Deep Space Network – Transmit-receive antennas

Deep Space Network - Antenna

Deep Space Network - Deep Dish Communications Complex - Canberra

Deep Space Network - Communication Complex - Canberra, Australia

Deep Space Network - Canberra, Australia
 
 
 
Deep Space Network - Deep Space StationDSS-43 - Canberra, AustraliaDeep Space Communication Complex-2017NASA complex - outside - Canberra, Australia

Deep Space Network – Transmit-receive antennas

Deep Space Network – Transmit-receive global network of large antennas, managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. It is a NASA interplanetary dashboard that allows constant communication with spacecraft. In March 2020, modernization works began at one of the largest antennas of this network – Deep Space Station 43 (DSS-43) in Canberra, Australia.

DSN, one of NASA’s three Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) program networks. It is located in three places in the world – in California, Spain and Australia. This allows mission controllers to communicate continuously with spacecraft on and off the Moon despite the rotation of the Earth.

DSS-43, a 70-meter antenna located in the southern hemisphere, is the only one that can send commands to the Voyager 2 probe, which travels southwards in relation to the Earth’s. orbit. (Other antennas at the Canberra complex can also receive Voyager 2 signals, but only the DSS-43 can send commands to it.)

Voyager 2, launched in 1977, is more than 11 billion miles (17.6 billion kilometers) from Earth. Therefore, it requires a powerful radio antenna to transmit its commands. Such a possibility is offered by a special transmitter operating in the S band of Deep Space Station 43.

This upgrade will not only benefit Voyager 2, but also improve connectivity with the Perseverance Mars rover. In addition, it will facilitate future activities in the field of exploration of the Moon and Mars. This network will play a key role in navigating and communicating with initial missions to the Moon and Mars, such as the manned Artemis mission.

Antenna was turned off in early March 2020. And will be turn on again when upgrade is completed in January 2021.

Olympus Mons – Highest peak of the Solar System

Mars - Mariner 9 (1971 - 1972)Martian volcano - photographed by Viking 1 spacecraft - 5000 miles away - 14.02.1979Olympus Mons - Mars - MC-2 - Diacria RegionOlympus Mons - Image from Viking 1 orbiter

Olympus Mons – Highest peak of the Solar System

Olympus Mons – An extinct volcano on the Red Planet, rises almost 22 km! However, the issue of measurement is contentious. So depending on where we measure the vertex. It can grow up to 26 km.

Its diameter is also impressive – at the base it is 624 km.

The volcanic crater itself is about 85 km long, 60 km wide, and up to 3 km deep. However, future Martian climbers will not be particularly delighted. Because Olympus has a gentle, 5-degree slope.

Impressive sizes can also boast:

Rheasilvia, huge impact crater with a diameter of 505 km. Covering up to 90% of the West’s asteroid surface (22.5 km high).
Series of almost even peaks on the Saturn’s moonIapetus, (approx. 20 km). And South Boösaule, the highest hill on Jupiter’s moon – Io (approx. 18 km).

Quantity Earth moons – Two additional pseudo-moons

Quantity Earth moons - Kazimierz Kordylewski - 1964Quantity Earth moons - Libration point L4 - diagramQuantity Earth moons - Arrangement of libration points L4 and L5

Quantity Earth moons – Two additional pseudo-moons

Quantity Earth moons – Well, it has two additional, or more precisely, pseudo-moons. These are dust clouds located in the L4 and L5 libration points of the Earth-Moon system. Although it was discovered in the 1950s, it was not until 2018 that Hungarian scientists were able to measure the polarization of their light. Clearly confirming these objects. For the first time they were noticed by the Polish astronomer Kazimierz Kordylewski and hence their name – the moons of Kordylewski. In 1956, he noticed the dust structure that he managed to photograph five years later. Specialists for decades have tried to find hard evidence for their presence. Which was not an easy task: K.Kordylewski was observing from Kasprowy Wierch and this winter. Only a few times they were observed and photographed

TRAPPIST-1f – Rocky exoplanet the size of Earth

TRAPPIST-1f - Artistic impression of exoplanetTRAPPIST-1f - Comparison of the data of the stony planets of the TRAPPIST-1 system with the planets of the solar systemTRAPPIST-1f - Planetary system around the red dwarf TRAPPIST-1

TRAPPIST-1f – Rocky exoplanet the size of Earth

TRAPPIST-1f – Rocky exoplanet, from the planetary system around red dwarf TRAPPIST-1

ESI: 0,68
Size: 1,1 Earth
Mass: 0,9 Earth
Equivalent temperature: -65°C

Around the star, 40 light-years away from us, are seven stony planets. The sixth in turn has very similar sizes to Earth. But its density is generally lower. The composition is close to the ice or water worlds of the moon Jupiter – Europe or the moon of Saturn – Enceladus. The first measurements determined that not a small part of the mass of the planet is ice, and that under the surface perhaps liquid water. The atmosphere here is not the densest, so the equivalent temperature probably does not differ from the proper one.

