Aurora Borealis – Causes lightning by making noises

Aurora BorealisAurora Borealis - AuroraAurora Borealis - Northern lightsAurora Borealis - Amundsen-Scott - South Pole stationAurora Borealis - Aurora Australis from ISSAurora Borealis - Aurora Australis

Aurora Borealis – Causes lightning by making noises

Aurora Borealis – arise when the charged particles from the Sun (the so-called solar wind) hit the Earth’s magnetic field. Along its lines are directed to the poles, where they collide with molecules of air. There was a belief that between fairy tales you should put in the history that polar lights sometimes made sounds, even “whispered” – until the case was investigated by scientists from the University of Aalto in Finland. The truth is that when the nights are cold and silent, auroras create rustlings and cracks. Audible for hundreds of kilometers. The reason is the so-called inversion layer. It arises when it is colder near the surface of the planet than at higher levels of the atmosphere. It causes that negatively charged particles from the Sun are trapped in the cold zone. If their accumulation exceeds the critical point. By reacting with positive ions in the atmosphere and causing discharges, rustling and crackling.

Light pillar – Sun pillar – Optical phenomenon in atmosphere

Light pillar - Sun pillar (1) - NOAALight pillar - Sun pillar and Sun dog (parhelion) - NOAALight pillar - Sun pillar forms as the sun rises over the Arctic plain - NOAALight pillar - Sun pillar - (NOAA Photo Library)Light pillar - Sun pillar - Optical effect march sunset - NOAALight pillar - Sun pillar - Halos, arcs and sundogs - Antarctica, South Pole Station, 1981(NOAA Photo Library)Light pillar - Sun pillar - Illuminated Clean Air Facility - NOAALight pillar - Sun pillar - December sundog - NOAA
 
 
 
Light pillar - Sun Dog and Turbo TrainLight pillar - Sun pillar (2) - NOAALight pillar - Sun pillar (3) - NOAALight pillar - Sun pillar (4) - NOAALight pillar - Sun pillar (5) - NOAALight pillar - Sun Dog - Ice crystals formed in the stable morning airLight pillar - Sun pillar - Lake LucerneLight pillar - Sunset at the port of Plouhinec Pors Poulhan in Brittany
 
 
 
Light pillar - Sun pillar - Seen when the sun is still behind the horizon - False SunriseLight pillar - Sun pillar - Susak, island in Croatia, view from the islandLight pillar - Sun pillar - Seen when the sun is still behind the horizon - False Sunrise (parhelion)

Light pillar – Sun pillar – Optical phenomenon in atmosphere

Light pillar is an optical phenomenon. That arises in very cold weather when there are ice crystals in the shape of tiles in the air. They are also visible in clearly illuminated parts of cities. They are typical of the clouds of the high floor, but in the big cold they form at earth. They reflect then light from strong sources such as lanterns or fireworks on new year’s eve. As a result of such a source of light, the observer can see high light. Most often you can see them just before sunrise, or soon after his west. Another name of the whole phenomenon is a solar pillar.

KEPLER-442b – Stony exoplanet in superearth class

KEPLER-442bKEPLER-442b - Comparison of exoplanets from the Kepler system to EarthKEPLER-442b

KEPLER-442b – Stony exoplanet in superearth class

KEPLER-442b – Stony exoplanet in superearth class, which the parent star is the orange dwarf.

ESI: 0,84
Size: 1,3 Earth
Mass: 2,3 Earth
Equivalent temperature: -65°C

The planet KEPLER-442b, from which light has been running for 1115 years, belongs to the so-called Super-Earth. In this way, rocky exoplanets are determined whose mass does not exceed tenfolds Earth. The parent star of this planet is an orange dwarf. The star larger than a red dwarf, but smaller than a yellow dwarf, which is the Sun. This type of star has calmer youth, and therefore does not send its planetary children too much UV. In addition, the planet is in the ecosphere, so it can not be ruled out that the ocean is splashing on its rocky surface. If it has a more complex atmosphere, it does not have to be at the same time a kingdom of cold. According to some calculations, it is the smaller superearth that are most suitable for life, even more than our own planet.

Ross-128b – 11 light years away from Earth

Ross-128b
Ross-128b

Ross-128b – 11 light years away from Earth

Ross-128b – The planetary system around the red dwarf Ross 128 for about 70,000 years will become our closest star neighbor.

ESI: 0,86
Size: 1,2 Earth
Mass: 1,3 Earth
Equivalent temperature: 7°C

Even closer than the GJ 273b is the Ross-128b exoplanet. It is away from us, just like a star. Which is a very quiet red dwarf, less than 11 light-years away and gradually approaching us. Based on the obtained data, astronomers have discovered that planet Ross 128b circulates around its star twenty times closer than Earth circulates the Sun. Despite such a short distance, the planet gets only 1.38 times more energy than our planet. Thanks to the cool and stable star, whose surface temperature in comparison with the sun is halved, the equivalent temperature on its surface is estimated to be from -60°C to 20°C.

