Pro Apollo – Lunar suit, versions A7L and A7LB

Space suit - A7L - Apollo-11 lunar mission crewSpace suit - A7L - Apollo-12 lunar mission crewA7L - Buzz Aldrin near lunar Module legA7LB - Gateway to space 2016 - Budapest

Pro Apollo – Lunar suit, versions A7L and A7LB

 

  • In use over the years: 1967 – 1975
  • Space ships: A7L – missions Apollo 7 – 14, A7LB – missions Apollo 15 – 17, Skylab and Apollo-Soyuz.
  • Mass: A7L – 28,1 kg, to Extra-vehicular activity 34,5 kg, A7LB 29,3 kg and 35,4 kg to (EVA).

 
Pro Apollo – Since 1961, Americans have focused on the Apollo program, the goal of which was to get man to the moon. After the Apollo 1 fire, the emphasis was on fire-resistant properties. This is how the A7L type suit was created, which was used by Apollo 7 to 14. So also Neil Armstrong (1930 – 2012) and Buzz Aldrin (born 1930). The suit had better protection against dust and temperatures. Basic life support up to 6 hours.

Along with the suit, a portable life support system (called a backpack) was also developed. For short stays in open space (EVA). During the Apollo 15 to 17 missions, and at the Skylab space station, an improved version of the A7LB suit was created. Instead of a backpack, it had special instrumentation attached to the astronaut’s belt.

Krechet – Designed for travel to the moon

Space suit - KrechetSpace suit - Krechet - Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum - Washington D.C., USAKrechet - Soviet moon suitKrechet - Memorial Museum of Astronautics - Moscow, Russia

Krechet – Designed for travel to the moon

 

  • In use over the years: 1967 – Unused
  • Space ships: Conquering the Moon.
  • Mass: 90 kg.

 
Krechet – In 1967, NPP “Zvezda” designed a spacesuit intended for travel to the Moon. It received the name Krechet, and cosmonauts entered it as if into a wardrobe, through a lid at the back, which they then closed behind them. It weighed 90 kg and could run for 10 hours. It was the first suit with a hard body and soft “limbs”, which also worked well with other suits. Krechet, however, has never been used for any space mission.

The Soviet lunar program was delayed and struggled with numerous problems, including a lack of funding. It was buried for good by the success of the American Apollo. The Soviets, trying to capture the Moon, worked on the already mentioned suit, and at the same time also on the suit Orlan. So “eagle”, but work on them was completed in 1974.

Space suit – Cosmonautic symbol over the years

Space suit - USAF colonel - NASA astronaut - Jack Fischer

Space suit - U.S. Astronaut - Nicole Stott - participates in an EMU fit check

Space suit - ESA astronaut - Christer Fuglesang - STS-116 mission specialist

Space suit - USA astronauts - Rick Mastracchio (r.) and Mike Hopkins in EMU spacesuits

Space suit - ESA astronaut - Timothy Peake - During fit check

Space suit - Scott Kelly relocates hardware inside the Quest Airlock

Space suit - JAXA astronaut - Hoshide Akihiko - in space (EVA)

Space suit - Pictured with plush-doll mascots - Quest Airlock of ISS

Space suit – Cosmonautic symbol over the years

Space suit – The first suits for the Americans were produced by the B. F. Goodrich Company in 1959. It was a modernized version of high-pressure pressure suits that the company had already produced for naval aviation. Tailor-made for everyone to occupy as little space as possible in the rocket cabin. So the astronauts could not gain weight. Otherwise, they wouldn’t fit into it.

In the Soviet Union for the supplier of the spacesuit for the Vostok program selected plant nr. 918. Also known as NPP Zvezda. Since 1952, its employees have been involved in the construction of pressure suits for aviation. They also made a container that allowed the dog “Laika”, the first living creature, to travel into orbit. Unlike the Americans, the Soviets considered the suit redundant. Because they assumed that the probability of a pressure drop in the spaceship was very low. The one who insisted on using the suit was the “great constructor” of the Russian space program, Sergei Korolev (1907-1966).

List of space suits over the years:

 
Space suit - U.S. astronaut - Wally SchirraSpace suit - U.S. astronaut - John H. GlennU.S. astronaut - Alan B. Shepard - On deck of USS Lake ChamplainAstronaut Gus Grissom chats with spaceflight equip. spec. - Joe-W.-SchmidtMercury – Spacesuits for program of the same name
 
 


Space suit - SK-1 - Gateway to space 2016 - Budapest, HungarySpace suit - SK-1 - Gateway to space 2016Spacesuit SK-1 - Gateway to space 2016SK-1 - Memorial Museum of Cosmonautics - Moscow, RussiaSK-1 – Spacesuit of Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin
 
 


Space suit - Gemini-3 - Crew astronautsSpace suit - Gemini-3 - Astronaut and suit technician Gemini-G-3C - GlovesGemini-Titan 4 - Astronauts NASA - James A. McDivitt (l.) and Edward H. White - TrainingGemini – For program with two-person crew
 
