Maglev – In approx 8 min. covers a distance 30 km

Maglev - Train at - Pudong International Airport - Shanghai, China

Maglev - Train panorama

Maglev - Train at Longyang Road Station - Shanghai, China

Maglev - Coming out - Pudong International Airport - Shanghai, China

Maglev - Train at station - Pudong International Airport - Shanghai, China

Shanghai Transrapid train

Shanghai Maglev Train Line

The Shanghai Transrapid maglev train - Shanghai, China

Maglev – In approx 8 min. covers a distance 30 km

  • Speed: 431 km/h
  • Location: China (Shanghai)
  • Route: Pudong International Airport Shanghai – Shanghai center
  • Number of seats: 574
  • Commencement of exploitation: December 31, 2002

Maglev – This high-speed rail is not a traditional rail link. It is the route that connects the Shanghai Pudong International Airport with the center of Shanghai. The train covers a distance of 30 kilometers in about 8 minutes. It is 153 meters long and can carry 574 passengers. What distinguishes it from the others is the fact that it does not run on tracks, but rises above the “track” due to the action of a repulsive magnetic field. Superconducting electromagnets are built into not only the train but also the track itself. The German company Siemens participated in its production.

The main problem with this new mode of transport is cost. Because for safety reasons, the tracks must be routed over bridges or in tunnels. On the other hand, their speed is not limited by anything. That is why, in 2015, the test track managed to break the record when the train reached an incredible speed of 603 km / h. In practice, the speed is limited by energy consumption and aerodynamic drag. The advantage of magnetic cushions is also that while driving, no harmful exhaust gases or noise caused by the operation of the engine or wheels are produced. Moreover, energy consumption is lower than that of airplanes or cars.

The abbreviated name “maglev” began to be used in the 1960s by physicist Howard T. Coffey. In English, the word is not only used for technology transport systems, but also to describe the physical phenomenon – magnetic levitation.

AVE Class 103 – Drive along the entire length of train

AVE Class 103 - Madrid Atocha, Spain

AVE Class 103 - Vinaixa, Catalonia, Spain

AVE Class 103 - Velaro Barcelona - Figueres, Spain

AVE Class 103 - Figueres-Vilafant, Spain

Train Madrid-Barcelona Siemens - Station Saragossa-Delicias, Spain

Fast Train Spain - Siemens - Bridge Macanet-Massanes

Renfe - Station Vilafant, Spain

Spain express train - Macanet-Massanes

AVE Class 103 – Drive along the entire length of train

  • Speed: 350 km/h
  • Location: Spain
  • Route: Madrid – Barcelona (621 km)
  • Number of seats: 404
  • Commencement of exploitation: June 22, 2007

AVE Class 103 – Also in Spain there is a large network of high-speed trains. One of the fastest is the type AVE Class 103, which runs from Madrid to Barcelona (621 km) and takes just two and a half hours. The manufacturer of these trains is the German company Siemens, but the Veraro version is intended for the Spanish railway. During the test drive, the train reached a speed of 403 km / h, but during normal trips it is 50 km / h lower.

The train consists of eight carriages, adapted for 404 passengers. Unlike other railcars pulled by a locomotive. The train consists of individual technical modules and a drive located under the floor along the entire length of the train. Which allows you to develop more speed. During morning and evening rush hours, trains run every thirty minutes.

The construction of the line between Madrid and Barcelona cost 7.83 billion euros, a significant part of the costs were covered by subsidies from the European Union.

Eurostar e320 – Glides along the tracks of Eurotunnel

Eurostar e320 - 4013-4014 - At Arnhem Centraal-station, Netherlands

Eurostar e320 - In Paris-Nord station, France

Eurostar e320 - In Paris-Nord station - Paris, France

Eurostar e320 - On High Speed 1 - Near Sellindge, UK

Eurostar e320 - (15-10-2015)

Train service coming from London - At Amsterdam Centraal-station, Netherlands

Train service - At Amsterdam Centraal-station, Netherlands

2 trains - At St Pancras railway station - London, United Kingdom

Eurostar e320 – Glides along the tracks of Eurotunnel

  • Speed: 320 km/h
  • Location: Eurotunnel between France and Great Britain
  • Route:
  • Number of seats:
  • Commencement of exploitation: November 20, 2015

Eurostar e320 – Glides along the tracks in Eurotunnel since 2015. The trains are 390.2 meters long and are designed to meet the technical specifications of European railways. The trains entered service in 1994 for the opening of the Channel Tunnel. The Eurostar e320 was built by Siemens in Germany, and the railway company ordered seven train sets.

