Pro Apollo – Lunar suit, versions A7L and A7LB

Space suit - A7L - Apollo-11 lunar mission crewSpace suit - A7L - Apollo-12 lunar mission crewA7L - Buzz Aldrin near lunar Module legA7LB - Gateway to space 2016 - Budapest

Pro Apollo – Lunar suit, versions A7L and A7LB

 

  • In use over the years: 1967 – 1975
  • Space ships: A7L – missions Apollo 7 – 14, A7LB – missions Apollo 15 – 17, Skylab and Apollo-Soyuz.
  • Mass: A7L – 28,1 kg, to Extra-vehicular activity 34,5 kg, A7LB 29,3 kg and 35,4 kg to (EVA).

 
Pro Apollo – Since 1961, Americans have focused on the Apollo program, the goal of which was to get man to the moon. After the Apollo 1 fire, the emphasis was on fire-resistant properties. This is how the A7L type suit was created, which was used by Apollo 7 to 14. So also Neil Armstrong (1930 – 2012) and Buzz Aldrin (born 1930). The suit had better protection against dust and temperatures. Basic life support up to 6 hours.

Along with the suit, a portable life support system (called a backpack) was also developed. For short stays in open space (EVA). During the Apollo 15 to 17 missions, and at the Skylab space station, an improved version of the A7LB suit was created. Instead of a backpack, it had special instrumentation attached to the astronaut’s belt.

Krechet – Designed for travel to the moon

Space suit - KrechetSpace suit - Krechet - Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum - Washington D.C., USAKrechet - Soviet moon suitKrechet - Memorial Museum of Astronautics - Moscow, Russia

Krechet – Designed for travel to the moon

 

  • In use over the years: 1967 – Unused
  • Space ships: Conquering the Moon.
  • Mass: 90 kg.

 
Krechet – In 1967, NPP “Zvezda” designed a spacesuit intended for travel to the Moon. It received the name Krechet, and cosmonauts entered it as if into a wardrobe, through a lid at the back, which they then closed behind them. It weighed 90 kg and could run for 10 hours. It was the first suit with a hard body and soft “limbs”, which also worked well with other suits. Krechet, however, has never been used for any space mission.

The Soviet lunar program was delayed and struggled with numerous problems, including a lack of funding. It was buried for good by the success of the American Apollo. The Soviets, trying to capture the Moon, worked on the already mentioned suit, and at the same time also on the suit Orlan. So “eagle”, but work on them was completed in 1974.

Mercury – Spacesuits for program of the same name

Mercury - U.S. astronaut - Wally SchirraMercury - U.S. astronaut - John H. GlennU.S. astronaut - Alan B. Shepard - On deck of USS Lake ChamplainAstronaut Gus Grissom chats with spaceflight equip. spec. - Joe-W.-Schmidt

Mercury – Spacesuits for program of the same name

 

  • In use over the years: 1961 – 1963
  • Space ships: Mercury.
  • Mass: 10 kg.

 
Mercury – Spacesuits for program of the same name. With the use of thermal insulation, on the inside of the suit there was a layer of nylon covered with neoprene. Aluminum nylon on the outside. The protective suit was first worn by Alan B. Shepard (1923-1998), who on May 5, 1961 made the first American space flight, although without orbiting the Earth.

An important drawback of this suit was immediately revealed, as it had no solution to the physiological needs of the cosmonaut. It was assumed that he would spend only a quarter of an hour in space. Although Shepard was weightless for only four minutes, preparations for take-off stretched to eight hours. His successor, Gus Grissom, received a rubber diaper. It was not until John H. Glenn (1921 – 2016), the first American in orbit, had a full-fledged urine collection device at his disposal.

Space suit – Cosmonautic symbol over the years

Space suit - USAF colonel - NASA astronaut - Jack Fischer

Space suit - U.S. Astronaut - Nicole Stott - participates in an EMU fit check

Space suit - ESA astronaut - Christer Fuglesang - STS-116 mission specialist

Space suit - USA astronauts - Rick Mastracchio (r.) and Mike Hopkins in EMU spacesuits

Space suit - ESA astronaut - Timothy Peake - During fit check

Space suit - Scott Kelly relocates hardware inside the Quest Airlock

Space suit - JAXA astronaut - Hoshide Akihiko - in space (EVA)

Space suit - Pictured with plush-doll mascots - Quest Airlock of ISS

Space suit – Cosmonautic symbol over the years

Space suit – The first suits for the Americans were produced by the B. F. Goodrich Company in 1959. It was a modernized version of high-pressure pressure suits that the company had already produced for naval aviation. Tailor-made for everyone to occupy as little space as possible in the rocket cabin. So the astronauts could not gain weight. Otherwise, they wouldn’t fit into it.