 


Space suit - BerkutSpace suit - Memorial Museum of AstronauticsBerkut - Smithsonian National Air and Space MuseumBerkut - Smithsonian Air and Space MuseumBerkut – Spacesuit for spacecraft Voskhod 2
 
 


Space suit - KrechetSpace suit - Krechet - Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum - Washington D.C., USAKrechet - Soviet moon suitKrechet - Memorial Museum of Astronautics - Moscow, RussiaKrechet – Designed for travel to the moon
 
 


Space suit - Yastreb - Moscow, RussiaSpace suit Yastreb - For work in EVA - Moscow Polytechnical MuseumYastreb - Used by soviet cosmonauts - Aleksei Yeliseyev and Yevgeny KhrunovYastreb - Memorial Museum of Astronautics - Moscow, RussiaYastreb – For ships Soyuz 1, Soyuz 4 and Soyuz 5
 
 


Space suit - A7L - Apollo-11 lunar mission crewSpace suit - A7L - Apollo-12 lunar mission crewA7L - Buzz Aldrin near lunar Module legA7LB - Gateway to space 2016 - BudapestPro Apollo – Lunar suit, versions A7L and A7LB
 
 


Space suit - Expedition-26 - Russian cosmonaut Dmitry Kondratyev wearing Orlan-MKSpace suit - Russian cosmonaut - Gennady Padalka and OrlanISS-22 - Russian cosmonaut - Maxim Suraew and 2 Orlan-MKISS-22 - Russian cosmonaut - Oleg Kotov and 2 OrlanOrlan – For ships Soyuz and stations Salyut, Mir and ISS
 
 


Space suit - Expedition 49 - Crew members of Soyuz TMA spacecraftSpace suit - Expedition 63Expedition 50 - After landing of Soyuz MS-02 - KazakhstanExpedition 63 - Official crew portrait - Cassidy, Ivanishin, VagnerSokol – Only for Intra-vehicular activity
 
 


STS-115 - NASA astronaut Heidemarie M. Stefanyshyn Piper in suit EMU - trainingSTS-123 - NASA astronaut  Robert L. BehnkenESA astronaut - Samantha Cristoforetti in suit EMU - trainingSTS-134 - NASA astronaut Andrew Feustel in suit EMUEMU – Used in Space Shuttle, currently at the ISS
 
 


SpaceX Crew - NASA astronauts - (from l.) Walker, Glover, Hopkins and JAXA astronaut - NoguchiSpaceX - Astronauts Hurley (l.) and BehnkenSpaceX - Astronauts Behnken and Hurley - Chat with NASA Admin Bridenstine (l.) and Deputy Adm. MorhardSpaceX - Astronauts Behnken (r.) and Hurley walk down the hallway of Neil A. ArmstrongSpaceX Starman – For work on spacecrafts Dragon
 
 


Deep Space Network – Transmit-receive antennas

Deep Space Network - Antenna

Deep Space Network - Deep Dish Communications Complex - Canberra

Deep Space Network - Communication Complex - Canberra, Australia

Deep Space Network - Canberra, Australia
 
 
 
Deep Space Network - Deep Space StationDSS-43 - Canberra, AustraliaDeep Space Communication Complex-2017NASA complex - outside - Canberra, Australia

Deep Space Network – Transmit-receive antennas

Deep Space Network – Transmit-receive global network of large antennas, managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. It is a NASA interplanetary dashboard that allows constant communication with spacecraft. In March 2020, modernization works began at one of the largest antennas of this network – Deep Space Station 43 (DSS-43) in Canberra, Australia.

DSN, one of NASA’s three Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) program networks. It is located in three places in the world – in California, Spain and Australia. This allows mission controllers to communicate continuously with spacecraft on and off the Moon despite the rotation of the Earth.

DSS-43, a 70-meter antenna located in the southern hemisphere, is the only one that can send commands to the Voyager 2 probe, which travels southwards in relation to the Earth’s. orbit. (Other antennas at the Canberra complex can also receive Voyager 2 signals, but only the DSS-43 can send commands to it.)

Voyager 2, launched in 1977, is more than 11 billion miles (17.6 billion kilometers) from Earth. Therefore, it requires a powerful radio antenna to transmit its commands. Such a possibility is offered by a special transmitter operating in the S band of Deep Space Station 43.

This upgrade will not only benefit Voyager 2, but also improve connectivity with the Perseverance Mars rover. In addition, it will facilitate future activities in the field of exploration of the Moon and Mars. This network will play a key role in navigating and communicating with initial missions to the Moon and Mars, such as the manned Artemis mission.

Antenna was turned off in early March 2020. And will be turn on again when upgrade is completed in January 2021.

Olympus Mons – Highest peak of the Solar System

Mars - Mariner 9 (1971 - 1972)Martian volcano - photographed by Viking 1 spacecraft - 5000 miles away - 14.02.1979Olympus Mons - Mars - MC-2 - Diacria RegionOlympus Mons - Image from Viking 1 orbiter

Olympus Mons – Highest peak of the Solar System

Olympus Mons – An extinct volcano on the Red Planet, rises almost 22 km! However, the issue of measurement is contentious. So depending on where we measure the vertex. It can grow up to 26 km.

