MT Exxon Valdez – Biggest oil spills

MT Exxon Valdez - Coast cleanupMT Exxon Valdez - Oil spillInterview with Dennis KelsoSea birds in oil - After spill from tanker

MT Exxon Valdez – Biggest oil spills

  • Place: Alaska
  • Date: 24 March 1989
  • Amount of spill: 41 000 000 liters
  • Costs: $ 4 billion

MT Exxon Valdez – 24 March 1989 the tanker crashed off the coast of Alaska. About 257,000 barrels of oil leaked out. Which is a fraction of biggest oil spill. But the disaster severely affected the local ecosystem . It happened in Prince William’s Bay, where the ship crashed into a cliff. Having a full oil tank. It is estimated that 250,000 seabirds, 2,800 sea otters, 300 seals, 250 eagles and about 22 whales, and billions of salmon and herring eggs were killed as a result of this spill.

Drunken captain

Over 11,000 people participated in the liquidation of the effects of activities. According to the investigation, captain Joe Hazelwood caused the accident himself. Giving chaotic orders when he wanted to apply blows to rocks. Reach tests that had high blood alcohol levels. The resulting stretch stretched along 2,000 km of coastline and touched 28,000 km² of the ocean. The investigation also showed that the ship was not in good condition and had a damaged radar. Who was supposed to alert the crew of danger.

Castillo de Bellver – Biggest oil spills

Castillo de Bellver - Oil spill and fire - 1983Castillo de Bellver - Oil spill and fire fighting - 1983MTCastillo de Bellver - Left sideMTCastillo de Bellver - Right side

Castillo de Bellver – Biggest oil spills

  • Place: RSA
  • Date: 6 August 1983
  • Amount of spill: 286 200 000 liters
  • Costs: $ 153 mln

Castillo de Bellver – The tanker exploded unexpectedly and burned off the coast of South Africa in 1983. The ship traveled on the sea since 1978. On the memorable day of August 6, 1983, it sailed with oil from the Persian Gulf to Spain. Through an area where many sea birds live and where important fisheries are found. The coast was seriously threatened. Unfortunately, the wind changed and moved the stain towards the ocean. Ultimately, the environmental impact was minimal and no one was killed on board.

KEPLER-442b – Stony exoplanet in superearth class

KEPLER-442bKEPLER-442b - Comparison of exoplanets from the Kepler system to EarthKEPLER-442b

KEPLER-442b – Stony exoplanet in superearth class

KEPLER-442b – Stony exoplanet in superearth class, which the parent star is the orange dwarf.

ESI: 0,84
Size: 1,3 Earth
Mass: 2,3 Earth
Equivalent temperature: -65°C

The planet KEPLER-442b, from which light has been running for 1115 years, belongs to the so-called Super-Earth. In this way, rocky exoplanets are determined whose mass does not exceed tenfolds Earth. The parent star of this planet is an orange dwarf. The star larger than a red dwarf, but smaller than a yellow dwarf, which is the Sun. This type of star has calmer youth, and therefore does not send its planetary children too much UV. In addition, the planet is in the ecosphere, so it can not be ruled out that the ocean is splashing on its rocky surface. If it has a more complex atmosphere, it does not have to be at the same time a kingdom of cold. According to some calculations, it is the smaller superearth that are most suitable for life, even more than our own planet.

TRAPPIST-1d – Representative of TRAPPIST-1 sys

TRAPPIST-1d - Artistic impression of exoplanetTRAPPIST-1d - Statistics tableTRAPPIST-1d - Comparison of the sizes of TRAPPIST-1 planets with Solar System bodies

TRAPPIST-1d – Representative of TRAPPIST-1 sys

TRAPPIST-1d – One of representatives of the TRAPPIST-1 planetary system

ESI: 0,91
Size: 0,8 Earth
Mass: 0,3 Earth
Equivalent temperature: 15°C

The relatively small weight of this planet indicates that its surface can be flooded by a deep ocean.
According to some speculations, here is 250 times more water than in the Earth’s oceans.
The first measurements showed that the planet is moving outside of the living zone, but now it seems that it will enter it safely. Exoplanet can boast a dense atmosphere and is so close to its star that it circulates in four days. It only drops by 4.3% more light than on Earth. Although TRAPPIST-1d circulates its star in synchronous rotation, a dense atmosphere in which there should be a lot of water vapor helps in thermal exchange. The difference between the illuminated and the dark hemisphere is not like that of other celestial bodies.

Cartilaginous fish – 455 species of sharks

Cartilaginous fish - currently live 455 species of sharks

Cartilaginous fish – 455 species of sharks

Cartilaginous fish – 455 species of sharks – Found fossils show that sharks
living
today belong to a group of cartilaginous fish. There are still very similar to their ancestors
who
existed 150 million years ago. According to experts, currently in the waters of the seas
and oceans
live 455 species of sharks. Joe Quattro professor of biology at
the University of
South Carolina. In 2006 he discovered species, which is very similar to the
famous
hammerhead sharks, but differs from it in terms of genetics.

Earth’s crust layers

Earth's crust layers

Earth’s crust layers

Earth’s crust layers – The earth’s crust is composed of light rock, which in the course of a long development of the earth piled up, and then froze. Scientists have found that is divided into two layers. The division is called. Conrad discontinuity. External called granite, creating the continents, and because of prevailing in its composition elements – silicon (silicum, Si) and aluminum (Al) – formerly was defined as SIAL. Inside, called basalt, occurs in both the continents and the oceans. It is made mostly of silica (silicum, Si) and magnesium (magnesium, Mg) in her case was the name formerly used SIMA.

Bacteria under ocean bottom

Bacteria under ocean bottom - Atlantic Ocean surface

Bacteria under ocean bottom

Bacteria under ocean bottom – American geologists from Oregon, performed in Atlantic oceanic crust (where the temperature is approx. 102 ° C) drilling to a depth of 1,391 m. Among granitic igneous rocks found relatively rich bacterial ecosystem. Bacteria feed on methane and benzene there.

Earth’s largest volcano – At the bottom of the Pacific

Earth's largest volcano - Tamu Massif, about 1000 Miles east of Japan

Earth’s largest volcano – at the bottom of the Pacific

Earth’s largest volcano – 310 798 km² (as much as the surface of Poland), is the area of Tamu Massif. The largest volcano on Earth, which is located at the bottom of the Pacific Ocean. Scientists American University of Houston found that this is a single volcano, not a group of different volcanoes.

Optical fibers connecting continents

Optical fibers connecting continents - Asia-Europe cable Route SEA-ME-WE 3

Optical fibers connecting continents

Optical fibers connecting continents – Currently, optical fibers connect all continents except Antarctica, which is connected with the world via satellites. At the bottom of the ocean is approx. 400 thousand. km wires. The longest measured up to 39 thousand km. Called SEA-ME-WE 3, which is an acronym of places, which connects – South – East Asia, the Middle East and Western Europe. Also extends to Africa, and one branch goes up to Australia. Since 2000., When the completed network, optical fiber link 33 countries from 4 continents.