Kilauea – United States of America, Hawaii
- Location: United States of America, Hawaii
- Szczyt: 1247 m a. s. l.
Kilauea is located on the Hawaiian island of Hawai’i (also known as Big Island) and is one of the volcanoes that form it. It occupies 14% of this island. The mountain, on the slope of which the lava flows, belongs to the most active volcanoes in the world. According to the Hawaiian history, it spits out lava uninterruptedly since 1983, an average of 400,000 m³ per day. The volcano was created as a result of tectonic movements of the Pacific plate. Which in 70 million years resulted in the creation of a chain of 6,000 km long submarine volcanoes.
The testimonies of the first eruptions come from 1750. However, we learn from the Polynesian myth that the mountain spit out lava much earlier. The lava flows covered the area of hundreds of square kilometers and affected the appearance of the whole coast line. The indigenous islanders believe that Pele, the goddess of fire, lives on the mountain. Goddess punishes anyone who dares to steal volcanic stones. Being for her like children. A thief of such a stone can expect bad luck that will never leave him.
Locals, to the honor of the goddess Pele, perform ritual dances. According to tradition, they throw flowers and food into the volcano crater, which is to give them favor.
Nevado del Ruiz – Colombia
- Location: Colombia
- Peak: 5321 m a. s. l.
Nevado del Ruiz volcano, already active for around 2,000,000 years, is 130 km west of the capital of Colombia – Bogota. It has many layers of lava hardened alternately with volcanic ash and other pyroclastic rocks. The mountain is part of the volcanic massifs created by five more volcanoes covered with glaciers. Four of them are still active.
The volcano became famous thanks to its catastrophic eruption, which took place on November 13, 1985. As a result, glacier peaks of 25 km² have melted. The resulting lahars, flowing at a speed of 40 to 60 km / h, flooded the city of Armero and several surrounding villages with a layer of mud deep for 6 meters. Only in the city more than 21,000 citizens died (out of a total of 23,000). Losses reached $ 1 billion. The consequence of this catastrophe was the adoption by Colombia of security measures that should reduce the risk of death for so many people.
In September and October 2010, a gradual increase in seismic activity near the Arenas crater was noticed. Over the next four months, there were earthquakes that increased fear of further devastating eruptions.
Longest continental volcanic belt
Longest continental volcanic belt – Scientists have discovered the longest continental belt of volcanoes. It extends over a length of more than 2000 km in the east of Australia across the whole of the entire continent. Rhodri Davies from the Australian National University says that the chain of volcanoes began to form approx. 33 million years ago, and is approx. 3 times longer than the belt of volcanoes in Yellowstone in North America.