GJ 273b – Exoplanet in the constellation Little Dog
GJ 273b – Planet orbiting the Luyten star
Size: 1,47 Earth
Mass: 3 Earth
Equivalent temperature: -6°C
Twelve light-years from our solar system, Luyten’s star, the red dwarf, wanders from Earth in the constellation Little Dog. Astronomers have discovered two exoplanets next to it. At the same time one of them belongs to the superearth category and at the same time circulates at the edge of the ecosystem. In contrast to the many other planets whose parent star is a red dwarf, GJ273b knows what day is and what is the night. Usually, the planets move close enough that their rotation is connected, and their parent star only puts one hemisphere.
TRAPPIST-1d – Representative of TRAPPIST-1 sys
TRAPPIST-1d – One of representatives of the TRAPPIST-1 planetary system
Size: 0,8 Earth
Mass: 0,3 Earth
Equivalent temperature: 15°C
The relatively small weight of this planet indicates that its surface can be flooded by a deep ocean.
According to some speculations, here is 250 times more water than in the Earth’s oceans.
The first measurements showed that the planet is moving outside of the living zone, but now it seems that it will enter it safely. Exoplanet can boast a dense atmosphere and is so close to its star that it circulates in four days. It only drops by 4.3% more light than on Earth. Although TRAPPIST-1d circulates its star in synchronous rotation, a dense atmosphere in which there should be a lot of water vapor helps in thermal exchange. The difference between the illuminated and the dark hemisphere is not like that of other celestial bodies.
TRAPPIST-1e – Exoplanet from system TRAPPIST-1
TRAPPIST-1e – The stony exoplanet of the TRAPPIST-1 system, according to physical properties, is the “e” from the planetary system TRAPPIST is the most similar to Earth.
Size: 0,9 Earth
Mass: 0,8 Earth
Equivalent temperature: -22°C
It moves in the middle of the ecosystem of the entire collection, but there is the least water here. TRAPPIST-1e has a smaller size than Earth, but it has a larger mass. Possible inhabitants would have to be smaller in height and more important to cope with the pressure of local gravity. Red dwarfs, to which the TRAPPIST-1 star belongs, do not emit as much light and heat as the Sun. This means that the ecosphere, in which liquid water can sustain in proper conditions, is located in much closer orbits than in our solar system. A year on the planet TRAPPIST-1e lasts six ordinary earth days.
The planet probably also has a compact atmosphere where hydrogen is lacking. This type of atmosphere can also be found on the rocky planets of our solar system. Hydrogen is also a greenhouse gas, if it was a large amount in the local atmosphere, the surface of the planet would be uninhabitable.
Planetoid 3753 Cruithne – Discovered in 1986
Planetoid 3753 Cruithne – Discovered in 1986. Its the so-called quasi-moon. Its orbit is irregular and resembles a horseshoe shape. The full trajectory lasts 770 years. In less than 3000 years, the asteroid may collide with Earth. He approaches our planet for a minimum distance of about 15 million. km. The last such approximation took place in 1900, the next one will be in 2285. If this does not happen, Cruithne is in danger of collision with Venus in 8,000 years. In the vicinity of Earth there are also two other quasi-moons named 2006 FV35 and 2010 SO16. Humanity has not come up with an effective way to prevent the possible collision of asteroids with Earth.
Isaac Newton – English physicist and mathematician
Isaac Newton – Died 20.03.1727 (born in 1643), English physicist and mathematician.
Developed the law of universal gravity and other laws of mechanics. He formulated the
principle of conservation of momentum and angular momentum. He created the calculus
of variations. 10. 12. 1684 – His work “De Motu Corporum” about the concept of gravity
and its effect on the orbits of the planets, referring to Kepler’s laws, was read to the
Royal Society by Edmund Halley.
Space probe Galileo Jupiter
Space probe Galileo Jupiter – In October, 1989. Space shuttle Atlantis took into space probe Galileo. Did not move out of orbit straight to Jupiter, but first flew in the direction of Venus, which was used to assist gravity. In the same order twice used the Earth and finally moved toward the gas giant. Along the way, the first probe approached asteroid, specifically Gaspra, a distance of 1600 km.
Galileo probe to Jupiter was heard after 7 years and accompanied him the next 8. It became his artificial satellite. Among other things, sent into the atmosphere of Jupiter measuring instrument, which in hellish conditions lasted almost an hour. Several times flew near the Galilean moons: Io, Ganymede, Europa and Callisto. Discovered that beneath the surface of the last three is salty ocean water.
Due to the good operation of the systems, the probe mission was extended several times (the last time – at the end of April 2001.). Made a total of 34 laps around Jupiter. At that time, 7 times visited Io, Callisto 8 times, as many times Ganymede, 11 times Europe.
3d printing in space
3d printing in space – In recent years, significantly improved technologies for printing three-dimensional objects that are already much cheaper. The company Made in Space has launched a project. Allowing to print 3D components, directly on orbit.
Pluto position loss
Pluto position loss – At the General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union in Prague in 2006. It was decided that Pluto is not a planet. On the ballot passed the definition of a planet. Pursuant to the findings of a celestial body being a contender for this name must circulate orbit. Its mass and gravity to be so large that formed the shape of a round. In addition, there should be other large bodies in their neighborhood.
GPS system – It uses 31 satellites orbiting the Earth. Each is equipped with an atomic clock and emits signals in which encoded is its location and the clock. Satellites are close to 20 thousands km. above the Earth. The attraction is there so much weaker satellites clocks ahead of the Earth about 38 millionths of a second a day. To get the accuracy of 10-15 meters, the GPS receiver needs to know the super-accurate time transmission of the satellite signal. Error no greater than 50 nanoseconds.
Spitzer Space Telescope – 10 Years in Space
Spitzer Space Telescope – 10 Years in Space – It was launched into orbit in August 2003. Its purpose was to observe distant objects in the infrared. Has to its credit many successes, such as the discovery of the most distant supernovas, galaxies and exoplanets and to confirm that our galaxy belongs to the family of spiral galaxies with bars. Not to mention the first photographic mosaic of the Milky Way, which consists of more than 800 thousand. images.