European Connection

The producers took their inspiration from the French train TGV. This transnational rail operator connects London with several important European cities and its trains reach speeds of up to 300 km / h. For example, a journey from London to Paris takes only two hours and sixteen minutes.

In 2009, the train crashed due to frost and snow, and over two thousand passengers were stuck in the tunnel. Snow has entered the ventilation system and there has been a short circuit in the electric motor system of the units.

THSR 700T – Taiwanese variant of Japanese Shinkansen

THSR 700T - Southbound train - Leaving Taichung-Station, Taiwan

THSR 700T - Southbound train - Taiwan

THSR 700T - Southbound train - Entering Taichung-Station, Taiwan

THSR 700T - Southbound train

THSR 700T - Southbound train - Passing in the evening

Southbound train passing

Taiwan High Speed 700T train - Taichung-Station, Taiwan

Southbound train passing - Taiwan

THSR 700T – Taiwanese variant of Japanese Shinkansen

  • Speed: 300 km/h
  • Location: Taiwan
  • Route: Taipei – Kaohsiung
  • Number of seats: 989
  • Commencement of exploitation: January 5, 2007

THSR 700T – It is a Taiwanese variant of Japanese Shinkansen. You can tell by the trains because they were produced by Japanese companies Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Nippon Sharyi and Hitachi. Although the train was launched in 2007, the train reached a record speed of 315 km / h during test runs in 2005. The train then began to run on a 345 km route between Taipei and Kaohsiung. The machine therefore cut travel time from four and a half hours to just 90 minutes.

Necessary improvement

Currently, the train consists of twelve carriages that can carry 989 passengers. The tunnels through which the train passes have been built to European specifications with a larger diameter than in Japan. There was an earthquake in 2010, in Kaohsiung, as a result of which the wheels of the train came off the track. Nobody was injured and the train, after an hour’s repair, reached the next station.

There is no restaurant or bar on the train. The wagons are equipped with vending machines where you can buy food.

SpaceX Starman – For work on spacecrafts Dragon

SpaceX Crew - NASA astronauts - (from l.) Walker, Glover, Hopkins and JAXA astronaut - NoguchiSpaceX - Astronauts Hurley (l.) and BehnkenSpaceX - Astronauts Behnken and Hurley - Chat with NASA Admin Bridenstine (l.) and Deputy Adm. MorhardSpaceX - Astronauts Behnken (r.) and Hurley walk down the hallway of Neil A. Armstrong

SpaceX Starman – For work on spacecrafts Dragon

 
 

  • In use over the years: 2015 – to present
  • Space ships: Dragon.
  • Mass: producent did not provide.

 
SpaceX Starman – The suit has: a fireproof outer layer, gloves – which allow the operation of touch screens, and flexible soles. Connected with telecommunications and cooling systems. The helmet is manufactured in 3D printing technology. Includes hearing protection against noise during take-off and landing.

The SpaceX company designs the suit individually for each crew member. The outfit is suitable for staying in a vacuum and provides protection in the event of a drop in pressure in the cabin. There is an instrument on the astronaut’s thigh that feeds him into the air. The suit is not suitable for staying outside the rocket.

Space suit – Cosmonautic symbol over the years

Space suit - USAF colonel - NASA astronaut - Jack Fischer

Space suit - U.S. Astronaut - Nicole Stott - participates in an EMU fit check

Space suit - ESA astronaut - Christer Fuglesang - STS-116 mission specialist

Space suit - USA astronauts - Rick Mastracchio (r.) and Mike Hopkins in EMU spacesuits

Space suit - ESA astronaut - Timothy Peake - During fit check

Space suit - Scott Kelly relocates hardware inside the Quest Airlock

Space suit - JAXA astronaut - Hoshide Akihiko - in space (EVA)

Space suit - Pictured with plush-doll mascots - Quest Airlock of ISS

Space suit – Cosmonautic symbol over the years

Space suit – The first suits for the Americans were produced by the B. F. Goodrich Company in 1959. It was a modernized version of high-pressure pressure suits that the company had already produced for naval aviation. Tailor-made for everyone to occupy as little space as possible in the rocket cabin. So the astronauts could not gain weight. Otherwise, they wouldn’t fit into it.

