Eurostar e320 – Glides along the tracks of Eurotunnel

Eurostar e320 - 4013-4014 - At Arnhem Centraal-station, Netherlands

Eurostar e320 - In Paris-Nord station, France

Eurostar e320 - In Paris-Nord station - Paris, France

Eurostar e320 - On High Speed 1 - Near Sellindge, UK

Eurostar e320 - (15-10-2015)

Train service coming from London - At Amsterdam Centraal-station, Netherlands

Train service - At Amsterdam Centraal-station, Netherlands

2 trains - At St Pancras railway station - London, United Kingdom

Eurostar e320 – Glides along the tracks of Eurotunnel

  • Speed: 320 km/h
  • Location: Eurotunnel between France and Great Britain
  • Route:
  • Number of seats:
  • Commencement of exploitation: November 20, 2015

Eurostar e320 – Glides along the tracks in Eurotunnel since 2015. The trains are 390.2 meters long and are designed to meet the technical specifications of European railways. The trains entered service in 1994 for the opening of the Channel Tunnel. The Eurostar e320 was built by Siemens in Germany, and the railway company ordered seven train sets.

European Connection

The producers took their inspiration from the French train TGV. This transnational rail operator connects London with several important European cities and its trains reach speeds of up to 300 km / h. For example, a journey from London to Paris takes only two hours and sixteen minutes.

In 2009, the train crashed due to frost and snow, and over two thousand passengers were stuck in the tunnel. Snow has entered the ventilation system and there has been a short circuit in the electric motor system of the units.

Thermonuclear energy – Obtained by fusion

Thermonuclear energy - JET - Aerial view

Thermonuclear energy - JET - Telemanipulator

Thermonuclear energy - JET - Interior view

Thermonuclear energy - JET - Vessel internal view - Plasma blend

Thermonuclear energy - ITER - Aerial view

ITER - Tokamak complex

ITER - Aerial view - (26-03-2018)

ITER - Tokamak and Plant Systems

Thermonuclear energy – Obtained by fusion

Thermonuclear energy – Obtained by fusion – combining the nuclei of light elements. Under earthly conditions, it is possible to use isotopes, i.e. heavier forms of hydrogen: deuterium and tritium. The former has a proton and a neutron in its nucleus, and it is quite common in water. The second one, made of a proton and two neutrons, does not occur naturally. But it can be easily obtained from another light element – lithium.

JET (Joint European Torus)

Tritium is used in experiments at JET (Joint European Torus). Which is near Oxford, UK. It is a tokamak reactor – a bagel-shaped chamber in which the hot gas, i.e. plasma, will be trapped by the magnetic field. It must reach enormous temperatures, on the order of 100 million degrees Celsius, for the thermonuclear reactions to begin. – We have come to the point where we can try out in practice what we have been preparing for years. – explains Dr. Joelle Mailloux, co-leader of the JET science team.

This is the first major experiment with tritium since 1997. Because the use of this isotope as a fuel, along with deuterium, increases the level of radiation in the reactor. All the equipment had to be adapted to the new working conditions. It took two years. – Once the research begins, the inside of the reactor will be too dangerous for humans to enter. Everything must work or be repairable remotely, as on an unmanned spacecraft – says Prof. Ian Chapman, head of JET.

If successful in the UK trials, they will open the way to efficient and relatively clean energy production. One gram of hydrogen “burned” in a fusion reactor can yield as much as 8 tons of crude oil or 11 tons of coal. A few hundred kilograms of deuterium and tritium per year would be enough to meet the energy needs of the whole world. Relatively little radioactive waste is also expected to be generated in fusion reactors.

ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor)

The results of the JET experiments will be used in the development of ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor). This is a huge reactor under construction in Cadarache, France. Funded by the European Union, China, India, Japan, South Korea, Russia and the USA at a cost of $ 22 billion. The first launch of ITER is scheduled for 2025, 10 years later the reactor is to run on a mixture of deuterium and tritium. If all goes to plan, it will be the first plant to get more energy from fusion than was needed to initiate it.

St Kilda – Hirta – Atlantic, Scotland – Exiled people

St Kilda - Hirta - Atlantic, ScotlandSt Kilda - Hirta - Atlantic, ScotlandSt Kilda - Hirta - Atlantic, ScotlandSt Kilda - Hirta - Atlantic, ScotlandMap of archipelago - (15-08-2007)Fulmars hunting - (01-01-1898)Mailboat - (01-01-1898)Puffins hunting - (01-01-1898)

St Kilda – Hirta – Atlantic, Scotland – Exiled people

St Kilda – Hirta – To reach the place called „the edge of the world”. You have to bounce off the west coast of Scotland and over 60 km across the cold Atlantic. There, among windswept and waves, several small islands protrude from the sea. They are so unfriendly and distant from the mainland, that it is not surprising that they are uninhabited, so it is surprising that Hirta, part of the St Kilda archipelago, was already inhabited in the Bronze Age.