ISRO – Indian Space Research Organisation

ISRO - RLV-TD LogoISRO - Vikram Sarabhai - bustISRO - Vikram Sarabhai

ISRO – Indian Space Research Organisation

ISRO – Its space program also has a second country with the largest population in the world, India. The Indian Space Research Organization began implementing the Indian space program in the 1960’s. Indian scientist Vikram Sarabhai (1919 – 1971) has the greatest contribution to the development of this field. It was known that India couldn’t perform such tasks as landing on the moon or sending a man into space. Therefore, the focus was on less complex, achievable goals. Currently, ISRO is working on the development of its own space shuttle, which could repeatedly fly into space, transporting loads and transporting the crew.

It is assumed that all technological issues will be resolved within 15 years. India has behind it the first experimental model of the RLV-TD space shuttle (Reusable Launch Vehicle Technology Demonstration Program). The machine took off from the Sriharikota spaceport located on an island in the Bay of Bengal. The test flight lasted 770 seconds and the space shuttle reached a height of 65 km. The rocket was designed in such way, the ISRO could collect important data during the flight. Concerning for example: hypersonic speed, autonomous landing.

Moonless development – Earth without Moon

Moonless development - Earth without Moon - Research Center of NASA in Moffett Field

Moonless development – Earth without Moon

Moonless development – Earth without Moon – Simulations 4 billion years of
development of the Earth without the presence of the Moon. Were performed in the
Research Center of NASA in Moffett Field, California by Jack Lisauer.
In the developed model,
the maximum angle at which leaned to the axis of the Earth, turned out to be much smaller
than
assumed earlier studies. The conclusions of the study were: Earth would be the Earth,
even without
his extremely large satellite.

DNA chain – Ladders with millions rungs

Dna chain - ladders with millions rungs

DNA chain – Ladders with millions rungs

DNA chain – ladders with millions rungs – DNA strands looks like spiral ladders
with the millions rungs, each of which carries the instructions written by chemical code.
If we could unravel and stretch the DNA of a single human cell, measure the approx.
2 meters, its thickness, however, would amount to approx. 0.000002 mm. Chain DNA from
the body of one man is 16 times longer than the path from Earth to the Moon.

Galileo Galilei – Philosopher, physicist, astronomer

Galileo Galilei

Galileo Galilei – Philosopher, physicist, astronomer

Galileo Galilei – In 15.02.1642 was born Italian philosopher, physicist and astronomer Galileo.
Developer basics of modern physics. He confirmed the heliocentric theory of Copernicus.
In
07.01.1610 he discovered the four largest moons of Jupiter, later named in his honor.

Solar System coldest place – Space probe discovery

Solar System coldest place - Tycho Central Peak

Solar System coldest place - Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

Solar System coldest place – Space probe discovery

Solar System coldest place – American space probe Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), close to the pole of the Moon, on the southwestern edge of the crater Hermite discovered the coldest place of the solar system. The temperature was -249 ° C, thus lacking 24 ° C to the point of absolute zero. Substance cooled to -273.15 ° C, or to absolute zero, has no thermal energy. It is a place which does not escape any direct sunlight.

Space probe Galileo Jupiter – Extended several times

Space probe Galileo Jupiter - Io and Jupiter

Space probe Galileo Jupiter

Space probe Galileo Jupiter – In October, 1989. Space shuttle Atlantis took into space probe Galileo. Did not move out of orbit straight to Jupiter, but first flew in the direction of Venus, which was used to assist gravity. In the same order twice used the Earth and finally moved toward the gas giant. Along the way, the first probe approached asteroid, specifically Gaspra, a distance of 1600 km.

Galileo probe to Jupiter was heard after 7 years and accompanied him the next 8. It became his artificial satellite. Among other things, sent into the atmosphere of Jupiter measuring instrument, which in hellish conditions lasted almost an hour. Several times flew near the Galilean moons: Io, Ganymede, Europa and Callisto. Discovered that beneath the surface of the last three is salty ocean water.

Due to the good operation of the systems, the probe mission was extended several times (the last time at the end of April 2001.). Made a total of 34 laps around Jupiter. At that time, 7 times visited Io, Callisto 8 times, as many times Ganymede, 11 times Europe.