European fire ant – Myrmica rubra – Worker has sting

European fire ant - Myrmica rubra - Kirchwerder-Hamburg, GermanyEuropean fire ant - Myrmica rubra - Kirchwerder-Hamburg, GermanyEuropean fire ant - Myrmica rubraEuropean fire ant - (30-07-2020)Myrmica rubra - Hesse, GermanyMyrmica rubra - DorsalMyrmica rubra - HeadMyrmica rubra - Profile

European fire ant – Myrmica rubra – Queen is not much bigger than worker

European fire ant – The worker bee typically reaches 4 to 5 mm and is equipped with a stinger. The queens are not much bigger and reach a maximum of 6 mm. Most often it lives in forests, meadows, fields or gardens. To live, it needs certain conditions with an appropriate degree of humidity, so they choose regions between lowlands and mountains.

It builds its nests under stones, in clumps of grass or by erecting smaller mounds on the ground. They also live in bark and tree hollows. The colonies are monogamous and polygamous. This species is quite widespread in almost all of Europe, Asia and Japan.

Weaver ant – Oecophylla smaragdina

Weaver ant - Oecophylla smaragdina - Charles Darwin National Park - Darwin, AustraliaWeaver ant - Oecophylla smaragdina - Kakadu National Park - AustraliaWeaver ant - Oecophylla smaragdina - On a leafWeaver ant - Oecophylla smaragdina - Cape Tribulation, Queensland, AustraliaOecophylla smaragdina - (27-07-2009)Oecophylla smaragdina - Green Tree Ants - Formicidae FamilyOecophylla smaragdina - Nest construction by workers - ThailandOecophylla smaragdina - Nest - Pahang, Malaysia

Weaver ant – Oecophylla smaragdina

Weaver ant – Typical areas inhabited by these ants are the forest edges of Southeast Asia and Australia. They use tree leaves to build their nests. Workers hold the edges of one leaf with their jaw and the other with their legs.

The other ants then “stick” the leaves together, using the sticky discharge produced by the ant larvae. When combining the leaves, the ants hold the larva very gently between the jaws. At the same time, they carefully squeeze it, which causes this sticky substance to be released. Ants often live in symbiosis with caterpillars. They reach up to 10 mm in length.

Brown-black carpenter ant – Camponotus ligniperda

Brown-black carpenter ant - Camponotus ligniperda - In old oakBrown-black carpenter ant - Camponotus ligniperda - WorkerBrown-black carpenter ant - QueenBrown-black carpenter ant - Camponotus ligniperdaCamponotus ligniperda - DorsalCamponotus ligniperda - Head viewCamponotus ligniperda - Profile viewCamponotus ligniperda - Queen - (11-06-2013)

Brown-black carpenter ant – Camponotus ligniperda – Builds nests in decaying tree trunks

Brown-black carpenter ant – It is a species of the largest Polish and European ant inhabiting forests and open areas overgrown with shrubs. Adult specimens range from 6 to 18 mm. Workers live over 10 years. They build nests in decaying tree trunks and large trees in the underground part. Sometimes they choose old decaying wooden buildings as their nests.

While these ants may appear to feed on wood, they do not actually digest cellulose. On hot days they become aggressive and can even bite people severely. Their bites are painful and stinging.

Carpenter ant – Camponotus herculeanus

Carpenter ant - Camponotus herculeanusCarpenter ant - Camponotus herculeanus - femaleCarpenter ant - Camponotus herculeanus - Queen - ItalyCarpenter ant - Camponotus herculeanus - QueenCamponotus herculeanusCamponotus herculeanus - Dorsal viewCamponotus herculeanus - HeadCamponotus herculeanus - Profile

Carpenter ant – Camponotus herculeanus – Builds nests in trees

Carpenter ant – It is one of the largest ants in the world. Workers reach 7-14 mm, males approx. 12 mm and queens up to 18 mm. They usually live in forests, especially in damp areas near or directly in trees. Most often they choose spruces. They build their nests in trees by gnawing corridors and chambers along the rings of annual growths in the center of the trunk. Thereby doing considerable damage to the tree.

The Carpenter ant lives practically everywhere in the higher regions, in Central and Northern Europe, also in the northern regions of Asia and North America.

Evergreen plants secrets – Retain metabolic activity

Evergreen plants secrets - Tree infested by MistletoeEvergreen plants secrets - Entrance to High Castle, MalborkEvergreen plants secrets - Common ivy (Hedera helix) - Botanical Garden of University in WroclawEvergreen plants secrets - Holly in winterEvergreen plants secrets - Holly (Ilex aquifolia) plantation
Evergreen plants secrets - Hollies (Ilex aquifolia) - Along Westside Linear TrailHolly (Ilex aquifolia)Lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea)Ribes viburnifolium - Botanical Garden in El Chorro Regional ParkRibes viburnifolium - University of California - UC Davis Arboretum

Evergreen plants secrets – Retain metabolic activity

Evergreen plants secrets – Retain metabolic activity – Adapting it to winter conditions. They do it, among others preventing the formation of intracellular ice crystals. Their specific structure also helps them to survive the difficult conditions.
Conifer pins are narrow, which reduces the evaporation surface and prevents water loss. In this trees, the pins covers with a thick layer of wax skin, and the buds covers with thick shells. This makes the conifers able to survive even the most severe frosts.
Green in winter also remain, among others mosses, club moss, and some shrubs, such as rhododendrons. The leaves of the latter covers a special protective layer, and additionally, on frosty and sunny days, they curl or change from horizontal to vertical. This limits the amount of light reaching them. As a result, their evaporation surface is reduced and the plant protects itself against moisture loss.