The life of indigenous peoples almost all the time concentrated on making supplies for the winter. Harvesting: Peat, which was a source of heat for them. Sheep wool for yarns and sea birds as food. There was no possibility of fishing – the waters around were treacherous enough.

Weather is so hard and unpredictable, that up to the last century for eight months of the year. Hirta was completely cut off from the world. Even in the nineteenth century, its inhabitants, whose number ranged between 100 and 200, when they wanted to make contact with the world. They threw messages in bottles, into sea, at favorable winds. Hoping that someone in Scotland will catch one.

Community lived in great isolation

To the extent that her genetic pool has been weakened: brought from outside, quite innocent diseases. Which destroyed her almost completely. The last 36 survivors surrendered in the 1930s. After the decision of the British Parliament, they left a sinister place. It was the end of the settlement, which lasted over two thousand years…

Top 10 night fighter planes – WWI & WWII and post-war era

Top 10 night fighter planesTop 10 night fighter planesTop 10 night fighter planesTop 10 night fighter planesTop 10 night fighter planesTop 10 night fighter planesTop 10 night fighter planesTop 10 night fighter planesTop 10 night fighter planesTop 10 night fighter planes

Top 10 night fighter planes – WWI & WWII and post-war era

Top 10 night fighter planes:


  • World War I:


  • Royal Aircraft Factory B.E.2c

    Top 10 night fighter planes - Royal Aircraft Factory B.E.2cRoyal Aircraft Factory B.E.2cRoyal Aircraft Factory B.E.2c – Night flights were already taking place during World War I. It was not machines specially designed for these purposes. But fighters usually reworked. Such an example was a single-engine, two-seat, biplane – Royal Aircraft Factory B.E.2c.

  • Sopwith Camel “Comic” Nightfighter

    Top 10 night fighter planes - Sopwith Camel Sopwith Camel Sopwith Camel – “Comic” Nightfighter – A modified version of the British military aircraft Sopwith Camel also participated in World War I. Manufactured by Sopwith Aviation Company. Equipped with an improved Neame sight.


  • World War II:


  • Messerschmitt Bf 110 G-4

    Top 10 night fighter planes - Messerschmitt Bf 110 G-4Messerschmitt Bf 110 G-4Messerschmitt Bf 110 G-4 – Was a heavy twin-engine fighter aircraft. One of the best machines for conducting night raids. Because the machine was poorly manoeuvrable, the Germans decided to use it as a bombing and intercepting fighter.

  • Heinkel He 219 UHU

    Top 10 night fighter planes - Heinkel He 219 UHUHeinkel He 219 UHUHeinkel He 219 UHU – In the summer of 1943, the German Luftwaffe I/NJG 1 with a base in Venlo, the Netherlands, received a prototype of the Heinkel He 219 UHU night fighter. During tests it proved to be reliable and quickly gained recognition in battle. Throwing down 15 enemy bombers.

  • Focke-Wulf Ta 154

    Top 10 night fighter planes - Focke-Wulf Ta 154Focke-Wulf Ta 154Focke-Wulf Ta 154 – Nazi Germany, for the third time. This time with a machine inspired by a hostile multi-purpose aircraft: de Havilland Mosquito. The original had a fairly old wooden structure. But it troubled the Germans so much that they decided to build something similar.

  • Northrop P-61 Black Widow

    Top 10 night fighter planes - Northrop P-61 Black WidowNorthrop P-61 Black WidowNorthrop P-61 Black Widow – The “Black Widow” aircraft from the manufacturer Northrop Corporation was the only fighter of World War II. From the beginning, designed exclusively for night flying.


  • Post-war era:


  • Northrop F-89 Scorpion

    Top 10 night fighter planes - Northrop F-89 ScorpionNorthrop F-89 ScorpionNorthrop F-89 Scorpion – Trying to replace the “Black Widow” Northrop P-61. A slightly better night fighter, American designers developed the F-89. It was a self-supporting medium wing.

  • Gloster Javelin

    Top 10 night fighter planes - Gloster JavelinGloster JavelinGloster Javelin – First fighter manufactured by Gloster Aircraft Company was Meteor – with a jet propulsion. The first night machine, from this factory was Gloster Javelin.

