KEPLER-442b – Stony exoplanet in superearth class
KEPLER-442b – Stony exoplanet in superearth class, which the parent star is the orange dwarf.
Size: 1,3 Earth
Mass: 2,3 Earth
Equivalent temperature: -65°C
The planet KEPLER-442b, from which light has been running for 1115 years, belongs to the so-called Super-Earth. In this way, rocky exoplanets are determined whose mass does not exceed tenfolds Earth. The parent star of this planet is an orange dwarf. The star larger than a red dwarf, but smaller than a yellow dwarf, which is the Sun. This type of star has calmer youth, and therefore does not send its planetary children too much UV. In addition, the planet is in the ecosphere, so it can not be ruled out that the ocean is splashing on its rocky surface. If it has a more complex atmosphere, it does not have to be at the same time a kingdom of cold. According to some calculations, it is the smaller superearth that are most suitable for life, even more than our own planet.
TRAPPIST-1d – Representative of TRAPPIST-1 sys
TRAPPIST-1d – One of representatives of the TRAPPIST-1 planetary system
Size: 0,8 Earth
Mass: 0,3 Earth
Equivalent temperature: 15°C
The relatively small weight of this planet indicates that its surface can be flooded by a deep ocean.
According to some speculations, here is 250 times more water than in the Earth’s oceans.
The first measurements showed that the planet is moving outside of the living zone, but now it seems that it will enter it safely. Exoplanet can boast a dense atmosphere and is so close to its star that it circulates in four days. It only drops by 4.3% more light than on Earth. Although TRAPPIST-1d circulates its star in synchronous rotation, a dense atmosphere in which there should be a lot of water vapor helps in thermal exchange. The difference between the illuminated and the dark hemisphere is not like that of other celestial bodies.
Cartilaginous fish – 455 species of sharks
Cartilaginous fish – 455 species of sharks – Found fossils show that sharks
living today belong to a group of cartilaginous fish. There are still very similar to their ancestors
who existed 150 million years ago. According to experts, currently in the waters of the seas
and oceans live 455 species of sharks. Joe Quattro professor of biology at
the University of South Carolina. In 2006 he discovered species, which is very similar to the
famous hammerhead sharks, but differs from it in terms of genetics.
Earth’s crust layers
Earth’s crust layers – The earth’s crust is composed of light rock, which in the course of a long development of the earth piled up, and then froze. Scientists have found that is divided into two layers. The division is called. Conrad discontinuity. External called granite, creating the continents, and because of prevailing in its composition elements – silicon (silicum, Si) and aluminum (Al) – formerly was defined as SIAL. Inside, called basalt, occurs in both the continents and the oceans. It is made mostly of silica (silicum, Si) and magnesium (magnesium, Mg) – in her case was the name formerly used SIMA.
Bacteria under ocean bottom
Bacteria under ocean bottom – American geologists from Oregon, performed in Atlantic oceanic crust (where the temperature is approx. 102 ° C) drilling to a depth of 1,391 m. Among granitic igneous rocks found relatively rich bacterial ecosystem. Bacteria feed on methane and benzene there.
Earth’s largest volcano – at the bottom of the Pacific
Earth’s largest volcano – 310 798 km² (as much as the surface of Poland), is the area of Tamu Massif. The largest volcano on Earth, which is located at the bottom of the Pacific Ocean. Scientists American University of Houston found that this is a single volcano, not a group of different volcanoes.
Convention on Law of the Sea
Convention on Law of the Sea – According to the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea 1982. Part of the world’s ocean is located more than 370 kilometers from the nearest land does not belong to anyone.
Optical fibers connecting continents
Optical fibers connecting continents – Currently, optical fibers connect all continents except Antarctica, which is connected with the world via satellites. At the bottom of the ocean is approx. 400 thousand. km wires. The longest measured up to 39 thousand km. Called SEA-ME-WE 3, which is an acronym of places, which connects – South – East Asia, the Middle East and Western Europe. Also extends to Africa, and one branch goes up to Australia. Since 2000., When the completed network, optical fiber link 33 countries from 4 continents.