Naked mole – rat – Heterocephalus glaber

Naked mole-rat - Heterocephalus glaber - EatingNaked mole-rat - Heterocephalus glaberHeterocephalus glaber - Louisville-ZooHeterocephalus glaber - Museum of Natural History - Genova, Italy

Naked mole-rat – Heterocephalus glaber

Naked mole-rat – Heterocephalus glaber – Is practically blind and has no pain. This rodent lives in East Africa. It is digging underground corridors in search of tubers and roots. For this he uses the incisors that are in front of the lips, so that the soil does not get into the mouth.
Mole-rats spend almost their entire lives underground without going to the surface. They are unusual for many reasons. Not only are they the only cold-blooded mammals, they are also resistant to cancer, aging, hypoxia and pain.
Their almost completely hairless, thick and wrinkled skin. It is insensitive to abrasions or scratches. Because Mole-rats do not have the key neurotransmitter for pain conduction (substance P).

Naked mole-rats are the longest-living rodents (they live to 30 years)

And their risk of death doesn’t increase with age. These animals have very active mechanisms repair DNA.
They also tolerate extreme hypoxia, which often occurs in narrow and stuffy underground tunnels. When there is a lack of air, mole-rats reduce life activity. They change the energy supply process (break down fructose instead of glucose). In this way they avoid brain damage.
The equally interesting is structure Social. Which resembles swarms of bees or ant colonies. Flocks of these rodents count from several dozen to 300 individuals. At the same time, only the queen and prolific male breeds. The rest are sterile and conscientiously work for the herd.

Poisonous birds – Not venomous discovered so far

Poisonous birds - Pitohui dichrousPoisonous birds - Plectropterus gambensisPoisonous birds - Common quail (Coturnix coturnix)

Poisonous birds – Not venomous discovered so far

Poisonous birds – No venomous bird has been discovered so far. That is, one whose body would produce a poisonous substance. That would then be transmitted by pecking or wounding with a claw. There are several groups of poisonous birds, that is, poisoning us when we touch or eat them. Their organisms are also probably not producing toxins, but they are able to obtain them from poisonous insects or plants.

Most of them live in New Guinea. Where are several species of Pitohui. Also representatives of the families, store the strong neurotoxin (batrachotoxin) in the skin.

The Gambian Goose from the Anatidae family living in Africa. It accumulates in its tissues another poison, a kantaridine (it gets it from the eaten beetles). Plectropterus gambensis, however, are poisonous only after their consumption. So they gain little thanks to this weapon (except revenge from beyond the grave). On the other hand, other animals of this species benefit from this – a predator who once encountered goose meat will avoid it.

A similar phenomenon applies to the European Common Quail, whose meat is also poisonous, although only for part of the year. Probably quails get their toxin from being eaten plants, and poisoning them are known for a long time and referred to as a coturnism (from the Latin name of the quail Coturnix coturnix).

Conium maculatum – Related to carrots, parsley, caraway

Conium maculatum (1)Conium maculatum (2)Conium maculatum - Germany, 1910

Conium maculatum – Related to carrots, parsley, caraway

Conium maculatum – Plant related with carrots, parsley and caraway seeds. Its main weapon is the violent poison of the coniine, which causes the man to suffocate with full consciousness.

  • Deadly dose: 0,15 g (contained in 20g of the plant)
  • Death: within 2 – 3 days
  • Poison: coniine
  • Aftermath: strangulation through muscle paralysis
  • Where it grows: Europe, Africa and Asia
  • Occurrence in Poland: yes

Coniine easily penetrates the skin and respiratory system. However, the biggest danger is an easy mistake with the vegetable. At first, the poison has a stimulating effect and then starts blocking the spinal cord’s commands. In this way, muscle paralysis and strangulation occur.

History of the plant:
In ancient Greece and Rome often used during the execution. It enjoyed great popularity among the poisoners (allegedly, Socrates was executed with its help). In Europe, it appeared in the Middle Ages, and gradually disappeared during the 20th century. In the meadows and along roads, it began to grow massively in the 80’s.

Aconitum napellus – One of the most poisonous plants

Aconitum napellusAconitum napellus (2)Aconitum napellus (3)

Aconitum napellus – One of the most poisonous plants

Aconitum napellus – One of the most poisonous plants.

  • Deadly dose: 3 – 5 mg
  • Death: in few hours
  • Poison: aconitine
  • Aftermath: heart and respiratory paralysis
  • Where it grows: in Western Europe and eastern North America
  • Occurrence in Poland: yes

All parts of this dark blue plant contain aconitine. The flower should not be touched (the poison is so strong that it can penetrate the body by applying a leaf to the skin). Poisoning does not occur often, mostly because the man has mistaken the root of the plant with horseradish or other root vegetables. Ingestion causes mouth burning, salivation, vomiting and fluctuations in blood pressure. In medicine, a tuber of aconite is used that reduces temperature in limited doses.

History of the plant:
In the Middle Ages it was used to poison swords and arrowheads. Teutons used venom during magical shamanic rituals, it was also a component of fairy ointments.

Human body cholesterol origin

Human body cholesterol origin - Cholesterol chemical structure

Human body cholesterol origin

Human body cholesterol origin – Cholesterol is a steroid, or a compound belonging to the lipids. It is delivered into the body with food (exogenous source) approx. 400-500 mg per day. However, the bulk of cholesterol is derived from endogenous sources. Its production deal mainly the liver (70%), colon (15%) and the skin (5%) – approx. 2-3 g per day.

Adermatoglyphia

Adermatoglyphia - Human hands

Adermatoglyphia

Adermatoglyphia – People affected lack dermatoglyphics or unique structure of the lines generated by the dermis in the form of bulges on the inner surface of the skin of hands and feet. Comparative studies fingerprint forensics deals with disciplinedactyloscopy. One of its foundations is the fact that the probability of the same fingerprint is considered to be impossible. The research of the American FBI indicate that this chance is 1: 1097

Whale skin – Sensitive to sunlight

Whale skin - Blue Whale (Balaenoptera musculus)

Whale skin – Sensitive to sunlight

Whale skin – Sensitive to sunlight – Whales skin is just as sensitive to sunlight as humans. Researchers from Newcastle University and the Mexican and Canadian marine biologists drew attention to the blisters of these sea animals. In most cases, they were not infected, which means that the cause must be sought elsewhere UV. Due to the fact that the blue whales are light skin tone, immediately appear on the changes caused by UV radiation – to increase the amount of pigment and mitochondrial DNA damage. Sperm whales spend for more time on the water surface, which also will not miss the effects of sunlight, even though their skin is much darker.

Skin active after death – Posthumous spots

Skin active after death - Sweat on the skin

Skin active after death – Posthumous spots

Skin active after death – Even 20-30 minutes after the cessation of circulation created the first posthumous spots in the lower part of the body where under the influence of gravity collects blood. But the same skin is still active. Sweat glands can work for more than 30 hours. After the onset of rigor mortis of the deceased may appear even goosebumps.