  • Sud Aviation Vautour II

    Top 10 night fighter planes - Sud Aviation Vautour IISud Aviation Vautour IISud Aviation Vautour II – The first test flight of the French machine, took place on 16th October 1952. But it was not included in active service until 1958. The prototype was improved and finally created in three versions: IIA, IIB, IIN.

  • Jakovlev Jak-25

    Top 10 night fighter planes - Jakovlev Jak-25Jakovlev Jak-25Jakovlev Jak-25 – The first in the USSR created to operate on the areas of Siberia and the Far East. A twin-engine long-range fighter, adapted to all weather conditions. And for day and night flights.


During the war, the time of day does not matter. The fight lasts around the clock, regardless of weather conditions or time. That’s why the designers created night fighters. Which could have carried out the attack when most people calmly rest.

Gloster Javelin – Top 10 night fighter planes

Gloster JavelinGloster JavelinGloster JavelinGloster JavelinGloucestershire-Airport - Cheltenham-England - (01.06.2006)RAF Leeming-Gate-Guard - (11.06.2012)Flixton-Aviation-Museum - UK - (06-08-2009)RAF - (07-03-2015)

Gloster Javelin – Top 10 night fighter planes

  • Place: Great Britain
  • First flight: 1951
  • Built: 436 pcs.

Gloster Javelin – We are slowly entering the post-war era, in which the first night machine was Gloster Javelin. Manufactured by Gloster Aircraft Company. The first fighter from this factory was Meteor – with a jet propulsion. The next improved version was just Gloster Javelin. In which the place for two pilots was prepared. In 1953, machine production began. Which in the number of 436 pieces, served until 1968.

Messerschmitt Bf 110 – Top 10 night fighter planes

Messerschmitt Bf 110 G-4Messerschmitt Bf 110 G-4Messerschmitt Bf 110 G-4Messerschmitt Bf 110 G-4Messerschmitt Bf 110 G-4G-4 - Royal Air Force-Museum - Hendon-London-UK - (24-04-2018)G-4 - Rear fuselage - Museum of the Great-Patriotic-War - Poklonnaya Hill - Moscow-RussiaVictory-Park-Moscow-Russia - (11-8-2012)Battle of Britain Hall -RAF Museum -Hendon-London-UK - (13-09-2015)G-4 - RAF-Museum - Hendon-London-UK - (22-03-2015)

Messerschmitt Bf 110 – Top 10 night fighter planes

  • Place: Germany
  • First flight: 1936
  • Built: 6170 pcs.

Messerschmitt Bf 110 G-4 – Was a heavy twin-engine fighter aircraft. One of the best machines for conducting night raids. Because the machine was poorly manoeuvrable, the Germans decided to use it as a bombing and intercepting fighter. In 1940, the Bf 110 had the reputation of invincible fighter aircraft. However, during the Battle of Britain, they did not survive the battle with modern British fighters. During this campaign, Germany lost 60% of its machines. In 1941, the Bf 110 was equipped with Liechtenstein radar and an additional cannon.

Sopwith Camel – Top 10 night fighter planes

Sopwith Camel Sopwith Camel Sopwith Camel Sopwith Camel Comic Replica - National-Naval-Aviation-MuseumCamel Replica - (24-05-2018)Comic Nightfighter - Montrose Air Station - (24-07-2019)Comic Nightfighter - National Museum of the US Air Force - Dayton-Ohio-USA (03-05-2018)

Sopwith Camel “Comic” Nightfighter – Top 10 night fighter planes

  • Place: Great Britain
  • First flight: 1916
  • Built: approx. 5490 pcs.

Sopwith Camel “Comic” Nightfighter – A modified version of the British military aircraft Sopwith Camel also participated in World War I. Manufactured by Sopwith Aviation Company. Equipped with an improved Neame sight and the new name Sopwith Camel “Comic” Nightfighter. It was supposed to attack German airships and bombers Gotha G.V. “Camel” gained the reputation of the best night fighter of this war
Sopwith Camel is among the most significant and famous of all WWI aircraft. Camels downed 1,294 enemy aircraft, more than any other Allied fighter in World War I.

Royal Aircraft Factory – Top 10 night fighter planes

Royal Aircraft Factory B.E.2cRoyal Aircraft Factory B.E.2cRoyal Aircraft Factory B.E.2cRoyal Aircraft Factory B.E.2cB.E.2c (08-06-2014)BE2C-(15-07-2018)

Royal Aircraft Factory B.E.2c – Top 10 night fighter planes

  • Place: Great Britain
  • First flight: 1912
  • Built: approx. 3500 pcs.

