Such waves can stay above the Earth for more than 30 hours.
The atmosphere then acts like a sound box, creating a huge musical instrument the size of an entire planet. These waves are moving disturbances of density and pressure, and therefore we could hear them, were it not for their extremely low frequency, making them unattainable by our ears.

Sunspots registry – Program run since 1826

Sunspots registry - Solar rotationSunspots registry - Largest Sunspot of the Solar Cycle - NASASunspots registry - Sunspots - TaiwanSunspots registry - Surface of the Sun - HMI-NASASunspots registry - Monster Sunspot AR1476 - NASA


Sunspots registry - X-flares - X1.4 and X1.9 - NASA, SDOSunspots registry - Big Sunspot 1520 - Releases X1.4 flare - NASASunspots registry - Sunspot 1112Sunspots sunset - Xihu, HangzhouSunspots


Sunspot butterfly - graphPeriodic changes of Sunspot numbersSunspot diagramChanges in total solar irradiance and monthly sunspot numbers - 1975-2013Samuel Heinrich Schwabe Astronomer - Plaque in Dessau

Sunspots registry – Program run since 1826

Sunspots registry – The longest regular scientific research in the world is the record of the number of spots on the Sun created since 1826.
The research program was initiated by the German amateur astronomer Samuel Heinrich Schwabe. He watched the Sun regularly for 17 years because he wanted to observe a planet previously unknown to science called the Volcano.
Moving against the backdrop of the solar disk. Of course, he found nothing – only Mercury and Venus are between Earth and the Sun. Known since antiquity – but his observations have determined that the activity of our nearest star changes regularly.
Schwabe’s achievements inspired Rudolf Wolf, head of the Bern observatory. Which from 1848 continued to record spots and collected historical data on this subject. Dating back to the early 17th century

Spot counting system developed by Wolf.

Accepted astronomers around the world. Almost 100 observatories are currently observing this phenomenon. Both professionals and amateurs.

Krakatau – Indonesia

Process of the creation of the Anak Krakatau islandEruption of Krakatau, Indonesia - 2008Satellite image of the Krakatau volcano, Indonesia - May 18, 1992Krakatau MapSatellite image Plumes of volcanic ash 17 November, 2010


Krakatau – Indonesia


  • Location: Indonesia
  • Peak: m a.s.l.

Krakatau lies between Java and Sumatra, and belongs to the most dangerous volcanoes in the world. We can also find out about it in the last days when the mountain awoke. Its largest explosion occurred in 1883. When the Perboewatan crater threw away a 6 km high cloud of ash, visible from a distance of 160 km. The next eruption occurred a few months later. This time, volcanic dust has risen to 27 km. In the final phase of the eruption caused the creation of four tsunamis high at 30 meters. The sounds of the crash were heard even several thousand kilometers away. More than 36,000 people have died as a result of the explosion and tsunami. These events affected the entire planet, as a result of the explosion the average annual temperature decreased by approx. 1.2 ° C. This year, the volcano has woken up again. After the explosion, a large part of it collapsed and caused a deadly wave of tides that killed over 400 people.

Our planet composition – What is inside the Earth?

Our planet composition - Earth crust - cutaway

Our planet composition – What is inside the Earth?

Our planet composition – Crust, mantle and core. In this abbreviated way one could characterize three layers of Earth, which were created at the beginning of its existence.

  • Lithosphere – Top layer of Earth, which is in direct interaction with other terrestrial spheres, such as the hydrosphere, atmosphere and biosphere.
  • Crust – It consists of the oceanic and earth’s crust. The thickness of the earth’s reaches up to 70 kilometers. The oceanic is thinner and its thickness varies between five and ten kilometers.
  • Conrad’s discontinuity – Horizontal surface of the discontinuity in the earth’s crust that forms the transition between the upper and lower layers. Its depth varies in different types of crust from 5 to 30 km.
  • Mohorovićic’s discontinuity – A layer that geologically defines the passage of the earth’s crust and upper mantle. Occurs in 20-90 kilometers deep under continents, and 10-20 kilometers under the oceans.
  • Earth’s mantle – Layer consisting of upper and lower mantle. The upper reaches the depth of 90 kilometers. The lower one is assigned a depth of 650 km to the Earth’s core, and therefore approximately 2,900 km.
  • Repetti’s discontinuity – The area between the upper and the lower mantle.
  • Gutenberg’s discontinuity – Part of the Earth’s envelope, which is assigned at depth of 2,900 kilometers. Below it is the core of the Earth.
  • Core – Geosphere, located in the center of the Earth. It starts at depth of 2,900 kilometers below the surface and covers approximately 31% of the Earth’s mass, with iron and nickel being the largest part of it. The core is twice as heavy as the Earth’s mantle and consists of a semi-internal inner core, which, among other things, creates the Earth’s magnetic field.

