Naked mole – rat – Heterocephalus glaber

Naked mole-rat - Heterocephalus glaber - EatingNaked mole-rat - Heterocephalus glaberHeterocephalus glaber - Louisville-ZooHeterocephalus glaber - Museum of Natural History - Genova, Italy

Naked mole-rat – Heterocephalus glaber

Naked mole-rat – Heterocephalus glaber – Is practically blind and has no pain. This rodent lives in East Africa. It is digging underground corridors in search of tubers and roots. For this he uses the incisors that are in front of the lips, so that the soil does not get into the mouth.
Mole-rats spend almost their entire lives underground without going to the surface. They are unusual for many reasons. Not only are they the only cold-blooded mammals, they are also resistant to cancer, aging, hypoxia and pain.
Their almost completely hairless, thick and wrinkled skin. It is insensitive to abrasions or scratches. Because Mole-rats do not have the key neurotransmitter for pain conduction (substance P).

Naked mole-rats are the longest-living rodents (they live to 30 years)

And their risk of death doesn’t increase with age. These animals have very active mechanisms repair DNA.
They also tolerate extreme hypoxia, which often occurs in narrow and stuffy underground tunnels. When there is a lack of air, mole-rats reduce life activity. They change the energy supply process (break down fructose instead of glucose). In this way they avoid brain damage.
The equally interesting is structure Social. Which resembles swarms of bees or ant colonies. Flocks of these rodents count from several dozen to 300 individuals. At the same time, only the queen and prolific male breeds. The rest are sterile and conscientiously work for the herd.

Chaitén – Chile

Satellite image of Chaitén Volcano and Town - NASAAerial view of the Chaitén Town - Chile - 02-2009Chaitén - NASARoad to Chaitén TownColumn of ash during the Chaiten eruption, 02.05.2008Ashes after the eruption of Chaiten volcano - 28.05.2008Plume of ash from eruption of Chaiten volcano, Chile - 03.05.2008Chaitén - Eruption 27.05.2008


Chaitén – Chile


  • Location: Chile
  • Peak: 1122 m a.s.l.

Chaitén volcano for a long time was considered as expired. Over the last millenniums, no activity has been noticed. Caldera with a diameter of 3 km located in the southern part of Chile. It woke up suddenly in 2008, exactly after 9400 years. When the day before the explosion there was a series of smaller earthquakes. The cloud of ash and volcanic ash was 18 km high. After the outbreak, nearly all its inhabitants left the city. The soil was covered with a 15-cm layer of ash, which contaminated even water, which was a threat not only for people, but also for about 25,000 cattle.

Datura stramonium – Weed appearing on fertile soils

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Datura stramonium – Weed appearing on fertile soils

Datura stramonium – It is a weed appearing on fertile soils. It is an instant poison.

  • Deadly dose: 10 – 12 leaves
  • Death: 1 – 2 days
  • Poison: atropine, scopolamine
  • Aftermath: heart failure, fever, muscle paralysis
  • Where it grows: all over the world
  • Occurrence in Poland: yes

Used both in Europe and in the New World because of the hallucinogenic and medicinal action. It was an important ingredient in the charlatanists mixtures. In India, it is considered a strong aphrodisiac – it was claimed that deprived women of shame. Alkaloids, especially in veins and petioles, tend to increase motility, arousal and cause anxiety. Then there is weakness, narcotic sleep and exhaustion. In some Indian tribes, datura is one of saint hallucinogens and is of great importance in the rituals of initiation. It also serves as anesthesia during surgery.

Curiosity – Mars rover Curiosity

Curiosity - Mars rover Curiosity

Curiosity – Mars rover Curiosity

Curiosity – 6 August 2012. Mars rover Curiosity landed. The main objective of this most complicated equipment is to check that on Mars there were or there are conditions for microbial life. Equipment for the rover prepared scientific organizations from the USA, Canada, Germany, France, Russia and Spain.

Drive of the rover is radioisotopic thermoelectric generator that uses the natural decay of plutonium 238, which has proven itself in the American Viking missions of the program. Device is equipped with various revolutionary instruments for the analysis of soil, rocks and atmosphere. One of the devices is eg. Laser cannon that hits a rock from a distance of 7 m., And from the done spark is able to determine its chemical composition.

For more than eight months interplanetary probe covered more than 566 million km. Through the atmosphere of Mars flew at a speed of approx. 20800 km / h, but just above the reduced speed of just 3.22 km / h. Landing NASA has provided operators with seven minutes of terror, but in the end everything was a success. One of the biggest surprises of the mission was the discovery of a liquid, although salt water on Mars.

Soil formed continuously – Erosion is natural process

Soil formed continuously - Water erosion

Soil formed continuously – Erosion is natural process

Soil formed continuously – Erosion is natural process – Despite this, we consider it a non-renewable source. In comparison to the length of human life is not renewed fast enough. Formation centimeters of the soil takes hundreds of years. It is also a limited source. Now everything depends on how it is used. Currently, each resident of Poland belongs approx. 0.4 ha of farmland. Agricultural area decreased in the last hundred years. The fields were created factories and enlarging cities. This is not only unfavorable factor. Another reason is water erosion. Fertile soil is washed away and disappears forever. Erosion is a natural process, but human intervention in the landscape several times increases the impact.