Evergreen plants secrets – Retain metabolic activity

Evergreen plants secrets - Tree infested by MistletoeEvergreen plants secrets - Entrance to High Castle, MalborkEvergreen plants secrets - Common ivy (Hedera helix) - Botanical Garden of University in WroclawEvergreen plants secrets - Holly in winterEvergreen plants secrets - Holly (Ilex aquifolia) plantation
 
 
 
Evergreen plants secrets - Hollies (Ilex aquifolia) - Along Westside Linear TrailHolly (Ilex aquifolia)Lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea)Ribes viburnifolium - Botanical Garden in El Chorro Regional ParkRibes viburnifolium - University of California - UC Davis Arboretum

Evergreen plants secrets – Retain metabolic activity

Evergreen plants secrets – Retain metabolic activity – Adapting it to winter conditions. They do it, among others preventing the formation of intracellular ice crystals. Their specific structure also helps them to survive the difficult conditions.
Conifer pins are narrow, which reduces the evaporation surface and prevents water loss. In this trees, the pins covers with a thick layer of wax skin, and the buds covers with thick shells. This makes the conifers able to survive even the most severe frosts.
Green in winter also remain, among others mosses, club moss, and some shrubs, such as rhododendrons. The leaves of the latter covers a special protective layer, and additionally, on frosty and sunny days, they curl or change from horizontal to vertical. This limits the amount of light reaching them. As a result, their evaporation surface is reduced and the plant protects itself against moisture loss.

Wintering plants – Systematics of Christen Raunkiaer

Wintering plants - Life forms after Raunkiaer

Wintering plants - Raunkiaer Christen

Wintering plants - Table of Raunkiaer lifeforms

Wintering plants – The systematics of Christen Raunkiaer

Wintering plants – The systematics of Christen Raunkiaer – A classification system created by the Danish botanist Christian Raunkiaer in 1905. He divides plants according to how they survive the unfavorable season. Depending on how their buds are arranged and protected, Raunkiaer has distinguished five types:

Wintering plants - Corylus avellana male catkins in winterWintering plants - Corylus avellanaPhanerophyte (open bud) – durable plants, woody shoots with winter-hardy buds located more than 50 cm above the ground (eg trees and shrubs).
 
 
Wintering plants - Saxifraga wahlenbergii - West Tatra MountainsWintering plants - Saxifraga wahlenbergiiHemicryptophyte (ground buds) – perennials whose wintering buds are placed on the shoots near the soil surface. Live or dead leaves and snow cover protect them.
 
 
Wintering plants - Crocuses in the snowTwo Crocuses in the snowCryptophyte (cache-donuts)plants, the ground part of which dies completely, and in the spring the plant sprouts from the buds of the underground spore organs.
 
 
Yellow foxglove - Digitalis grandifloraDigitalis grandifloraChamaephyte (low bud) – woody shrubs and permanent herbaceous plants with buds located less than 50 cm above the ground. Their buds are hidden in ground shoots covered with a layer of leaves and snow.
 
Frozen sunflowerField of frozen SunflowersTerophyte – annual plants surviving unfavorable season in the form of seeds.

Giant Wisteria – In California largest in the world

Giant WisteriaGiant WisteriaGiant WisteriaGiant WisteriaWistaria Festival 2016 - Sierra MadreWistaria Festival 2016

Giant Wisteria – In California largest in the world

Giant Wisteria – In California largest of world. In the wild state occurs, among others in Japan and the USA. It resembles a tree, but it is actually a climbing plant of the bean family. One of the most famous specimens is found in Ashikaga Park in Japan. It is supported by special piles. It is 150 years old and is recognized as the oldest plant of this species in the whole country. Although it covers an area of nearly 2 thousand. m², it is still more than half the size of the largest in the world. Record holder is growing in Sierra Madre, California. It covers an area of nearly 4 thousand. m², which corresponds to more than half of the football field. Its weight is estimated at about 259 tons. It’s about the same as the weight of 5 trucks loaded to the brim.