KEPLER-442b – Stony exoplanet in superearth class

KEPLER-442bKEPLER-442b - Comparison of exoplanets from the Kepler system to EarthKEPLER-442b

KEPLER-442b – Stony exoplanet in superearth class

KEPLER-442b – Stony exoplanet in superearth class, which the parent star is the orange dwarf.

ESI: 0,84
Size: 1,3 Earth
Mass: 2,3 Earth
Equivalent temperature: -65°C

The planet KEPLER-442b, from which light has been running for 1115 years, belongs to the so-called Super-Earth. In this way, rocky exoplanets are determined whose mass does not exceed tenfolds Earth. The parent star of this planet is an orange dwarf. The star larger than a red dwarf, but smaller than a yellow dwarf, which is the Sun. This type of star has calmer youth, and therefore does not send its planetary children too much UV. In addition, the planet is in the ecosphere, so it can not be ruled out that the ocean is splashing on its rocky surface. If it has a more complex atmosphere, it does not have to be at the same time a kingdom of cold. According to some calculations, it is the smaller superearth that are most suitable for life, even more than our own planet.

GJ 273b – Exoplanet in the constellation Little Dog

GJ 273b - Artist’s impression of the exoplanet

GJ 273b – Exoplanet in the constellation Little Dog

GJ 273b – Planet orbiting the Luyten star

ESI: 0,86
Size: 1,47 Earth
Mass: 3 Earth
Equivalent temperature: -6°C

Twelve light-years from our solar system, Luyten’s star, the red dwarf, wanders from Earth in the constellation Little Dog. Astronomers have discovered two exoplanets next to it. At the same time one of them belongs to the superearth category and at the same time circulates at the edge of the ecosystem. In contrast to the many other planets whose parent star is a red dwarf, GJ273b knows what day is and what is the night. Usually, the planets move close enough that their rotation is connected, and their parent star only puts one hemisphere.

Ross-128b – 11 light years away from Earth


Ross-128b – 11 light years away from Earth

Ross-128b – The planetary system around the red dwarf Ross 128 for about 70,000 years will become our closest star neighbor.

ESI: 0,86
Size: 1,2 Earth
Mass: 1,3 Earth
Equivalent temperature: 7°C

Even closer than the GJ 273b is the Ross-128b exoplanet. It is away from us, just like a star. Which is a very quiet red dwarf, less than 11 light-years away and gradually approaching us. Based on the obtained data, astronomers have discovered that planet Ross 128b circulates around its star twenty times closer than Earth circulates the Sun. Despite such a short distance, the planet gets only 1.38 times more energy than our planet. Thanks to the cool and stable star, whose surface temperature in comparison with the sun is halved, the equivalent temperature on its surface is estimated to be from -60°C to 20°C.

TRAPPIST-1d – Representative of TRAPPIST-1 sys

TRAPPIST-1d - Artistic impression of exoplanetTRAPPIST-1d - Statistics tableTRAPPIST-1d - Comparison of the sizes of TRAPPIST-1 planets with Solar System bodies

TRAPPIST-1d – Representative of TRAPPIST-1 sys

TRAPPIST-1d – One of representatives of the TRAPPIST-1 planetary system

ESI: 0,91
Size: 0,8 Earth
Mass: 0,3 Earth
Equivalent temperature: 15°C

The relatively small weight of this planet indicates that its surface can be flooded by a deep ocean.
According to some speculations, here is 250 times more water than in the Earth’s oceans.
The first measurements showed that the planet is moving outside of the living zone, but now it seems that it will enter it safely. Exoplanet can boast a dense atmosphere and is so close to its star that it circulates in four days. It only drops by 4.3% more light than on Earth. Although TRAPPIST-1d circulates its star in synchronous rotation, a dense atmosphere in which there should be a lot of water vapor helps in thermal exchange. The difference between the illuminated and the dark hemisphere is not like that of other celestial bodies.

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