Nevado del Ruiz – Colombia
- Location: Colombia
- Peak: 5321 m a. s. l.
Nevado del Ruiz volcano, already active for around 2,000,000 years, is 130 km west of the capital of Colombia – Bogota. It has many layers of lava hardened alternately with volcanic ash and other pyroclastic rocks. The mountain is part of the volcanic massifs created by five more volcanoes covered with glaciers. Four of them are still active.
The volcano became famous thanks to its catastrophic eruption, which took place on November 13, 1985. As a result, glacier peaks of 25 km² have melted. The resulting lahars, flowing at a speed of 40 to 60 km / h, flooded the city of Armero and several surrounding villages with a layer of mud deep for 6 meters. Only in the city more than 21,000 citizens died (out of a total of 23,000). Losses reached $ 1 billion. The consequence of this catastrophe was the adoption by Colombia of security measures that should reduce the risk of death for so many people.
In September and October 2010, a gradual increase in seismic activity near the Arenas crater was noticed. Over the next four months, there were earthquakes that increased fear of further devastating eruptions.
Threats to humanity – Existential risk
Threats to humanity – In 2013. At the University of Cambridge opened the institute, which is investigating the most serious threats to humanity: artificial intelligence, climate change, nuclear war and biotechnologies. The plant bears a frightening name Centre for the Study of Existential Risk (CSER, “research center existential risk”) and apart from philosophers working in the IT specialists and engineers, for example. Jaan Tallinn, co-founder of Skype.
Smoking threatens deafness
Smoking threatens deafness – British scientists from the University of Manchester conducted hearing tests on a group of 165 thousand. men and women aged 40 to 69 years. Which was a representative sample of the British population. The results largely confirm previous analysis and showed that suffers from hearing loss approx. 30% of smokers. It turned out that between the risk of hearing loss, and smoking, there is a direct relationship.
Caffeine consumption – Turned out risk of suicide
Caffeine consumption – Turned out risk of suicide – Researchers analyzed data from three American studies. Which for 20 years in 200 thousand. men and women observed in the total consumption of caffeine. Not only coffee, but also in other food products. Such as: tea, chocolate or energy drinks. It turned out that the risk of suicide among adults who drink several cups a day of caffeinated coffee. It was almost twice lower than in those who drank decaffeinated coffee, very little coffee or do not consume this drink.
Negative caffeine effect – More than 7 cups of coffee
Negative caffeine effect – Extensive research conducted in 2000. By researchers at the University of Eastern Finland, showed that drinking more than seven cups of coffee a day. Increases the risk of suicide or self-mutilation.
Cardiovascular disease risk – Higher among bald men
Cardiovascular disease risk – Higher among bald men. Up to about 1/3, compared to the other men. Tests on 37 thousand. men carried Japanese scientists. Hair loss depends on the activity of male hormones, which also accelerate hardening of the blood vessels, or the effects of atherosclerosis.