Quantity Earth moons – Two additional pseudo-moons

Quantity Earth moons - Kazimierz Kordylewski - 1964Quantity Earth moons - Libration point L4 - diagramQuantity Earth moons - Arrangement of libration points L4 and L5

Quantity Earth moons – Two additional pseudo-moons

Quantity Earth moons – Well, it has two additional, or more precisely, pseudo-moons. These are dust clouds located in the L4 and L5 libration points of the Earth-Moon system. Although it was discovered in the 1950s, it was not until 2018 that Hungarian scientists were able to measure the polarization of their light. Clearly confirming these objects. For the first time they were noticed by the Polish astronomer Kazimierz Kordylewski and hence their name – the moons of Kordylewski. In 1956, he noticed the dust structure that he managed to photograph five years later. Specialists for decades have tried to find hard evidence for their presence. Which was not an easy task: K.Kordylewski was observing from Kasprowy Wierch and this winter. Only a few times they were observed and photographed

Kiwi Chinese gooseberry – Most often cultivated Actinidia deliciosa

Kiwi Chinese gooseberry - Actinidia deliciosaKiwi Chinese gooseberry - KiwifruitKiwi Chinese gooseberry - Kiwifruit (2)Kiwi Chinese gooseberry - Kiwifruit cross section

Kiwi Chinese gooseberry – Most often cultivated Actinidia deliciosa

Kiwi Chinese gooseberry – With over 50 species of kiwi, the most popular is Actindia deliciosa. In China, the fruits of woody Actinidia vines with a green jelly-like flesh in a rough skin have been eaten for a long time. With time, this Chinese gooseberry was cultivated in New Zealand. There, American soldiers stomped on it, stationed on the island during World War II. In the 1960s, farmers introduced these fruits to their export offer. But to increase their market attractiveness, they changed their name to kiwi. Today, New Zealand is one of the largest kiwi exporters in the world, and its symbol is the non-flying kiwi birds.

We like aggressive music – Strong, sad, full of emotions

We like aggressive music - Sabaton performing at Bloodstock Open Air 2013We like aggressive music - Satyricon performing at Bloodstock Open Air in 2016We like aggressive music - Alice Cooper performing at Bloodstock Open Air in 2012We like aggressive music - Blind WitnessWe like aggressive music - Ashes of Eden at concert in Montreal in 2005We like aggressive music - Mercy Killing - ExodusWe like aggressive music - Onslaught performing at Bloodstock in 2006We like aggressive music - Rage performing at Bloodstock Open Air in 2006

We like aggressive music – Strong, sad, full of emotions

We like aggressive music – Strong, sad, full of emotions – We are more willing to choose sad, troubling and full of anger songs. This phenomenon was observed by analysts from Lawrence Technological University. They used an automated system to evaluate the lyrics of the most popular songs listed on the Billboard Hot 100 list from the end of the 1950s until the end of 2016. In total, about 6,000 works were examined. The algorithm assigned each emotional value, and then the average for the whole year.
As Kathleen Napier and Lior Shamir, who analyzed this data, observed, the most optimistic, joyful songs are the oldest ones. From that time on, anger, fear and sadness began to take over to reach the apogee in 2015. Only the middle of the 1970s and the beginning of the 1980s breaks from this trend.
As the researchers emphasize, it does not mean that the music itself has changed

Increasing aggression in the text layer does not mean growing aggression of the creators. This is a sign that the tastes of music consumers have changed

– says Lior Shamir. –

We just want to listen such things.

Long ago forbidden – Today completely normal

Long ago forbidden – Today completely normal

Long ago forbidden – Today something completely normal:
 
 

Long ago forbidden - Football - icon

1. Football: 4 bln fans

In the XIV century England men have to train archery,
and do not waste time on games. Effect: banning football.
 
 
 

Long ago forbidden - Christmas in art

2. Christmas

England, between 1644 and 1660: the Puritans forbid festivities in days
winter solstice – already celebrated by pagans.
 
 
 

Long ago forbidden - Chess

3. Chess

Year 1254: King of France Louis IX considers this strategy game
too boring and useless, so it is forbidden to think about it.
 
 
 

Long ago forbidden - Popcorn

4. Popcorn

In the era of silent film popcorn is considered a cheap snack of the street people,
therefore it is banished from the “luxury” cinemas.
 
 
 

Long ago forbidden - Bowling game

5. Bowling game

In the years 1366-1477 in England only aristocrats can play bowling.
You have to pay 100 pounds for running the bowling alley.
 
 
 

Long ago forbidden - Trousers for women

6. Trousers for women

For 214 years law prohibits Parisiennes wearing trousers.
The law finally disappears in 2013.
 
 
 

Long ago forbidden - Credit card - front

7. Credit cards for women

Until 1974, American women can get a credit card,
only with the consent of her husband.
 