In the Soviet Union for the supplier of the spacesuit for the Vostok program selected plant nr. 918. Also known as NPP Zvezda. Since 1952, its employees have been involved in the construction of pressure suits for aviation. They also made a container that allowed the dog “Laika”, the first living creature, to travel into orbit. Unlike the Americans, the Soviets considered the suit redundant. Because they assumed that the probability of a pressure drop in the spaceship was very low. The one who insisted on using the suit was the “great constructor” of the Russian space program, Sergei Korolev (1907-1966).

List of space suits over the years:

 
Space suit - U.S. astronaut - Wally SchirraSpace suit - U.S. astronaut - John H. GlennU.S. astronaut - Alan B. Shepard - On deck of USS Lake ChamplainAstronaut Gus Grissom chats with spaceflight equip. spec. - Joe-W.-SchmidtMercury – Spacesuits for program of the same name
 
 


Space suit - SK-1 - Gateway to space 2016 - Budapest, HungarySpace suit - SK-1 - Gateway to space 2016Spacesuit SK-1 - Gateway to space 2016SK-1 - Memorial Museum of Cosmonautics - Moscow, RussiaSK-1 – Spacesuit of Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin
 
 


Space suit - Gemini-3 - Crew astronautsSpace suit - Gemini-3 - Astronaut and suit technician Gemini-G-3C - GlovesGemini-Titan 4 - Astronauts NASA - James A. McDivitt (l.) and Edward H. White - TrainingGemini – For program with two-person crew
 
 


Space suit - BerkutSpace suit - Memorial Museum of AstronauticsBerkut - Smithsonian National Air and Space MuseumBerkut - Smithsonian Air and Space MuseumBerkut – Spacesuit for spacecraft Voskhod 2
 
 


Space suit - KrechetSpace suit - Krechet - Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum - Washington D.C., USAKrechet - Soviet moon suitKrechet - Memorial Museum of Astronautics - Moscow, RussiaKrechet – Designed for travel to the moon
 
 


Space suit - Yastreb - Moscow, RussiaSpace suit Yastreb - For work in EVA - Moscow Polytechnical MuseumYastreb - Used by soviet cosmonauts - Aleksei Yeliseyev and Yevgeny KhrunovYastreb - Memorial Museum of Astronautics - Moscow, RussiaYastreb – For ships Soyuz 1, Soyuz 4 and Soyuz 5
 
 


Space suit - A7L - Apollo-11 lunar mission crewSpace suit - A7L - Apollo-12 lunar mission crewA7L - Buzz Aldrin near lunar Module legA7LB - Gateway to space 2016 - BudapestPro Apollo – Lunar suit, versions A7L and A7LB
 
 


Space suit - Expedition-26 - Russian cosmonaut Dmitry Kondratyev wearing Orlan-MKSpace suit - Russian cosmonaut - Gennady Padalka and OrlanISS-22 - Russian cosmonaut - Maxim Suraew and 2 Orlan-MKISS-22 - Russian cosmonaut - Oleg Kotov and 2 OrlanOrlan – For ships Soyuz and stations Salyut, Mir and ISS
 
 


Space suit - Expedition 49 - Crew members of Soyuz TMA spacecraftSpace suit - Expedition 63Expedition 50 - After landing of Soyuz MS-02 - KazakhstanExpedition 63 - Official crew portrait - Cassidy, Ivanishin, VagnerSokol – Only for Intra-vehicular activity
 
 


STS-115 - NASA astronaut Heidemarie M. Stefanyshyn Piper in suit EMU - trainingSTS-123 - NASA astronaut  Robert L. BehnkenESA astronaut - Samantha Cristoforetti in suit EMU - trainingSTS-134 - NASA astronaut Andrew Feustel in suit EMUEMU – Used in Space Shuttle, currently at the ISS
 
 


SpaceX Crew - NASA astronauts - (from l.) Walker, Glover, Hopkins and JAXA astronaut - NoguchiSpaceX - Astronauts Hurley (l.) and BehnkenSpaceX - Astronauts Behnken and Hurley - Chat with NASA Admin Bridenstine (l.) and Deputy Adm. MorhardSpaceX - Astronauts Behnken (r.) and Hurley walk down the hallway of Neil A. ArmstrongSpaceX Starman – For work on spacecrafts Dragon
 
 


Thermonuclear energy – Obtained by fusion

Thermonuclear energy - JET - Aerial view

Thermonuclear energy - JET - Telemanipulator

Thermonuclear energy - JET - Interior view

Thermonuclear energy - JET - Vessel internal view - Plasma blend

Thermonuclear energy - ITER - Aerial view

ITER - Tokamak complex

ITER - Aerial view - (26-03-2018)

ITER - Tokamak and Plant Systems

Thermonuclear energy – Obtained by fusion

Thermonuclear energy – Obtained by fusion – combining the nuclei of light elements. Under earthly conditions, it is possible to use isotopes, i.e. heavier forms of hydrogen: deuterium and tritium. The former has a proton and a neutron in its nucleus, and it is quite common in water. The second one, made of a proton and two neutrons, does not occur naturally. But it can be easily obtained from another light element – lithium.

