Rafflesia Arnoldii – Largest flower is parasite

Rafflesia Arnoldii - Bengkulu - 21-April-2015Rafflesia Arnoldii - Lake-Maninjau - Sumatra-Indonesia - 1-09-99Rafflesia ArnoldiiModel of Rafflesia flower - Lee Kong Chian - Natural History Museum Singapore - 08-08-2015

Rafflesia Arnoldii – Largest flower is parasite

Rafflesia Arnoldii – Rafflesia arnoldii, is the largest individual flower on Earth. It doesn’t have its own stems, leaves or roots. Parasites on vines of the Cissus genus, related to the vine. Deriving water and nutrients from the hosts. Rafflesia grows in a thicket of tropical jungles in Borneo and Sumatra.
It reaches a weight of 11 kg and a diameter of one meter. It consists of five fleshy, red, white speckled petals. Inside, it finds a few liters of nectar, and spike-like creations with an unknown function.
Rafflesia emit a specific, bad smell to rotten meat. In this way it attracts pollinating beetles and flies. That’s why the people of Indonesia call it a corpse flower. It blooms for 5-7 days, every few years. However, if pollinated, it produces round fruit. Containing thousands of tiny seeds.

Gary Gabelich – Exceeded by car 1000 km/h in 1970

Gary Gabelich - Blue FlameBlue Flame - 2Blue Flame - 3Gary Gabelich - The Blue Flame - Goodwood 2007Gary Gabelich - The Blue Flame - 1Auto und Technik Museum Sinsheim - Blue Flame

 

Gary Gabelich – Exceeded by car 1000 km/h in 1970

Gary Gabelich – Exceeded with „Blue Flame” 1000 km/h in 23.10.1970. The average speed was 1001.011968 km / h. Mile, which is measured the speed of the vehicle must overcome two times: back and forth.
The big shiny „The Blue Flame” to save fuel even more. Was pushed by the service car at the start. It further helped him to accelerate to 60 km / h.
During the first run, Gabelich achieved a speed of 993.722 km / h as a result. He drove in the opposite direction, but a little faster – that’s why the speed was 1009.305 km / h.

Until then, records were set with jet engines.

„The Blue Flame” rocket engine was powered by a combination of hydrogen peroxide, and liquid natural gas. Chilled to a temperature of -161 degrees Celsius. As a result, achieved 58 000 HP.
In this way, the engine was running with maximum thrust for 20 seconds. „Blue Flame” was similar to a rocket, except with additional catches at the front and rear for attaching wheels.
Tires, specially designed by Goodyear, had a rather smooth surface to reduce heat.
The vehicle was 11.4 m long and 2.3 m wide. He weighed 1814 kg, with fuel – 2994 kg. One of the biggest troubles just before the start. There was burning through the engine, braking parachute ropes. If you had to stop the car with only disc brakes. You would probably need stretch, a 19 km length.

„The Blue Flame” designed and built by Reaction Dynamics.

With the help of the Illinois Institute of Technology lecturers and students. Dr. T. Paul Torda and Dr. Sarunas C. Uzgiris, professors at IIT, worked on the aerodynamics of the car. While other IIT students and lecturers, they mainly dealt with:
– construction,
– engine,
– steering system,
– brakes.

The speed record broken at Bonneville Salt Flats in Utah, USA.

This place is located 160 km west of Salt Lake City. Because 32 thousand years ago there was a huge lake 305 m deep. After it disappeared and the salt substrate hardened. It was created one of the most noteworthy places on Earth, to develop enormous speeds.

Gary Gabelich (29.08.1940 – 26.01.1984)

– During 43 years of life, this Croatian by origin. First of all, he won races, and set speed records on:
– asphalt,
Earth,
– water (motorboats),
– salt tracks.

He died on a motorcycle on the streets of Long Beach in January 1984. While working on the design and construction of a vehicle capable of reaching supersonic speed (1225 km / h). Prototype named „American Way”, but because of Gabelich death. Work on it canceled.