In the Soviet Union for the supplier of the spacesuit for the Vostok program selected plant nr. 918. Also known as NPP Zvezda. Since 1952, its employees have been involved in the construction of pressure suits for aviation. They also made a container that allowed the dog “Laika”, the first living creature, to travel into orbit. Unlike the Americans, the Soviets considered the suit redundant. Because they assumed that the probability of a pressure drop in the spaceship was very low. The one who insisted on using the suit was the “great constructor” of the Russian space program, Sergei Korolev (1907-1966).

List of space suits over the years:

 
Space suit - U.S. astronaut - Wally SchirraSpace suit - U.S. astronaut - John H. GlennU.S. astronaut - Alan B. Shepard - On deck of USS Lake ChamplainAstronaut Gus Grissom chats with spaceflight equip. spec. - Joe-W.-SchmidtMercury – Spacesuits for program of the same name
 
 


Space suit - SK-1 - Gateway to space 2016 - Budapest, HungarySpace suit - SK-1 - Gateway to space 2016Spacesuit SK-1 - Gateway to space 2016SK-1 - Memorial Museum of Cosmonautics - Moscow, RussiaSK-1 – Spacesuit of Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin
 
 


Space suit - Gemini-3 - Crew astronautsSpace suit - Gemini-3 - Astronaut and suit technician Gemini-G-3C - GlovesGemini-Titan 4 - Astronauts NASA - James A. McDivitt (l.) and Edward H. White - TrainingGemini – For program with two-person crew
 
 


Space suit - BerkutSpace suit - Memorial Museum of AstronauticsBerkut - Smithsonian National Air and Space MuseumBerkut - Smithsonian Air and Space MuseumBerkut – Spacesuit for spacecraft Voskhod 2
 
 


Space suit - KrechetSpace suit - Krechet - Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum - Washington D.C., USAKrechet - Soviet moon suitKrechet - Memorial Museum of Astronautics - Moscow, RussiaKrechet – Designed for travel to the moon
 
 


Space suit - Yastreb - Moscow, RussiaSpace suit Yastreb - For work in EVA - Moscow Polytechnical MuseumYastreb - Used by soviet cosmonauts - Aleksei Yeliseyev and Yevgeny KhrunovYastreb - Memorial Museum of Astronautics - Moscow, RussiaYastreb – For ships Soyuz 1, Soyuz 4 and Soyuz 5
 
 


Space suit - A7L - Apollo-11 lunar mission crewSpace suit - A7L - Apollo-12 lunar mission crewA7L - Buzz Aldrin near lunar Module legA7LB - Gateway to space 2016 - BudapestPro Apollo – Lunar suit, versions A7L and A7LB
 
 


Space suit - Expedition-26 - Russian cosmonaut Dmitry Kondratyev wearing Orlan-MKSpace suit - Russian cosmonaut - Gennady Padalka and OrlanISS-22 - Russian cosmonaut - Maxim Suraew and 2 Orlan-MKISS-22 - Russian cosmonaut - Oleg Kotov and 2 OrlanOrlan – For ships Soyuz and stations Salyut, Mir and ISS
 
 


Space suit - Expedition 49 - Crew members of Soyuz TMA spacecraftSpace suit - Expedition 63Expedition 50 - After landing of Soyuz MS-02 - KazakhstanExpedition 63 - Official crew portrait - Cassidy, Ivanishin, VagnerSokol – Only for Intra-vehicular activity
 
 


STS-115 - NASA astronaut Heidemarie M. Stefanyshyn Piper in suit EMU - trainingSTS-123 - NASA astronaut  Robert L. BehnkenESA astronaut - Samantha Cristoforetti in suit EMU - trainingSTS-134 - NASA astronaut Andrew Feustel in suit EMUEMU – Used in Space Shuttle, currently at the ISS
 
