CME – Coronal mass ejection – Eruptions on the Sun
CME – Coronal mass ejection – Every second the Sun emits around two million tons of particulate matter – or at least that’s usually the case. In the atmosphere, however, sometimes there are enormous eruptions from the corona (Coronal Mass Eruptions, CME). These types of hurricanes are among the most spectacular phenomena in our part universe . In the process, the Sun loses much more weight than usual. The speed of winds reaches even 10 million / h. CME is a cloud of gas built of electrically charged particles (physicists call it plasma gas). Plasma hurricanes can reach Earth and call the so-called geomagnetic storms that affect electronic devices, causing short circuits and equipment damage.
It is impossible to predict how dangerous it can be for satellites. The Internet and computer-controlled objects, such as nuclear power plants. The last really strong solar storm took place in the telegraph age, i.e. long before the appearance of PCs. Although astronomers are constantly observing the behavior of the Sun, they can anticipate it only slightly ahead of time. This means that in the future we will have at least 24 hours to disable all sensitive systems (even those in nuclear power plants) and secure computers. But geomagnetic storms are not the only problem facing us by the most important star …
Kim Schmitz – Became a hacker as a nine-year-old
Kim Schmitz – born 21.01.1974, Kiel, Germany. Nickname: “Dotcom”. A German-Finnish internet entrepreneur became a hacker as a nine-year-old when he managed to break the security of various games. He sold the information he obtained to his colleagues for little money. At the age of 15, he offered access to hacked games around the world. During the same period, he broke the security of the American Calling Cards, using them to call the Talk-Lines he founded, collecting huge sums of money. As an adult, he wanted to become the best hacker in the world. During the day he worked as a programmer, he carried out the biggest attacks from home. He broke into the Pentagon network, where he found pictures from satellites and top secret information. The most known hacker attack, which brought him fame, is the collection of a small amounts from bank accounts of almost 4 million Citibank customers. The sum of about 20 million dollars was then sent to Greenpeace’s account.
Supersensitive cameras – Detects threats for Earth
Supersensitive cameras – Will be the heart of the NEOSTEL ground-based telescope, whose task will be to detect dangerous for Earth objects. It will be part of the space situational awareness system (SSA) created by the European Space Agency (ESA). It’s about supervising space and tracking space objects. The NEOSTEL ground-based telescope is designed to help you with tasks that can detect various threats to objects Earth. The heart of the telescope will be the super sensitive CCD (Charge Coupled Device) cameras used for astronomical observations. Creotech Instruments S.A. is responsible for the development and production of cameras.
The cameras are cooled down to -50 ° C and maintained in a similar environment to the vacuum, so that when installed on the telescope it can observe the object of the size of a tennis ball, from a distance of 1000 km. This will not only detect asteroids that threaten Earth, but also space debris that can threaten functioning satellites and damage or destroy International Space Station (ISS).
Moonless development – Earth without Moon
Moonless development – Earth without Moon – Simulations 4 billion years of
development of the Earth without the presence of the Moon. Were performed in the
Research Center of NASA in Moffett Field, California by Jack Lisauer. In the developed model,
the maximum angle at which leaned to the axis of the Earth, turned out to be much smaller
than assumed earlier studies. The conclusions of the study were: Earth would be the Earth,
even without his extremely large satellite.
Antarctic temperature changes
Antarctic temperature changes – Researchers at the University of Washington in Seattle (USA),
after analyzing data from satellites observing Antarctica, came to the conclusion that Antarctica
warmed by 0.5 ° C between 1957 and 2006. Scientists noticed that the temperature
quickly rises to the west Antarctica. Heating the continent has an impact on rising sea levels.
Space probe Galileo Jupiter
Space probe Galileo Jupiter – In October, 1989. Space shuttle Atlantis took into space probe Galileo. Did not move out of orbit straight to Jupiter, but first flew in the direction of Venus, which was used to assist gravity. In the same order twice used the Earth and finally moved toward the gas giant. Along the way, the first probe approached asteroid, specifically Gaspra, a distance of 1600 km.
Galileo probe to Jupiter was heard after 7 years and accompanied him the next 8. It became his artificial satellite. Among other things, sent into the atmosphere of Jupiter measuring instrument, which in hellish conditions lasted almost an hour. Several times flew near the Galilean moons: Io, Ganymede, Europa and Callisto. Discovered that beneath the surface of the last three is salty ocean water.
Due to the good operation of the systems, the probe mission was extended several times (the last time – at the end of April 2001.). Made a total of 34 laps around Jupiter. At that time, 7 times visited Io, Callisto 8 times, as many times Ganymede, 11 times Europe.
Solar wind – The Sun has an impact on the processes
Solar wind – The Sun has an impact on the processes in the solar system in many different ways. Although gravity is maintained thanks to its system time emits a space wide range of molecular types of radiation, to which the feature ” wind of the Sun”. Researchers from the University of Leicester have combined the data. Obtained during the observations of solar activity from data obtained during observations of the Martian atmosphere, provided by satellites. The solar corona disappears from the environment until 2.5 x more particles. Observations were conducted during the fall of solar activity within the 11 – year solar cycle.
GPS system – It uses 31 satellites orbiting the Earth. Each is equipped with an atomic clock and emits signals in which encoded is its location and the clock. Satellites are close to 20 thousands km. above the Earth. The attraction is there so much weaker satellites clocks ahead of the Earth about 38 millionths of a second a day. To get the accuracy of 10-15 meters, the GPS receiver needs to know the super-accurate time transmission of the satellite signal. Error no greater than 50 nanoseconds.
NASA Plan for 2020
NASA Plan for 2020 – NASA in 2020. Activate EUCLID telescope that will map the shape, brightness, and portrayed the space of two billion galaxies. With this satellite scientists try to understand the role played by “dark matter” and “dark energy“ in the history of the cosmos. The project will involve nearly 1 thousand scientists from around the world. 40 of them are experts NASA.
Space probe Mariner 9
Space probe Mariner 9 – In 1971. Mariner 9 became the first artificial satellite of Mars. Sent to Earth more than 7 thousand. images.