JET (Joint European Torus)

Tritium is used in experiments at JET (Joint European Torus). Which is near Oxford, UK. It is a tokamak reactor – a bagel-shaped chamber in which the hot gas, i.e. plasma, will be trapped by the magnetic field. It must reach enormous temperatures, on the order of 100 million degrees Celsius, for the thermonuclear reactions to begin. – We have come to the point where we can try out in practice what we have been preparing for years. – explains Dr. Joelle Mailloux, co-leader of the JET science team.

This is the first major experiment with tritium since 1997. Because the use of this isotope as a fuel, along with deuterium, increases the level of radiation in the reactor. All the equipment had to be adapted to the new working conditions. It took two years. – Once the research begins, the inside of the reactor will be too dangerous for humans to enter. Everything must work or be repairable remotely, as on an unmanned spacecraft – says Prof. Ian Chapman, head of JET.

If successful in the UK trials, they will open the way to efficient and relatively clean energy production. One gram of hydrogen “burned” in a fusion reactor can yield as much as 8 tons of crude oil or 11 tons of coal. A few hundred kilograms of deuterium and tritium per year would be enough to meet the energy needs of the whole world. Relatively little radioactive waste is also expected to be generated in fusion reactors.

ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor)

The results of the JET experiments will be used in the development of ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor). This is a huge reactor under construction in Cadarache, France. Funded by the European Union, China, India, Japan, South Korea, Russia and the USA at a cost of $ 22 billion. The first launch of ITER is scheduled for 2025, 10 years later the reactor is to run on a mixture of deuterium and tritium. If all goes to plan, it will be the first plant to get more energy from fusion than was needed to initiate it.

Giant Wisteria – In California largest in the world

Giant WisteriaGiant WisteriaGiant WisteriaGiant WisteriaWistaria Festival 2016 - Sierra MadreWistaria Festival 2016

Giant Wisteria – In California largest in the world

Giant Wisteria – In California largest of world. In the wild state occurs, among others in Japan and the USA. It resembles a tree, but it is actually a climbing plant of the bean family. One of the most famous specimens is found in Ashikaga Park in Japan. It is supported by special piles. It is 150 years old and is recognized as the oldest plant of this species in the whole country. Although it covers an area of nearly 2 thousand. m², it is still more than half the size of the largest in the world. Record holder is growing in Sierra Madre, California. It covers an area of nearly 4 thousand. m², which corresponds to more than half of the football field. Its weight is estimated at about 259 tons. It’s about the same as the weight of 5 trucks loaded to the brim.

Long-lived companies – Record holders are real Methuselah’s

Kongo Gumi

Long-lived companies - Kongo Gumi

Nishiyama Onsen Keiunkan

Staffelter Hof

Zum Roten Bären

Long-lived companies

The Olde Bell

Long-lived companies

Sudo Honke

Sudo Honke

Long-lived companies - Sudo-Honke

Frapin

Long-lived companies - Frapin

R. Durtnell and Sons

R. Durtnell and Sons

Long-lived companies - Poundsbridge-Manor

Long-lived companies – Record holders are real Methuselah’s

Long-lived companies – Record holders are real Methuselah’s, operating continuously for over ten centuries. Tokyo Shoko Research agency dealing with market research since 1892. It found over 5.5 thousand enterprises that have existed for at least 200 years.
More than half of long-lived companies operate in Japan. There are six in the top ten. Among the aforementioned 5.5 thousand – up to 3100. As the reason for this dominance, scientists point to the island’s location of the country and centuries-old isolation.
Most of these long-lived businesses are family businesses, emphasizes prof. Toshio Goto from Japan University of Economics. He sees the root cause of their longevity in the system known as Ie. It is a set of rules determining the position of individual family members, and most importantly – the rules of inheritance of property.

Ie system

It began to take shape in the XII century, when Japan plunged into the chaos of civil wars. The survival of families living in constant danger depended on the strength and intellect of their leaders. According to eternal tradition, the eldest son should be the head of the family. In wartime, however, this only worked if he had the warrior’s qualities and talents. If he did not have them, the family was in grave danger.
To prevent it, the so-called adoption Ie. It consisted in the fact that the aging patriarch of the family found a young, promising man. Which he provided with appropriate education. When the chosen one met his expectations and proved himself in battle, he became the official heir. All other family members had to submit to him. The Ie system thus replaced traditional blood ties and prevented the division of property between heirs. As a result, the estate, workshop, and trading company passed from generation to generation in an unchanged form.
Rules tested in warrior families were adopted by other social groups, especially merchants and craftsmen. In the XVII century, Ie was formally introduced into the legal system and was in force until the end of World War II. When civil law changed under pressure from Americans, it gave all children equal shares in the parents’ estate. This threatened old family businesses, but the tradition turned out to be strong enough that many of them survived to this day. Professor Toshio Goto calls them the Japanese treasure.