Wintering plants – Systematics of Christen Raunkiaer

Wintering plants - Life forms after Raunkiaer

Wintering plants - Raunkiaer Christen

Wintering plants - Table of Raunkiaer lifeforms

Wintering plants – The systematics of Christen Raunkiaer

Wintering plants – The systematics of Christen Raunkiaer – A classification system created by the Danish botanist Christian Raunkiaer in 1905. He divides plants according to how they survive the unfavorable season. Depending on how their buds are arranged and protected, Raunkiaer has distinguished five types:

Wintering plants - Corylus avellana male catkins in winterWintering plants - Corylus avellanaPhanerophyte (open bud) – durable plants, woody shoots with winter-hardy buds located more than 50 cm above the ground (eg trees and shrubs).
Wintering plants - Saxifraga wahlenbergii - West Tatra MountainsWintering plants - Saxifraga wahlenbergiiHemicryptophyte (ground buds) – perennials whose wintering buds are placed on the shoots near the soil surface. Live or dead leaves and snow cover protect them.
Wintering plants - Crocuses in the snowTwo Crocuses in the snowCryptophyte (cache-donuts)plants, the ground part of which dies completely, and in the spring the plant sprouts from the buds of the underground spore organs.
Yellow foxglove - Digitalis grandifloraDigitalis grandifloraChamaephyte (low bud) – woody shrubs and permanent herbaceous plants with buds located less than 50 cm above the ground. Their buds are hidden in ground shoots covered with a layer of leaves and snow.
Frozen sunflowerField of frozen SunflowersTerophyte – annual plants surviving unfavorable season in the form of seeds.

Giant Wisteria – In California largest in the world

Giant WisteriaGiant WisteriaGiant WisteriaGiant WisteriaWistaria Festival 2016 - Sierra MadreWistaria Festival 2016

Giant Wisteria – In California largest in the world

Giant Wisteria – In California largest of world. In the wild state occurs, among others in Japan and the USA. It resembles a tree, but it is actually a climbing plant of the bean family. One of the most famous specimens is found in Ashikaga Park in Japan. It is supported by special piles. It is 150 years old and is recognized as the oldest plant of this species in the whole country. Although it covers an area of nearly 2 thousand. m², it is still more than half the size of the largest in the world. Record holder is growing in Sierra Madre, California. It covers an area of nearly 4 thousand. m², which corresponds to more than half of the football field. Its weight is estimated at about 259 tons. It’s about the same as the weight of 5 trucks loaded to the brim.

Giant Mammoth – Sequoiadendron giganteum

Giant Mammoth - Sequoiadendron giganteum - General ShermanGiant Mammoth - General ShermanSequoiadendron giganteum - (General Sherman)

Giant Mammoth – Sequoiadendron giganteum – „General Sherman”

Giant Mammoth – Sequoiadendron giganteum – „General Sherman” – It is a tree with the largest trunk volume, i.e. thickness. It is 1,487 cubic meters. That is roughly the same as the total thickness of the trunks of all trees growing in an average, 5 – hectare, 120-year-old pine stand. The mass of this tree is estimated at 1900 tons.

Mexican cypress – Taxodium mucronatum

Mexican cypress - Taxodium mucronatum - El Árbol del TuleMexican cypress - El Árbol del TuleTaxodium mucronatum - El Árbol del Tule

Mexican cypress – Taxodium mucronatum – „El Árbol del Tule”

Mexican cypress – Taxodium mucronatum – The thickest tree in the world, called „El Árbol del Tule”. Which grows in Santa Maria del Tule, in the Mexican state of Oaxaca. It is the Mexican cypress ( Taxodium mucronatum ). Which in 1519 aroused the delight of Ferdinand Cortez himself. Today, the circumference of the trunk of Cypress from Tule is about 42 m, which is equal to over 14 m in diameter.

Bengal ficus – Ficus benghalensis

Bengal ficus - Ficus benghalensis - Thimmamma marrimanu

Bengal ficus – Ficus benghalensis – Thimmamma marrimanu

Bengal ficus – Ficus benghalensis – Called Thimmamma Marrimanu, it is the tree with the largest crown surface. It grows near the Indian city of Kadiri. The crown of this tree covers an area of up to 19 thousand. square meters. 1.9 hectares.
Vertical shoots sprout from the horizontal branches of the tree. Which grow into the ground and form additional trunks. Thimmamma Marrimanu has about 1100 of them.

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