 
 

Long ago forbidden - Coffee - Antoccino Espresso

8. Coffee shops

In 1675, King of England Charles II tries to forbid coffee shops – from fear
that his critics could plan a rebellion there.
 
 
 

Long ago forbidden - Swimsuit

9. Swimsuits

In the early XX century, American cities issue regulations
with a minimum length of swimsuits.
 
 
 

Long ago forbidden - Scrabble

10. Scrabble

Communist dictator of Romania, Nicolae Ceausescu,
forbids this game as “over-intellectualized”.

Conium maculatum – Related to carrots, parsley, caraway

Conium maculatum (1)Conium maculatum (2)Conium maculatum - Germany, 1910

Conium maculatum – Related to carrots, parsley, caraway

Conium maculatum – Plant related with carrots, parsley and caraway seeds. Its main weapon is the violent poison of the coniine, which causes the man to suffocate with full consciousness.

  • Deadly dose: 0,15 g (contained in 20g of the plant)
  • Death: within 2 – 3 days
  • Poison: coniine
  • Aftermath: strangulation through muscle paralysis
  • Where it grows: Europe, Africa and Asia
  • Occurrence in Poland: yes

Coniine easily penetrates the skin and respiratory system. However, the biggest danger is an easy mistake with the vegetable. At first, the poison has a stimulating effect and then starts blocking the spinal cord’s commands. In this way, muscle paralysis and strangulation occur.

History of the plant:
In ancient Greece and Rome often used during the execution. It enjoyed great popularity among the poisoners (allegedly, Socrates was executed with its help). In Europe, it appeared in the Middle Ages, and gradually disappeared during the 20th century. In the meadows and along roads, it began to grow massively in the 80’s.

Yueyaquan – Lake surrounded by desert dunes

Yueyaquan - Lake surrounded by desert dunes

Yueyaquan – Lake surrounded by desert dunes

Yueyaquan – literally means “a half-moon lake”. The reservoir really has a crescent shape of 200 m long and 50 m wide. According to the Chinese legend, long ago in the place where it is located, general Li Kuang’s soldiers were so thirsty that they did not have the strength to march on. Then the general struck the sand so much with the sword that water spurted out of him, which gradually formed a crescent-shaped lake. Yueyaquan for at least 2,000 years is a unique oasis, surrounded by the desert dunes of Takla Makan.

It is provided with an underground source, and moisture strengthens its banks, protecting the lake from covering with sand. In the oasis area the amount of precipitation is negligible, therefore the lake gradually dries up. According to measurements carried out in the 60’s. The average depth of the lake was then about 5 meters, while in the deepest place the bottom was 7 meters below the surface. In the 90’s, the depth of the lake was only 90 – 130 cm. Tourists come to the oasis on camels. In a hot and dry desert climate, staying at the lake is refreshing. The oasis is even more surprising in the winter. When the surrounding dunes are scattered with a thin layer of snow.

Tungsten – Developed in plastic form in 20th century

Tungsten - Developed in plastic form in 20th century

Tungsten – Developed in plastic form in 20th century

Tungsten – At the beginning of the 20th century. Team of engineers from the American conglomerate General Electric developed a plastic tungsten. Which rapidly replaced metal fibers in classic light bulbs. The extraction and production of tungsten quickly increased. Many other applications for this metal were found, for example, for the production of anti-tank missiles or cemented carbide, i.e. popular widya. In less than 20 years, tungsten has shifted from the “interesting but useless” column. To the group of the most important industrial materials.

Watches radioactive material

Watches radioactive material - Aqua Master clock

Watches radioactive material

Watches radioactive material – Until the 60s of the twentieth century, commonly used in watches radioactive material – radium 226, so that their shields and guidance glowed in the dark. Today fluorescent paint which is coated dials comprises tritium. It is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen, but its small amounts are considered harmless to humans.

Mille Miglia race – Rally of beautiful classics

Mille Miglia race - Aston Martin DB3S (1953)

Mille Miglia race – Rally of beautiful classics

Mille Miglia race – In the middle of the twentieth century this Italian rally counted among the toughest endurance racing world. While organized since 1927. Event drivers had to overcome the distance of a thousand miles (from this comes the Italian name), so about 1,600 kilometers – won those on dirt roads and bad asphalt rode the fastest. They counted not only skills, but above all the strength of people and cars – the conditions were comparable to today’s “Dakar” (though not pursued after the sand and rocks). The driver Stirling Moss in 1955. Won, getting a record average speed of 160 km / h. When asked about the driving conditions replied:

In some places our Mercedes Gullwingi accelerated even up to 260 – 280 km / h!

Renovated Mille Miglia is rally of beautiful classics in which they can compete only vintage vehicles manufactured before 1957.