Record holders list:

Kongo Gumi – Japanese construction company is record holder. 1427 years of existence,

Nishiyama Onsen Keiunkan – Traditional Japanese hotel – ryokan. 1315 years of existence,

Staffelter Hof – Oldest winery in Europe. 1158 years of existence,

Zum Roten Bären – Hotel The Red Bear. 900 years of existence,

The Olde Bell – Oldest english hotel in Hurley. 885 years of existence,

Sudo Honke – Sake brewery oldest of world. 879 years of existence,

Frapin – Cognac producer from Grande Champagne. 750 years of existence,

R. Durtnell and Sons – Oldest european construction company. 429 years of existence,

Fort Jefferson – Florida, USA – In left fortress-reserve

Fort Jefferson - Florida, USAFort Jefferson - Florida, USAFort Jefferson - Florida, USAFort Jefferson - Florida, USAFort Jefferson - Florida, USAFort Jefferson - Florida, USAGarden and Bush Keys - FloridaGarden and Bush Keys - FloridaFlorida Keys - (02-05-2014)Florida Keys - (02-05-2014)

Fort Jefferson – Florida, USA – In left fortress-reserve

Fort Jefferson – On the Florida Keys, it was supposed to be a fortress for eternity, but life verified these bold plans. It gave shelter to soldiers for only a few years. This is one of the most ambitious construction projects in US history: thousands of workers worked on the Garden Key island. Who used nearly 16 million bricks for nearly 30 years to build the largest fort on the American coast. It was built on a hexagon plan, its walls were 14 m high, and the space in it was enough for: 450 cannons, 1500 soldiers.

The problem was that the fortress was named after President Thomas Jefferson. Most of the time it was simply unnecessary. That is why the government began to use it as a place of isolation for political prisoners in the Civil War. That was until 1867.
When an epidemic of yellow fever broke out in the fort. One of her first victims was a prison doctor. So, to stop the rampant disease, he began, Dr. Samuel Mudd – serving life imprisonment for participating in the plot for the life of Abraham Lincoln. He succeeded: he saved hundreds of prisoners and guards. Mudd was pardoned and the prison was soon closed.

Today there is a bird sanctuary in the abandoned fortress. It is also one of the favorite diving spots on the Florida Keys.

Centralia – Pennsylvania, USA – Under city eternal fire

Centralia - Pennsylvania, USACentralia - Pennsylvania, USACentralia - Pennsylvania, USAPennsylvania - (01-01-2005)Columbia County, Pennsylvania, USACity Skyline (06-07-2010)

Centralia – Pennsylvania, USA – Under city eternal fire

Centralia – Although a fire goes crazy underneath, a handful of residents still refuse to leave it. They hide from the authorities, which gives the city a mysterious aura. Until the 1960s, Centralia was a town like many in the east of Pennsylvania. About 1500 people lived and worked there. Most of them were employed in the mines – until in 1962 the spark from a nearby garbage dump jumped to the adit, setting fire to coal.

In the following years

Flames gradually expanded under the city. In buildings suddenly started fires, whose flames ​​penetrated earth. Embracing home gardens, and the trees turned into ashes from day to day. Centralia’s underground has become a hell. The government announced the evacuation – it was estimated that the flames had enough fuel to burn for 250 years. Putting out this fire would cost over $ 660 million. That is why politicians decided on a much cheaper option: resettlement of residents.

Northrop F-89 Scorpion – Top 10 night fighter planes

Northrop F-89 Scorpion - (01-01-1954)Northrop F-89 Scorpion - (14-10-2006)Northrop F-89 ScorpionUSAF - Northrop F-89 Scorpion - 59th Fighter-Interceptor-Squadrons437th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron - (01.01.1955)119th Fighter Group - The Happy Hooligans - North Dakota-(01.01.1965)433d Fighter-Interceptor Squadron - Ladd-AFB-Alaska-(01.01.1956)USAF-Dyess Linear Air-Park - Dyess - AFB-Texas-USA - (28-04-2009)

Northrop F-89 Scorpion – Top 10 night fighter planes

  • Place: USA
  • First flight: 1948
  • Built: 1050 pcs.

Northrop F-89 Scorpion – Trying to replace the “Black Widow” Northrop P-61. A slightly better night fighter, American designers developed the F-89 Scorpion. It was a self-supporting medium wing, capable of operating regardless of weather conditions. It had: 2 seats, 2 Allison J35 engines, all-metal construction. It was the first aircraft armed with nuclear weapons – intended for aerial combat.

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