Plants posing stones – Lithops of the succulents type

Plants posing stones - Lithops of the succulents type

Plants posing stones – Lithops of the succulents type

Plants posing stones – In the deserts of Namibia and Republic of South Africa grow Lithops, plants of the type of succulents, called living stones. It have to face not only high temperature, lack of water and nutrients, but also with animals, for which it is a tasty morsel. This plants use special camouflage. It thick, bulging and fused leaves resemble stones. Lithops reveal identity for a short time during flowering. In order not to lose water, many succulents do not develop stems and leaves. Thanks to this, it have a smaller evaporation surface.

TRAPPIST-1d – Representative of TRAPPIST-1 sys

TRAPPIST-1d - Artistic impression of exoplanetTRAPPIST-1d - Statistics tableTRAPPIST-1d - Comparison of the sizes of TRAPPIST-1 planets with Solar System bodies

TRAPPIST-1d – Representative of TRAPPIST-1 sys

TRAPPIST-1d – One of representatives of the TRAPPIST-1 planetary system

ESI: 0,91
Size: 0,8 Earth
Mass: 0,3 Earth
Equivalent temperature: 15°C

The relatively small weight of this planet indicates that its surface can be flooded by a deep ocean.
According to some speculations, here is 250 times more water than in the Earth’s oceans.
The first measurements showed that the planet is moving outside of the living zone, but now it seems that it will enter it safely. Exoplanet can boast a dense atmosphere and is so close to its star that it circulates in four days. It only drops by 4.3% more light than on Earth. Although TRAPPIST-1d circulates its star in synchronous rotation, a dense atmosphere in which there should be a lot of water vapor helps in thermal exchange. The difference between the illuminated and the dark hemisphere is not like that of other celestial bodies.

TRAPPIST-1e – Exoplanet from system TRAPPIST-1

TRAPPIST-1eTRAPPIST-1e - Planetary system orbitsTRAPPIST-1e

TRAPPIST-1e – Exoplanet from system TRAPPIST-1

TRAPPIST-1e – The stony exoplanet of the TRAPPIST-1 system, according to physical properties, is the “e” from the planetary system TRAPPIST is the most similar to Earth.

ESI: 0,85
Size: 0,9 Earth
Mass: 0,8 Earth
Equivalent temperature: -22°C

It moves in the middle of the ecosystem of the entire collection, but there is the least water here. TRAPPIST-1e has a smaller size than Earth, but it has a larger mass. Possible inhabitants would have to be smaller in height and more important to cope with the pressure of local gravity. Red dwarfs, to which the TRAPPIST-1 star belongs, do not emit as much light and heat as the Sun. This means that the ecosphere, in which liquid water can sustain in proper conditions, is located in much closer orbits than in our solar system. A year on the planet TRAPPIST-1e lasts six ordinary earth days.
The planet probably also has a compact atmosphere where hydrogen is lacking. This type of atmosphere can also be found on the rocky planets of our solar system. Hydrogen is also a greenhouse gas, if it was a large amount in the local atmosphere, the surface of the planet would be uninhabitable.

TRAPPIST-1f – Rocky exoplanet the size of Earth

TRAPPIST-1f - Artistic impression of exoplanetTRAPPIST-1f - Comparison of the data of the stony planets of the TRAPPIST-1 system with the planets of the solar systemTRAPPIST-1f - Planetary system around the red dwarf TRAPPIST-1

TRAPPIST-1f – Rocky exoplanet the size of Earth

TRAPPIST-1f – Rocky exoplanet, from the planetary system around red dwarf TRAPPIST-1

ESI: 0,68
Size: 1,1 Earth
Mass: 0,9 Earth
Equivalent temperature: -65°C

Around the star, 40 light-years away from us, are seven stony planets. The sixth in turn has very similar sizes to Earth. But its density is generally lower. The composition is close to the ice or water worlds of the moon Jupiter – Europe or the moon of Saturn – Enceladus. The first measurements determined that not a small part of the mass of the planet is ice, and that under the surface perhaps liquid water. The atmosphere here is not the densest, so the equivalent temperature probably does not differ from the proper one.

Winter tires – Special compound of rubber and lamellas

Winter tires - Goodyear UltraGrip Performance

Winter tires – Special compound of rubber and lamellas

Winter tires – The surface of the tire’s contact with the road surface is comparable to the A4 sheet. Driving on ice, snow or just on a wet but very cold road presents many challenges for tire manufacturers.

First of all, the rubber compound that the tire is made of. It must be flexible in the cold – the more the tread adheres to the surface, the better. Second, the shape of so-called lamellas or notches in the tread. They make the car better or worse on a slippery road that will not get out of the way, etc. In winter, it must provide traction and the shortest braking distance, but also the so-called drivability – driveability on snowy surfaces. Goodyear UltraGrip Performance tires, for example, have achieved this not only thanks to the use of special rubber. But also self-locking lamellas (literally biting into the ground). Does the hydrodynamic grooves discharge water from under the tire and increase the slip resistance on the so-called Water film (aquaplaning). These tires shorten the braking distance by up to 3%.

Yueyaquan – Lake surrounded by desert dunes

Yueyaquan - Lake surrounded by desert dunes

Yueyaquan – Lake surrounded by desert dunes

Yueyaquan – literally means “a half-moon lake”. The reservoir really has a crescent shape of 200 m long and 50 m wide. According to the Chinese legend, long ago in the place where it is located, general Li Kuang’s soldiers were so thirsty that they did not have the strength to march on. Then the general struck the sand so much with the sword that water spurted out of him, which gradually formed a crescent-shaped lake. Yueyaquan for at least 2,000 years is a unique oasis, surrounded by the desert dunes of Takla Makan.

It is provided with an underground source, and moisture strengthens its banks, protecting the lake from covering with sand. In the oasis area the amount of precipitation is negligible, therefore the lake gradually dries up. According to measurements carried out in the 60’s. The average depth of the lake was then about 5 meters, while in the deepest place the bottom was 7 meters below the surface. In the 90’s, the depth of the lake was only 90 – 130 cm. Tourists come to the oasis on camels. In a hot and dry desert climate, staying at the lake is refreshing. The oasis is even more surprising in the winter. When the surrounding dunes are scattered with a thin layer of snow.

Lake Baikal bottom – Russian mini-submarine Mir-2

Lake Baikal bottom - Moon on Baikal

Lake Baikal bottom – Russian mini-submarine Mir2

Lake Baikal bottom – In July, 2008. Russian mini-submarine Mir2 reached located at a depth of 1637 m the bottom of the Siberian Lake Baikal. It was the deepest immersion in fresh water in history. Lake Baikal contains 20% of the world‘s fresh water. The lake that formed approx. 20 million years ago, living approx. 1000 unique species of animals and plants. During immersion, scientists collected samples at different depths of the ecosystem so that they could determine the impact of global warming on the lake.

Piquancy measurement – Possible to indicate

Piquancy measurement - Prof. Wilbur Scoville

Piquancy measurement – Possible to indicate

Piquancy measurement – Before it became possible to indicate the exact amount of active substance in peppers by means of chemical analysis, the so-called used. Scoville Unit. It is the work of the American chemist Wilbur Scoville, who created it in 1912. The piquancy has been studied using a solution of water, sugar and chili extract. Then tasters tried out on how much you dilute solution, in order to piquancy entirely disappeared.