ALMA – Atacama Large Millimeter Array
ALMA – Atacama Large Millimeter Array – 5000 meters above sea level in the Atacama Desert in Chile. So in one of the driest places in our globe. Also one of the least friendly places on our planet. Especially Chajnantor plateau. Here, in northern Chile, the temperature can drop from 20 degrees Celsius to -20 at night. A strong wind rages over the infertile, red-shining plateau, lashing sharp rocks and few bushes that survive here. The air contains half as much oxygen as at sea level. Humidity is almost zero, which makes the atmosphere more transparent. What penetrates from space, reaches the plateau almost unfiltered. Thanks to this, the Atacama desert is the Mecca of astronomers.
The largest radio telescope in the world was created on it. Using the Atacama Large Millimeter Array, a device with revolutionary design. Scientists can reach extremely cold and dark areas in the universe for the first time. Thanks to this network of radio telescopes, specialists are even able to penetrate the impenetrable nebulae. In this way, discover the stars that were created shortly after the Big Bang.
Sixty-six ALMA antennas were mounted in the base at a height of 3000 meters and trucks were transported to the plateau. There they were set with millimeter precision. After their launch and connection, a receiver with an area of approx. 16 km² was created.
Antarctic temperature changes
Antarctic temperature changes – Researchers at the University of Washington in Seattle (USA),
after analyzing data from satellites observing Antarctica, came to the conclusion that Antarctica
warmed by 0.5 ° C between 1957 and 2006. Scientists noticed that the temperature
quickly rises to the west Antarctica. Heating the continent has an impact on rising sea levels.
Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit – Thermometer inventor
Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit – Thermometer inventor – In 05.24.1686 was born physicist and inventor, Daniel G. Fahrenheit. He invented the mercury thermometer and developed a temperature scale, called his name. Produced thermometers, barometers and altimeters. He described the phenomenons of supercooling water and dependence of boiling water and pressure.
Solar System coldest place – Space probe discovery
Solar System coldest place – American space probe Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), close to the pole of the Moon, on the southwestern edge of the crater Hermite discovered the coldest place of the solar system. The temperature was -249 ° C, thus lacking 24 ° C to the point of absolute zero. Substance cooled to -273.15 ° C, or to absolute zero, has no thermal energy. It is a place which does not escape any direct sunlight.
Earth’s deepest borehole
Earth’s deepest borehole – For the deepest drilling on land experts believe a hole made on the Russian Kola Peninsula. Researchers began work in 1970., And already in 1984. Went down into the depths to 12 068 m. It was planned to pass through hard rock to a depth 13,5-15 km, but not proven diamond drilling tools and therefore are listed on a specially ceramic blades designed. Scientists surprised by, among others, numerous thermal springs flowing from the broken crystalline rocks on which it was assumed that they will be dry. When removing rock samples tore up under pressure, crumbling rock material, and sometimes exploded. The water temperature at the hole bottom was 220 ° C, pressure – 1,400 atmospheres.
Bacteria under ocean bottom
Bacteria under ocean bottom – American geologists from Oregon, performed in Atlantic oceanic crust (where the temperature is approx. 102 ° C) drilling to a depth of 1,391 m. Among granitic igneous rocks found relatively rich bacterial ecosystem. Bacteria feed on methane and benzene there.
Octopus possess three hearts
Octopus possess three hearts – Octopus is a highly intelligent cephalopod, has neurons in the tentacles, teeth, tongue, and three hearts. Octopuses also have an unusual blood color: blue. Their transport of oxygen through the blood is not based on iron, but the copper. This solution is better suited to low temperatures and low oxygen concentrations.
Copper cube cryostat – Cryostat construction
Copper cube cryostat – Italian researchers from the Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN). Put the copper cube with a volume of 1 m³ and 400 kg in a special cryostat designed so that extremely cool down items. This is the first cryostat, which maintains the temperature course barely above the absolute zero (0 Kelvin = -273.15 ° C). In the case of copper cube thermometer stopped just 6 milikelwinach, or 0.006 degree above absolute zero.
2014 warmest year – According to analysis of NOAA
2014 warmest year – According to the analysis of the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). 2014 was the warmest year since the beginning of the measurements. For the first time since 1990. Record temperature achieved without the influence of the weather phenomenon El Niño.
Temperature records – In Europe, 2014
Temperature records – In Europe, 2014. It was the warmest year since at least 500 years. Records temperatures fell in Denmark, France, Germany, Austria, Sweden, Switzerland, Slovakia and the Czech Republic.