Giant Wisteria – In California largest in the world

Giant WisteriaGiant WisteriaGiant WisteriaGiant WisteriaWistaria Festival 2016 - Sierra MadreWistaria Festival 2016

Giant Wisteria – In California largest in the world

Giant Wisteria – In California largest of world. In the wild state occurs, among others in Japan and the USA. It resembles a tree, but it is actually a climbing plant of the bean family. One of the most famous specimens is found in Ashikaga Park in Japan. It is supported by special piles. It is 150 years old and is recognized as the oldest plant of this species in the whole country. Although it covers an area of nearly 2 thousand. m², it is still more than half the size of the largest in the world. Record holder is growing in Sierra Madre, California. It covers an area of nearly 4 thousand. m², which corresponds to more than half of the football field. Its weight is estimated at about 259 tons. It’s about the same as the weight of 5 trucks loaded to the brim.

Svalbard Global Seed Vault – On Spitsbergen island

Svalbard Global Seed Vault

Svalbard Global Seed Vault

Svalbard Global Seed Vault

Svalbard Global Seed Vault

Svalbard Global Seed Vault

Storage containers - (27-02-2008)

Aluminium bags for seed storage - (20-05-2007)

Global Seed Vault in Spitsbergen - (30-09-2011)

Svalbard Global Seed Vault – On Spitsbergen island

Svalbard Global Seed Vault – Global seed bank on the island of Spitsbergen, in the Norwegian Svalbard archipelago. In the Arctic Sea, approx. 1000 km north of the Scandinavian Peninsula. In permafrost, a tunnel was drilled for about 150 meters and a warehouse with an area of ​​1000 m². There is room for 4.5 million seeds. Only for edible plants that are important for scientific research or biodiversity. Currently there are just over a million, representing about 5,000. species. Seed storage is free – donors (individual countries and scientific organizations) are still the owners of the seeds. The Kingdom of Norway only provides a place for storage. The location and construction of the bank protect valuable seeds against wars, natural disasters and climate change.

The building is monitored by motion sensors and cameras. Access to the interior of the warehouse is protected by armored doors, digital locks and walls of reinforced concrete, 1 m thick. It is located at a depth of 90 meters below the Plataberget mountain. Covered with snow and permafrost. It has been designed so that even without power the seeds will remain frozen for 200 years.

Only visible element of the structure is a concrete gate with armored doors. Above which is an artistic installation with 200 optical fibers.

Plant nutrition speed – Plants also hunters

Plant nutrition speed - Drosera intermedia (2018)Plant nutrition speed - Drosera rotundifolia (2011)Plant nutrition speed - Drosera rotundifolia at Corsica (1998)Plant nutrition speed - Drosera rotundifolia (1)Plant nutrition speed - Drosera rotundifolia (2)Plant nutrition speed - Drosera rotundifolia (3)Plant nutrition speed - Itermediate sundewPlant nutrition speed - Round leaf sundew
 
 
 
Plant nutrition speedPlant nutrition speedPlant nutrition speedPlant nutrition speed

Plant nutrition speed – Plants also hunters

Plant nutrition speed – And it’s not just about insectivorous representatives of the world of flora. Their victims are quanta of light, necessary for photosynthesis (the biological process of obtaining energy). The photon flux reaches the leaf at an unbelievable rate of about 300,000 km / s – and thus at the speed of light in a vacuum. To deprive him of the energy necessary for the development of the plant, he most often uses chlorophyll: the so-called chlorophyll antenna catches quanta, whose energy in a maximum of about one picosecond (10-12 seconds) is temporarily stored during the first photosynthesis reaction. At this time, the photon ceases to exist.

Ricinus communis – Castor oil plant

Ricinus communis - Southern MexicoRicinus communis - Botanic Garden (Frankfurt, Germany)Ricinus communis - Venezuela
 
 
 
 
 
Ricinus communis - Castor oil plant (1)Ricinus communis - Castor oil plant (2)

Ricinus communis – Castor oil plant

Ricinus communis – It probably comes from the north of Africa. It is a 10-meter tall plant that enjoys great popularity in gardening.