Giant Mammoth – Sequoiadendron giganteum

Giant Mammoth - Sequoiadendron giganteum - General ShermanGiant Mammoth - General ShermanSequoiadendron giganteum - (General Sherman)

Giant Mammoth – Sequoiadendron giganteum – „General Sherman”

Giant Mammoth – Sequoiadendron giganteum – „General Sherman” – It is a tree with the largest trunk volume, i.e. thickness. It is 1,487 cubic meters. That is roughly the same as the total thickness of the trunks of all trees growing in an average, 5 – hectare, 120-year-old pine stand. The mass of this tree is estimated at 1900 tons.

Mexican cypress – Taxodium mucronatum

Mexican cypress - Taxodium mucronatum - El Árbol del TuleMexican cypress - El Árbol del TuleTaxodium mucronatum - El Árbol del Tule

Mexican cypress – Taxodium mucronatum – „El Árbol del Tule”

Mexican cypress – Taxodium mucronatum – The thickest tree in the world, called „El Árbol del Tule”. Which grows in Santa Maria del Tule, in the Mexican state of Oaxaca. It is the Mexican cypress ( Taxodium mucronatum ). Which in 1519 aroused the delight of Ferdinand Cortez himself. Today, the circumference of the trunk of Cypress from Tule is about 42 m, which is equal to over 14 m in diameter.

Bengal ficus – Ficus benghalensis

Bengal ficus - Ficus benghalensis - Thimmamma marrimanu

Bengal ficus – Ficus benghalensis – Thimmamma marrimanu

Bengal ficus – Ficus benghalensis – Called Thimmamma Marrimanu, it is the tree with the largest crown surface. It grows near the Indian city of Kadiri. The crown of this tree covers an area of up to 19 thousand. square meters. 1.9 hectares.
Vertical shoots sprout from the horizontal branches of the tree. Which grow into the ground and form additional trunks. Thimmamma Marrimanu has about 1100 of them.

Records among trees – What we owe to trees

Records among trees - Palm Beach of Preveli -  with the mouth of Megalopotamos river - CreteRecords among trees - Trails in forest on a mountainside - Plužna, Slovenia - (2017-05-07)Records among trees - View of trail in forest - Jyväskylä, Finland - (2015-11-01)

Records among trees – What we owe to trees

Records among trees – The largest trees are often giant plants. Which began to grow at the same time as people founded the first cities.
Trees began to grow on Earth about 370 million years ago. Currently, about 100,000 grow on Earth. tree species. Of which 8,000 species are threatened with extinction, and almost 1,000 are in critical condition.
The forest presents a unified and connected system, capable of communication and mutual assistance. The trees communicate with each other. They help and provide each other with missing ingredients.

List of records among trees:

Sequoia sempervirens - Redwood National Park, CaliforniaRedwood National ParkSequoia sempervirens - Redwood National Park

Redwood evergreen – Sequoia sempervirens
 
 


Records among trees - Giant Mammoth - Sequoiadendron giganteum - General ShermanRecords among trees - Giant Mammoth - General ShermanRecords among trees - Sequoiadendron giganteum - (General Sherman)

Giant Mammoth – Sequoiadendron giganteum
 
 


Records among trees - Mexican cypress - Taxodium mucronatum - El Árbol del TuleRecords among trees - Mexican cypress - El Árbol del TuleRecords among trees - Taxodium mucronatum - El Árbol del Tule

Mexican cypress – Taxodium mucronatum
 
 


Records among trees - Abies squamata - Botanic Garden, Dresden, Germany - (2013-12-10)Records among trees - Fir - Abies squamata - Botanic_Garden_Dresden-Germany- (2013-12-10)

Fir – Abies squamata – Highest growing tree
 
 


Records among trees - Bengal ficus - Ficus benghalensis - Thimmamma marrimanu

Bengal ficus – Ficus benghalensis
 
 


Aspen grove - Fishlake National ForestPando - Utah, United StatesTrunk or stem

Pando – Thousands trunks grows out one root system
 
 


Old Tjikko - Fulufjället-Dalarna-Sweden - 9550-years - (2015-08-19)Norway spruce - Picea abies - Old TjikkoOld-Tjikko - Fulufjället - (2015-08-19)

Norway spruce – Picea abies – Old Tjikko
 
 


Highmountain willow - Salix herbacea - Botanic-Garden - Berlin, Germany (2018-05-22)Salix herbacea - Fruits found near Wildgrat - Austria - at 2490 m. - (2007-07-25)Salix herbacea - (2015-07-02)

Highmountain willow – Salix herbacea