Chaitén – Chile

Satellite image of Chaitén Volcano and Town - NASAAerial view of the Chaitén Town - Chile - 02-2009Chaitén - NASARoad to Chaitén TownColumn of ash during the Chaiten eruption, 02.05.2008Ashes after the eruption of Chaiten volcano - 28.05.2008Plume of ash from eruption of Chaiten volcano, Chile - 03.05.2008Chaitén - Eruption 27.05.2008

 
 

Chaitén – Chile

 

  • Location: Chile
  • Peak: 1122 m a.s.l.

 
Chaitén volcano for a long time was considered as expired. Over the last millenniums, no activity has been noticed. Caldera with a diameter of 3 km located in the southern part of Chile. It woke up suddenly in 2008, exactly after 9400 years. When the day before the explosion there was a series of smaller earthquakes. The cloud of ash and volcanic ash was 18 km high. After the outbreak, nearly all its inhabitants left the city. The soil was covered with a 15-cm layer of ash, which contaminated even water, which was a threat not only for people, but also for about 25,000 cattle.

Plants posing stones – Lithops of the succulents type

Plants posing stones - Lithops of the succulents type

Plants posing stones – Lithops of the succulents type

Plants posing stones – In the deserts of Namibia and Republic of South Africa grow Lithops, plants of the type of succulents, called living stones. It have to face not only high temperature, lack of water and nutrients, but also with animals, for which it is a tasty morsel. This plants use special camouflage. It thick, bulging and fused leaves resemble stones. Lithops reveal identity for a short time during flowering. In order not to lose water, many succulents do not develop stems and leaves. Thanks to this, it have a smaller evaporation surface.

TRAPPIST-1d – Representative of TRAPPIST-1 sys

TRAPPIST-1d - Artistic impression of exoplanetTRAPPIST-1d - Statistics tableTRAPPIST-1d - Comparison of the sizes of TRAPPIST-1 planets with Solar System bodies

TRAPPIST-1d – Representative of TRAPPIST-1 sys

TRAPPIST-1d – One of representatives of the TRAPPIST-1 planetary system

ESI: 0,91
Size: 0,8 Earth
Mass: 0,3 Earth
Equivalent temperature: 15°C

The relatively small weight of this planet indicates that its surface can be flooded by a deep ocean.
According to some speculations, here is 250 times more water than in the Earth’s oceans.
The first measurements showed that the planet is moving outside of the living zone, but now it seems that it will enter it safely. Exoplanet can boast a dense atmosphere and is so close to its star that it circulates in four days. It only drops by 4.3% more light than on Earth. Although TRAPPIST-1d circulates its star in synchronous rotation, a dense atmosphere in which there should be a lot of water vapor helps in thermal exchange. The difference between the illuminated and the dark hemisphere is not like that of other celestial bodies.

TRAPPIST-1e – Exoplanet from system TRAPPIST-1

TRAPPIST-1eTRAPPIST-1e - Planetary system orbitsTRAPPIST-1e

TRAPPIST-1e – Exoplanet from system TRAPPIST-1

TRAPPIST-1e – The stony exoplanet of the TRAPPIST-1 system, according to physical properties, is the “e” from the planetary system TRAPPIST is the most similar to Earth.

ESI: 0,85
Size: 0,9 Earth
Mass: 0,8 Earth
Equivalent temperature: -22°C

It moves in the middle of the ecosystem of the entire collection, but there is the least water here. TRAPPIST-1e has a smaller size than Earth, but it has a larger mass. Possible inhabitants would have to be smaller in height and more important to cope with the pressure of local gravity. Red dwarfs, to which the TRAPPIST-1 star belongs, do not emit as much light and heat as the Sun. This means that the ecosphere, in which liquid water can sustain in proper conditions, is located in much closer orbits than in our solar system. A year on the planet TRAPPIST-1e lasts six ordinary earth days.
The planet probably also has a compact atmosphere where hydrogen is lacking. This type of atmosphere can also be found on the rocky planets of our solar system. Hydrogen is also a greenhouse gas, if it was a large amount in the local atmosphere, the surface of the planet would be uninhabitable.

