Pro Apollo – Lunar suit, versions A7L and A7LB
- In use over the years: 1967 – 1975
- Space ships: A7L – missions Apollo 7 – 14, A7LB – missions Apollo 15 – 17, Skylab and Apollo-Soyuz.
- Mass: A7L – 28,1 kg, to Extra-vehicular activity 34,5 kg, A7LB 29,3 kg and 35,4 kg to (EVA).
Pro Apollo – Since 1961, Americans have focused on the Apollo program, the goal of which was to get man to the moon. After the Apollo 1 fire, the emphasis was on fire-resistant properties. This is how the A7L type suit was created, which was used by Apollo 7 to 14. So also Neil Armstrong (1930 – 2012) and Buzz Aldrin (born 1930). The suit had better protection against dust and temperatures. Basic life support up to 6 hours.
Along with the suit, a portable life support system (called a backpack) was also developed. For short stays in open space (EVA). During the Apollo 15 to 17 missions, and at the Skylab space station, an improved version of the A7LB suit was created. Instead of a backpack, it had special instrumentation attached to the astronaut’s belt.
TRAPPIST-1f – Rocky exoplanet the size of Earth
TRAPPIST-1f – Rocky exoplanet, from the planetary system around red dwarf TRAPPIST-1
Size: 1,1 Earth
Mass: 0,9 Earth
Equivalent temperature: -65°C
Around the star, 40 light-years away from us, are seven stony planets. The sixth in turn has very similar sizes to Earth. But its density is generally lower. The composition is close to the ice or water worlds of the moon Jupiter – Europe or the moon of Saturn – Enceladus. The first measurements determined that not a small part of the mass of the planet is ice, and that under the surface perhaps liquid water. The atmosphere here is not the densest, so the equivalent temperature probably does not differ from the proper one.
ISRO – Indian Space Research Organisation
ISRO – Its space program also has a second country with the largest population in the world, India. The Indian Space Research Organization began implementing the Indian space program in the 1960’s. Indian scientist Vikram Sarabhai (1919 – 1971) has the greatest contribution to the development of this field. It was known that India couldn’t perform such tasks as landing on the moon or sending a man into space. Therefore, the focus was on less complex, achievable goals. Currently, ISRO is working on the development of its own space shuttle, which could repeatedly fly into space, transporting loads and transporting the crew.
It is assumed that all technological issues will be resolved within 15 years. India has behind it the first experimental model of the RLV-TD space shuttle (Reusable Launch Vehicle Technology Demonstration Program). The machine took off from the Sriharikota spaceport located on an island in the Bay of Bengal. The test flight lasted 770 seconds and the space shuttle reached a height of 65 km. The rocket was designed in such way, the ISRO could collect important data during the flight. Concerning for example: hypersonic speed, autonomous landing.
Moonless development – Earth without Moon
Moonless development – Earth without Moon – Simulations 4 billion years of
development of the Earth without the presence of the Moon. Were performed in the
Research Center of NASA in Moffett Field, California by Jack Lisauer. In the developed model,
the maximum angle at which leaned to the axis of the Earth, turned out to be much smaller
than assumed earlier studies. The conclusions of the study were: Earth would be the Earth,
even without his extremely large satellite.
DNA chain – Ladders with millions rungs
DNA chain – ladders with millions rungs – DNA strands looks like spiral ladders
with the millions rungs, each of which carries the instructions written by chemical code.
If we could unravel and stretch the DNA of a single human cell, measure the approx.
2 meters, its thickness, however, would amount to approx. 0.000002 mm. Chain DNA from
the body of one man is 16 times longer than the path from Earth to the Moon.