  • Deadly dose: 15 – 20 seeds
  • Death: to 1 week
  • Poison: ricin
  • Aftermath: renal, liver and spleen failure
  • Where it grows: in all tropical and subtropical areas of the world
  • Occurrence in Poland: artificially bred

The most dangerous are the bars of its seeds, about 6,000 times more aggressive than cyanide. Causes agglutination of red blood cells and damages the liver, kidneys and spleen. The first symptoms are similar to a cold, followed by headaches, mouth burning, vomiting and internal bleeding. It gradually attacks the entire human circulatory system.

History of the plant:
Castor oil is squeezed from the seeds, from which soap, ointments, drops or perfumes are made. Apparently Cleopatra applied it to her eyes to have a “wider perspective”. In 1978, a Bulgarian secret interview was used to murder the writer and journalist Georgie Markov, who after several days of the fight for his life died of kidney failure in a London hospital.

Colchicum autumnale – Protected and very poisonous

Colchicum autumnale - Jena, Germany (16-09-2007)Colchicum autumnale (1)Colchicum autumnale (2)Colchicum autumnale (3)

Colchicum autumnale – Protected and very poisonous

Colchicum autumnale – It belongs to protected as well as very poisonous plants.

  • Deadly dose: 20 – 40 mg (5 – 10 seeds)
  • Death: to 4 days
  • Poison: colchicine
  • Aftermath: paralysis, pulmonary edema, renal failure
  • Where it grows: Southern and Western Europe
  • Occurrence in Poland: yes

One flower contains more than 20 alkaloids, the most dangerous of which is colchicine and its derivatives. Thanks to the appropriate dosage, they can be used for treatments of cancers. Medicinal products for rheumatism, ascites and kidney diseases are produced from wintering seeds. However, if you carelessly handle (for example when confusing with wild garlic leaves), poisoning may occur. Fowl and goat’s milk may also be dangerous. The first symptoms of taking harmful substances appear after 2 – 6 hours after ingestion. At the beginning you can observe mouth burning, vomiting or cramps. Without proper help, a man can die.

Abrus precatorius – Originates from tropical Asia

Abrus precatorius - Leaves and pods, Northern Buton Island, IndonesiaAbrus precatorius - Kohler's Medicinal plantsAbrus precatorius - Saigon Zoo and Botanical Gardens, Ho Chi Minh City, VietnamAbrus precatorius (pods)

Abrus precatorius – Originates from tropical Asia

Abrus precatorius – The climbing plant originates from tropical Asia, it is used for the production of rosaries and jewelry.

  • Deadly dose: 3 µg of poison
  • Death: within 3 – 4 days
  • Poison: abrin
  • Aftermath: vomiting, bloody diarrhea, hallucinations, renal, liver and spleen paresis
  • Where it grows: Asia, Africa and America
  • Occurrence in Poland: no

The plant is not poisonous in its entirety, the leaves and roots are edible. The most devious are seeds that contain abrin. A small dose of a substance is enough to kill a person, and the first symptoms will appear after a few hours – problems with breathing, fever, vomiting or severe sweating. Finally, the respiratory system is completely destroyed. Asians are drinking a decoction of the root and leaves as cough and runny nosemedicine.

Conium maculatum – Related to carrots, parsley, caraway

Conium maculatum (1)Conium maculatum (2)Conium maculatum - Germany, 1910

Conium maculatum – Related to carrots, parsley, caraway

Conium maculatum – Plant related with carrots, parsley and caraway seeds. Its main weapon is the violent poison of the coniine, which causes the man to suffocate with full consciousness.

  • Deadly dose: 0,15 g (contained in 20g of the plant)
  • Death: within 2 – 3 days
  • Poison: coniine
  • Aftermath: strangulation through muscle paralysis
  • Where it grows: Europe, Africa and Asia
  • Occurrence in Poland: yes

Coniine easily penetrates the skin and respiratory system. However, the biggest danger is an easy mistake with the vegetable. At first, the poison has a stimulating effect and then starts blocking the spinal cord’s commands. In this way, muscle paralysis and strangulation occur.

History of the plant:
In ancient Greece and Rome often used during the execution. It enjoyed great popularity among the poisoners (allegedly, Socrates was executed with its help). In Europe, it appeared in the Middle Ages, and gradually disappeared during the 20th century. In the meadows and along roads, it began to grow massively in the 80’s.