Royal Aircraft Factory B.E.2c – Night flights were already taking place during World War I. It was not machines specially designed for these purposes. But fighters usually reworked. Such an example was a single-engine, two-seat, biplane – Royal Aircraft Factory B.E.2c. An improved version of the original designed by Royal Baloon Factory for Royal Flying Corps.

Aston Martin Valkyrie – Fastest street car in the world

Aston Martin Valkyrie AMR-Pro - Geneva International Motor Show - Le Grand-Saconnex (2018-03-07)Aston Martin Valkyrie AMR-Pro - GIMS - Le Grand-Saconnex (2019-03-04)Aston Martin Valkyrie AMR-Pro 6.5 (Front) - Geneva International Motor Show - Le Grand-Saconnex (2019-08-31)Aston Martin Valkyrie AMR-Pro 6.5 (Interior) - Gaydon (2019-08-31)Aston Martin Valkyrie AMR-Pro 6.5 (Rear) - Gaydon (2019-08-31)

 

Valkyrie - Verification Prototype - Geneva International Motor Show - Le Grand-Saconnex (2019-03-05)Valkyrie (interior) - Verification Prototype - Geneva International Motor Show - Le Grand-Saconnex (2019-03-06)Valkyrie (rearview) - Verification Prototype - Geneva International Motor Show - Le Grand-Saconnex (2019-03-06)Valkyrie - Companys HQ in Gaydon-UK (2018-11-19)Valkyrie - Geneva International Motor Show - Le Grand-Saconnex (2019-03-04)

 

Aston Martin Valkyrie – Fastest street car in the world

Aston Martin Valkyrie – Supercar was created as a result of cooperation between three giants. Aston Martin, the Red Bull Racing team and Adrian Newey, a British Formula 1 technical specialist. Initially, the project was known as the Nebula (producers acronym). Ultimately, however, it hit the market as Valkyrie. Continuing the brand’s tradition, that’s why the names of subsequent models start with the letter „V”. Related to high performance vehicles.
Vehicle has already been recognized as the fastest street car in the world. Its uniqueness is also demonstrated by the limited number of copies. Only 150 Valkyrie will be created (and 25 in a special racing version). Each of them will cost $ 3.2 million.
And each will be equipped with a Cosworth’s 6.5-liter V12 naturally aspirated engine, with power 1130 HP. Such is enough to accelerate the vehicle to 100 km / h in just 2.5 seconds. The engine supports an additional 160 HP from the battery system. This in turn makes Valkyrie one of the most powerful hybrid vehicles.
Interior of Aston Martin Valkyrie is highly personalized. The seats are created by 3D scanning. So that they best fit the shape of the driver. By using carbon fiber, it was possible to achieve a very low vehicle weight. Valkyrie weighs „only” 1030 kg.
One of the 150 copies of the superauto was sold in the Aston Martin salon in Warsaw. For a record amount of over PLN 15 million. So Valkyrie is the most expensive car in history, bought in Poland.

Battle of Somme – The attack of French and British

Battle of Somme - Lochnagar Crater (1)Battle of Somme - Lochnagar Crater (2)Battle of Somme - Lochnagar Crater (3)Battle of Somme - Lochnagar Crater (4)Battle of Somme - Lochnagar Crater (5)Battle of Somme - Cheshire Regiment trench Somme 1916Battle of Somme 1916 - MapBattle of Somme - Lochnagar Crater Map

Battle of Somme – The attack of French and British

Battle of Somme – The great Somme offensive planned by the French and the British. Was to finally break the German resistance and end the war within a few weeks. The decisive significance in this plan was played by a series of secret tunnels. Dug up by the whole company for months. Leading the artillery fire of German trenches, the British imperceptibly placed under enemy positions 19 explosives.

On the first of July 1916, mines under German lines almost simultaneously exploded. The largest load was broken in the earth by a crater with a depth of 21 meters and a diameter of 91 meters. Contrary to the expectations of the generals, however, the enemy forces were not destroyed. And the offensive became a deadly trap for the soldiers.

Already in the first 30 minutes of the fire from German machine guns, thousands of Britons were killed. On the first day of the attack on German positions. About 21000 British and French soldiers died. The fights continued for another five months. Consuming over a million lives. Only to get a 35-kilometer piece of the front. Approx. 10 kilometers deep into the enemy’s territory.

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