TRAPPIST-1f – Rocky exoplanet the size of Earth

TRAPPIST-1f - Artistic impression of exoplanetTRAPPIST-1f - Comparison of the data of the stony planets of the TRAPPIST-1 system with the planets of the solar systemTRAPPIST-1f - Planetary system around the red dwarf TRAPPIST-1

TRAPPIST-1f – Rocky exoplanet the size of Earth

TRAPPIST-1f – Rocky exoplanet, from the planetary system around red dwarf TRAPPIST-1

ESI: 0,68
Size: 1,1 Earth
Mass: 0,9 Earth
Equivalent temperature: -65°C

Around the star, 40 light-years away from us, are seven stony planets. The sixth in turn has very similar sizes to Earth. But its density is generally lower. The composition is close to the ice or water worlds of the moon Jupiter – Europe or the moon of Saturn – Enceladus. The first measurements determined that not a small part of the mass of the planet is ice, and that under the surface perhaps liquid water. The atmosphere here is not the densest, so the equivalent temperature probably does not differ from the proper one.

Winter tires – Special compound of rubber and lamellas

Winter tires - Goodyear UltraGrip Performance

Winter tires – Special compound of rubber and lamellas

Winter tires – The surface of the tire’s contact with the road surface is comparable to the A4 sheet. Driving on ice, snow or just on a wet but very cold road presents many challenges for tire manufacturers.

First of all, the rubber compound that the tire is made of. It must be flexible in the cold – the more the tread adheres to the surface, the better. Second, the shape of so-called lamellas or notches in the tread. They make the car better or worse on a slippery road that will not get out of the way, etc. In winter, it must provide traction and the shortest braking distance, but also the so-called drivability – driveability on snowy surfaces. Goodyear UltraGrip Performance tires, for example, have achieved this not only thanks to the use of special rubber. But also self-locking lamellas (literally biting into the ground). Does the hydrodynamic grooves discharge water from under the tire and increase the slip resistance on the so-called Water film (aquaplaning). These tires shorten the braking distance by up to 3%.

Yueyaquan – Lake surrounded by desert dunes

Yueyaquan - Lake surrounded by desert dunes

Yueyaquan – Lake surrounded by desert dunes

Yueyaquan – literally means “a half-moon lake”. The reservoir really has a crescent shape of 200 m long and 50 m wide. According to the Chinese legend, long ago in the place where it is located, general Li Kuang’s soldiers were so thirsty that they did not have the strength to march on. Then the general struck the sand so much with the sword that water spurted out of him, which gradually formed a crescent-shaped lake. Yueyaquan for at least 2,000 years is a unique oasis, surrounded by the desert dunes of Takla Makan.

It is provided with an underground source, and moisture strengthens its banks, protecting the lake from covering with sand. In the oasis area the amount of precipitation is negligible, therefore the lake gradually dries up. According to measurements carried out in the 60’s. The average depth of the lake was then about 5 meters, while in the deepest place the bottom was 7 meters below the surface. In the 90’s, the depth of the lake was only 90 – 130 cm. Tourists come to the oasis on camels. In a hot and dry desert climate, staying at the lake is refreshing. The oasis is even more surprising in the winter. When the surrounding dunes are scattered with a thin layer of snow.

Lake Baikal bottom – Russian mini-submarine Mir-2

Lake Baikal bottom - Moon on Baikal

Lake Baikal bottom – Russian mini-submarine Mir2

Lake Baikal bottom – In July, 2008. Russian mini-submarine Mir2 reached located at a depth of 1637 m the bottom of the Siberian Lake Baikal. It was the deepest immersion in fresh water in history. Lake Baikal contains 20% of the world‘s fresh water. The lake that formed approx. 20 million years ago, living approx. 1000 unique species of animals and plants. During immersion, scientists collected samples at different depths of the ecosystem so that they could determine the impact of global warming on the lake.