Its diameter is also impressive – at the base it is 624 km.

The volcanic crater itself is about 85 km long, 60 km wide, and up to 3 km deep. However, future Martian climbers will not be particularly delighted. Because Olympus has a gentle, 5-degree slope.

Impressive sizes can also boast:

Rheasilvia, huge impact crater with a diameter of 505 km. Covering up to 90% of the West’s asteroid surface (22.5 km high).
Series of almost even peaks on the Saturn’s moonIapetus, (approx. 20 km). And South Boösaule, the highest hill on Jupiter’s moon – Io (approx. 18 km).

Quantity Earth moons – Two additional pseudo-moons

Quantity Earth moons - Kazimierz Kordylewski - 1964Quantity Earth moons - Libration point L4 - diagramQuantity Earth moons - Arrangement of libration points L4 and L5

Quantity Earth moons – Two additional pseudo-moons

Quantity Earth moons – Well, it has two additional, or more precisely, pseudo-moons. These are dust clouds located in the L4 and L5 libration points of the Earth-Moon system. Although it was discovered in the 1950s, it was not until 2018 that Hungarian scientists were able to measure the polarization of their light. Clearly confirming these objects. For the first time they were noticed by the Polish astronomer Kazimierz Kordylewski and hence their name – the moons of Kordylewski. In 1956, he noticed the dust structure that he managed to photograph five years later. Specialists for decades have tried to find hard evidence for their presence. Which was not an easy task: K.Kordylewski was observing from Kasprowy Wierch and this winter. Only a few times they were observed and photographed

TRAPPIST-1f – Rocky exoplanet the size of Earth

TRAPPIST-1f - Artistic impression of exoplanetTRAPPIST-1f - Comparison of the data of the stony planets of the TRAPPIST-1 system with the planets of the solar systemTRAPPIST-1f - Planetary system around the red dwarf TRAPPIST-1

TRAPPIST-1f – Rocky exoplanet the size of Earth

TRAPPIST-1f – Rocky exoplanet, from the planetary system around red dwarf TRAPPIST-1

ESI: 0,68
Size: 1,1 Earth
Mass: 0,9 Earth
Equivalent temperature: -65°C

Around the star, 40 light-years away from us, are seven stony planets. The sixth in turn has very similar sizes to Earth. But its density is generally lower. The composition is close to the ice or water worlds of the moon Jupiter – Europe or the moon of Saturn – Enceladus. The first measurements determined that not a small part of the mass of the planet is ice, and that under the surface perhaps liquid water. The atmosphere here is not the densest, so the equivalent temperature probably does not differ from the proper one.

ISRO – Indian Space Research Organisation

ISRO - RLV-TD LogoISRO - Vikram Sarabhai - bustISRO - Vikram Sarabhai

ISRO – Indian Space Research Organisation

ISRO – Its space program also has a second country with the largest population in the world, India. The Indian Space Research Organization began implementing the Indian space program in the 1960’s. Indian scientist Vikram Sarabhai (1919 – 1971) has the greatest contribution to the development of this field. It was known that India couldn’t perform such tasks as landing on the moon or sending a man into space. Therefore, the focus was on less complex, achievable goals. Currently, ISRO is working on the development of its own space shuttle, which could repeatedly fly into space, transporting loads and transporting the crew.

It is assumed that all technological issues will be resolved within 15 years. India has behind it the first experimental model of the RLV-TD space shuttle (Reusable Launch Vehicle Technology Demonstration Program). The machine took off from the Sriharikota spaceport located on an island in the Bay of Bengal. The test flight lasted 770 seconds and the space shuttle reached a height of 65 km. The rocket was designed in such way, the ISRO could collect important data during the flight. Concerning for example: hypersonic speed, autonomous landing.

Moonless development – Earth without Moon

Moonless development - Earth without Moon - Research Center of NASA in Moffett Field

Moonless development – Earth without Moon

Moonless development – Earth without Moon – Simulations 4 billion years of
development of the Earth without the presence of the Moon. Were performed in the
Research Center of NASA in Moffett Field, California by Jack Lisauer.
In the developed model,
the maximum angle at which leaned to the axis of the Earth, turned out to be much smaller
than
assumed earlier studies. The conclusions of the study were: Earth would be the Earth,
even without
his extremely large satellite.

DNA chain – Ladders with millions rungs

Dna chain - ladders with millions rungs

DNA chain – Ladders with millions rungs

DNA chain – ladders with millions rungs – DNA strands looks like spiral ladders
with the millions rungs, each of which carries the instructions written by chemical code.
If we could unravel and stretch the DNA of a single human cell, measure the approx.
2 meters, its thickness, however, would amount to approx. 0.000002 mm. Chain DNA from
the body of one man is 16 times longer than the path from Earth to the Moon.

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