 


SpaceX Crew - NASA astronauts - (from l.) Walker, Glover, Hopkins and JAXA astronaut - NoguchiSpaceX - Astronauts Hurley (l.) and BehnkenSpaceX - Astronauts Behnken and Hurley - Chat with NASA Admin Bridenstine (l.) and Deputy Adm. MorhardSpaceX - Astronauts Behnken (r.) and Hurley walk down the hallway of Neil A. ArmstrongSpaceX Starman – For work on spacecrafts Dragon
 
 


Gemini – For program with two-person crew

Space suit - Gemini-3 - Crew astronautsSpace suit - Gemini-3 - Astronaut and suit technician Gemini-G-3C - GlovesGemini-Titan 4 - Astronauts NASA - James A. McDivitt (l.) and Edward H. White - Training

Gemini – For program with two-person crew

 

  • In use over the years: 1965 – 1966
  • Space ships: Gemini – For two-person crew.
  • Mass: 7 – 15 kg.

 
Gemini – Space program with two-person crew, that was a continuation of the Mercury program. The suits for the mission, which were to take a two-person crew into space, were made by the company David Clark. Their advantage was the so-called “link net” layer preventing the suit from swelling. It was a special fabric that gave the suit the same shape, both before and after inflation. The suits were great for short flights, but caused some discomfort in longer missions. However, when NASA began planning an exit into the open space (EVA), it turned out that in their case the suits would no longer fulfill their function.

The G3C suits remained flexible even under pressure. The G4C suit was worn at the exit to the open space (upper body only). Connected to a spaceship with a hose that supplied the cosmonauts with oxygen. In case of problems, an astronaut would live there for up to 30 minutes. Later, the comfortable and lightweight G5C suit was made.

Natives role – Weapons are knowledge and tenacity

Natives role - Alicia Cawiya - Vicepresident of people Waorani - Ecuador

Natives role - Ecuador map

Natives role - Nemonte Nenquimo - Ecuador

Natives role - Nemonte Nenquimo - Ecuador - TIME-100

Natives role - Nemonte Nenquimo - Amazon Frontlines

Nemonte Nenquimo - (11-09-2020)

Waorani - Education - Ecuador

Waorani family - Ecuador

Natives role – Weapons are knowledge and tenacity

Natives role – Weapons are knowledge and tenacity. They showed it, among others members of the Waorani tribe who have been on the warpath with the Ecuadorian government for years. Ecuador has plots of large parts of its oil-rich forests. In order to patch the budget holes, decided to sell mining concessions to foreign companies.

When their land became part of one of the plots, and the mandatory consultation looked like a facade, Waorani brought the Ecuadorian government to trial. They came to hearings with spears, and they interrupted the hearing, which took place without a certified interpreter, with a traditional song. The verdict in favor of the tribe was made in April 2019. – This verdict blocked the possibility of oil extraction in the area covering 180 thousand. ha. For the respondents make it clear that even with proper consultation, they will not agree to the decision to exploit their land. The trial itself has helped to strengthen and consolidate the strategy of the indigenous community movement in the region.

Alicia Cawiya – Vice-president of the people of Waorani

In 2013, the Ecuadorian government announced plans to build an oil production and exploitation infrastructure in the Yasuni area. Alicia Cawiya, vice-president of the Ecuadorian people of Waorani, was invited to a parliamentary session. She was to give a speech approving plans to drill oil on her home soil. Cawiya, however, spoke in her own words – first in Waorani, then in Spanish. While defending land rights, she spoke of the negative impact of oil production on the Amazon and accused many officials of indifference over deforestation. Although the government’s plans were approved, the vice president won many allies. She also received threats after speaking, but continued to work for her community. Currently, she is the president of the Ecuadorian Amazon women association.