TRAPPIST-1d – Representative of TRAPPIST-1 sys

TRAPPIST-1d - Artistic impression of exoplanetTRAPPIST-1d - Statistics tableTRAPPIST-1d - Comparison of the sizes of TRAPPIST-1 planets with Solar System bodies

TRAPPIST-1d – Representative of TRAPPIST-1 sys

TRAPPIST-1d – One of representatives of the TRAPPIST-1 planetary system

ESI: 0,91
Size: 0,8 Earth
Mass: 0,3 Earth
Equivalent temperature: 15°C

The relatively small weight of this planet indicates that its surface can be flooded by a deep ocean.
According to some speculations, here is 250 times more water than in the Earth’s oceans.
The first measurements showed that the planet is moving outside of the living zone, but now it seems that it will enter it safely. Exoplanet can boast a dense atmosphere and is so close to its star that it circulates in four days. It only drops by 4.3% more light than on Earth. Although TRAPPIST-1d circulates its star in synchronous rotation, a dense atmosphere in which there should be a lot of water vapor helps in thermal exchange. The difference between the illuminated and the dark hemisphere is not like that of other celestial bodies.

TRAPPIST-1e – Exoplanet from system TRAPPIST-1

TRAPPIST-1eTRAPPIST-1e - Planetary system orbitsTRAPPIST-1e

TRAPPIST-1e – Exoplanet from system TRAPPIST-1

TRAPPIST-1e – The stony exoplanet of the TRAPPIST-1 system, according to physical properties, is the “e” from the planetary system TRAPPIST is the most similar to Earth.

ESI: 0,85
Size: 0,9 Earth
Mass: 0,8 Earth
Equivalent temperature: -22°C

It moves in the middle of the ecosystem of the entire collection, but there is the least water here. TRAPPIST-1e has a smaller size than Earth, but it has a larger mass. Possible inhabitants would have to be smaller in height and more important to cope with the pressure of local gravity. Red dwarfs, to which the TRAPPIST-1 star belongs, do not emit as much light and heat as the Sun. This means that the ecosphere, in which liquid water can sustain in proper conditions, is located in much closer orbits than in our solar system. A year on the planet TRAPPIST-1e lasts six ordinary earth days.
The planet probably also has a compact atmosphere where hydrogen is lacking. This type of atmosphere can also be found on the rocky planets of our solar system. Hydrogen is also a greenhouse gas, if it was a large amount in the local atmosphere, the surface of the planet would be uninhabitable.

CME – Coronal mass ejection – Eruptions on the Sun

CME - Coronal mass ejection - Eruptions on the SunCME - Coronal mass ejection - Eruptions on the SunCME - Sun in X-Ray

CME – Coronal mass ejection – Eruptions on the Sun

CME – Coronal mass ejection – Every second the Sun emits around two million tons of particulate matter – or at least that’s usually the case. In the atmosphere, however, sometimes there are enormous eruptions from the corona (Coronal Mass Eruptions, CME). These types of hurricanes are among the most spectacular phenomena in our part universe . In the process, the Sun loses much more weight than usual. The speed of winds reaches even 10 million / h. CME is a cloud of gas built of electrically charged particles (physicists call it plasma gas). Plasma hurricanes can reach Earth and call the so-called geomagnetic storms that affect electronic devices, causing short circuits and equipment damage.

It is impossible to predict how dangerous it can be for satellites. The Internet and computer-controlled objects, such as nuclear power plants. The last really strong solar storm took place in the telegraph age, i.e. long before the appearance of PCs. Although astronomers are constantly observing the behavior of the Sun, they can anticipate it only slightly ahead of time. This means that in the future we will have at least 24 hours to disable all sensitive systems (even those in nuclear power plants) and secure computers. But geomagnetic storms are not the only problem facing us by the most important star …

Meteorological week analysis

Meteorological week analysis - Observatory Lindenberg, Germany

Meteorological week analysis

Meteorological week analysis – After analyzing the meteorological data from the years 1991-2005,
the German researchers found that the hottest day of the week is Wednesday, and the driest – Monday.
However, in the weekend usually it rains. Within a week, smog obscures the sun and the exhaust gases
are involved in the formation of clouds. On Saturday, this phenomenon goes critical.

Provided solar eclipse – Made by Thales of Miletus

Provided solar eclipse - Thales of Miletus

Provided solar eclipse – Made by Thales of Miletus

Provided solar eclipse – Made by Thales of Miletus – In 28.05.585 B.C. It was first provided solar eclipse. The calculations made by Thales of Miletus, a Greek philosopher, mathematician and astronomer. The creator of the foundations of science and European philosophy. He created the first rational theory of nature.