Cicuta virosa – It is 150 centimeters high

Cicuta virosa - Oulu, Finland (18.07.2013)Cicuta virosa (1)Cicuta virosa (2)

Cicuta virosa – It is 150 centimeters high

The highest concentration of toxic substances is found in its rhizome.

  • Deadly dose: 2g root
  • Death: within 24 hours
  • Poison: cicutoxin
  • Aftermath: degeneration of skeletal muscles
  • Where it grows: North and South America, Europe, Asia
  • Occurrence in Poland: yes

In North America it has hundreds of poisoned sheep per year on its conscience. People can mistake its root with the parsley root, and the most common victims of harmful substances are children. Cicutoxin works very quickly, after just a few minutes you can observe irritations of mucous membranes and abdominal pain. If a man survives poisoning, it is very likely that he will struggle with damage to the central nervous system for the rest of his life. Unlike other animals, mice can without fear of poisoning eat plant seeds.

Deadly plants – Which are the most poisonous

Deadly plants - Skull and crossbones (1)Deadly plants - Poison bottleDeadly plants - Skull and crossbones (2)

Deadly plants – Which are the most poisonous

Deadly plants – Although some of them look completely harmless, they can contain a cocktail of toxic substances. Venom developed so that no one could prevent them from growing. Plant poisons have a different effect on the human body. They most often attack the nervous system, respiratory organs, heart, liver, digestive system or kidneys. They can also affect muscle function, cause brain damage and even lead to death.

List of the most poisonous plants:

Aconitum napellus (2)Aconitum napellus (2)Aconitum napellus (3)

Aconitum napellus – One of the most poisonous plants
 
 


Atropa belladonnaAtropa belladonna (2)Atropa belladonna (3)Atropa belladonna (4)

Atropa belladonna – Most dangerous in Central Europe
 
 


Oleander - Nerium oleander (1)Oleander - Nerium oleander (2)Oleander - Nerium oleander (3)

Oleander – Nerium oleander
 
 


Datura stramonium (1)Datura stramonium (2)Datura stramonium (3)Datura stramonium (4)

Datura stramonium – Weed appearing on fertile soils
 
 


Cicuta virosa - Oulu, Finland (18.07.2013)Cicuta virosa (1)Cicuta virosa (2)

Cicuta virosa – It is 150 centimeters high
 
 


Conium maculatum (1)Conium maculatum (2)Conium maculatum - Germany, 1910

Conium maculatum – Related to carrots, parsley, caraway
 
 


Abrus precatorius - Kohler's Medicinal plantsAbrus precatorius - Leaves and pods, Northern Buton Island,  IndonesiaAbrus precatorius - Saigon Zoo and Botanical Gardens, Ho Chi Minh City, VietnamAbrus precatorius (pods)

Abrus precatorius – Originates from tropical Asia
 
 


Colchicum autumnale - Jena, Germany (16-09-2007)Colchicum autumnale (1)Colchicum autumnale (2)Colchicum autumnale (3)

Colchicum autumnale – Protected and very poisonous
 
 


Ricinus communis - Southern MexicoRicinus communis - Botanic Garden (Frankfurt, Germany)Ricinus communis - Venezuela

Ricinus communis – Castor oil plant
 

Ricinus communis - Castor oil plant (1)Ricinus communis - Castor oil plant (2)

 
 


Oleander – Nerium oleander

Oleander - Nerium oleander (1)Oleander - Nerium oleander (2)Oleander - Nerium oleander (3)

Oleander – Nerium oleander

Oleander – Nerium oleander – This beautifully blooming shrub belongs to the most common plants not only in the countries of the Mediterranean.

  • Deadly dose: 2 leaves
  • Death: in few hours
  • Poison: oleander
  • Aftermath: cardiac arrhythmia
  • Where it grows: from the Mediterranean, through North Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, to southern Asia
  • Occurrence in Poland: artificially bred

In order to say goodbye to your life, it’s enough to chew on one leaf. The honey obtained from oleander flowers may also be toxic. The first signs of intoxication include vomiting, fever and dizziness. The substance directly attacks the heart and increases muscle tone.

History of the plant:
Together with Conium maculatum was the most popular medieval poison. It was used as a means to control rats and mice. In the past, many people lost their lives because they roasted meat on oleander branches.