Nemonte Nenquimo – Leader of the people of Waorani

“Our people will not survive without free decisions about their land,” said Waorani’s leader after the verdict of Nemonte Nenquimo was announced. “And if our people disappear, our planet will disappear.” The words of Nenquimo should be taken literally. The Waorani and other tribes are doing the rest of the world a favor by caring for their land. According to data from March 2020, the Amazonian forests store as much as 250 billion tons of carbon, generating more than 20% of the world’s oxygen. After a court shut down mining operations in the Waorani lands, Nenquimo became recognizable and appeared on the cover of Time magazine. As one of the “100 Most Influential People”.

Long-lived companies – Record holders are real Methuselah’s

Kongo Gumi

Long-lived companies - Kongo Gumi

Nishiyama Onsen Keiunkan

Staffelter Hof

Zum Roten Bären

Long-lived companies

The Olde Bell

Long-lived companies

Sudo Honke

Sudo Honke

Long-lived companies - Sudo-Honke

Frapin

Long-lived companies - Frapin

R. Durtnell and Sons

R. Durtnell and Sons

Long-lived companies - Poundsbridge-Manor

Long-lived companies – Record holders are real Methuselah’s

Long-lived companies – Record holders are real Methuselah’s, operating continuously for over ten centuries. Tokyo Shoko Research agency dealing with market research since 1892. It found over 5.5 thousand enterprises that have existed for at least 200 years.
More than half of long-lived companies operate in Japan. There are six in the top ten. Among the aforementioned 5.5 thousand – up to 3100. As the reason for this dominance, scientists point to the island’s location of the country and centuries-old isolation.
Most of these long-lived businesses are family businesses, emphasizes prof. Toshio Goto from Japan University of Economics. He sees the root cause of their longevity in the system known as Ie. It is a set of rules determining the position of individual family members, and most importantly – the rules of inheritance of property.

Ie system

It began to take shape in the XII century, when Japan plunged into the chaos of civil wars. The survival of families living in constant danger depended on the strength and intellect of their leaders. According to eternal tradition, the eldest son should be the head of the family. In wartime, however, this only worked if he had the warrior’s qualities and talents. If he did not have them, the family was in grave danger.
To prevent it, the so-called adoption Ie. It consisted in the fact that the aging patriarch of the family found a young, promising man. Which he provided with appropriate education. When the chosen one met his expectations and proved himself in battle, he became the official heir. All other family members had to submit to him. The Ie system thus replaced traditional blood ties and prevented the division of property between heirs. As a result, the estate, workshop, and trading company passed from generation to generation in an unchanged form.
Rules tested in warrior families were adopted by other social groups, especially merchants and craftsmen. In the XVII century, Ie was formally introduced into the legal system and was in force until the end of World War II. When civil law changed under pressure from Americans, it gave all children equal shares in the parents’ estate. This threatened old family businesses, but the tradition turned out to be strong enough that many of them survived to this day. Professor Toshio Goto calls them the Japanese treasure.

Record holders list:

Kongo Gumi – Japanese construction company is record holder. 1427 years of existence,

Nishiyama Onsen Keiunkan – Traditional Japanese hotel – ryokan. 1315 years of existence,

Staffelter Hof – Oldest winery in Europe. 1158 years of existence,

Zum Roten Bären – Hotel The Red Bear. 900 years of existence,

The Olde Bell – Oldest english hotel in Hurley. 885 years of existence,

Sudo Honke – Sake brewery oldest of world. 879 years of existence,

Frapin – Cognac producer from Grande Champagne. 750 years of existence,

R. Durtnell and Sons – Oldest european construction company. 429 years of existence,

R. Durtnell and Sons – Oldest european construction company

R. Durtnell and Sons

R. Durtnell and Sons

Poundsbridge Manor - 1995

R. Durtnell and Sons – Oldest european construction company

R. Durtnell and Sons – Oldest european construction company. Founded in England in 1593. The carpentry brothers John and Brian Durtnell built an impressive house from oak wood for their father. The object named Poundsbridge Manor destroyed during World War II. It was rebuilt by the same company that built it. Centuries ago, he aroused such interest that later the builders were immediately overwhelmed with orders.
The company has grown, but despite the changing architectural fashions, it remained faithful to wood. Although it has now fallen out of the market and has focused on paying off its debt, it still remains in the hands of the Durtnell family.

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