Olympus Mons – Highest peak of the Solar System

Mars - Mariner 9 (1971 - 1972)Martian volcano - photographed by Viking 1 spacecraft - 5000 miles away - 14.02.1979Olympus Mons - Mars - MC-2 - Diacria RegionOlympus Mons - Image from Viking 1 orbiter

Olympus Mons – Highest peak of the Solar System

Olympus Mons – An extinct volcano on the Red Planet, rises almost 22 km! However, the issue of measurement is contentious. So depending on where we measure the vertex. It can grow up to 26 km.

Its diameter is also impressive – at the base it is 624 km.

The volcanic crater itself is about 85 km long, 60 km wide, and up to 3 km deep. However, future Martian climbers will not be particularly delighted. Because Olympus has a gentle, 5-degree slope.

Impressive sizes can also boast:

Rheasilvia, huge impact crater with a diameter of 505 km. Covering up to 90% of the West’s asteroid surface (22.5 km high).
Series of almost even peaks on the Saturn’s moonIapetus, (approx. 20 km). And South Boösaule, the highest hill on Jupiter’s moon – Io (approx. 18 km).

Solar wind – The Sun has an impact on the processes

Solar wind - Solar wind from the star L.L.Orionis

Solar wind – The Sun has an impact on the processes

Solar wind – The Sun has an impact on the processes in the solar system in many different ways. Although gravity is maintained thanks to its system time emits a space wide range of molecular types of radiation, to which the feature ” wind of the Sun”. Researchers from the University of Leicester have combined the data. Obtained during the observations of solar activity from data obtained during observations of the Martian atmosphere, provided by satellites. The solar corona disappears from the environment until 2.5 x more particles. Observations were conducted during the fall of solar activity within the 11 – year solar cycle.

Martian rover Opportunity

Opportunity - Photo from the Martian rover Opportunity - Crater EagleOpportunity - Photo from the Martian rover Opportunity Martian rover Opportunity - Marquette Island

Martian rover Opportunity

Martian rover Opportunity – Even the greatest optimists did not count on that mission Opportunity could last so long. Famous vehicle landed on Mars January 25, 2004, 21 days after its sister rover Spirit. The probe flew in thin Martian atmosphere at a speed of 20920 km / h. Then spread a parachute and auxiliary nozzles, which have slowed down the fall of the rover.

Above the surface filled with airbags, which enabled a soft landing. Opportunity probe fell to the surface like a soccer ball, several times ricocheted off the ground and rolled on the heterogeneous landscape. 15 minutes of tension in the center ground, NASA ended signal that the probe had reached its destination without any obstacles and failures.

For 10 years of work Opportunity rover has experienced many adventures. In 2005. Nearly two months stuck in a sand dune. Many engineers have placed the cross on him, but the rover piece by piece freed the treacherous traps. Rover, using solar batteries, sometimes struggled with energy shortages. While the twin probe Spirit last time sent a signal to Earth 22 March 2010. Opportunity continues its mission today.

Its largest and most revolutionary discovery was to find the mineral jarosite. It is unequivocal proof that Mars also once were streams, rivers and lakes. Opportunity to learned the hard way how Martian storm. It has already defeated the marathon distance and despite some faults continues its mission.

Curiosity – Mars rover Curiosity

Curiosity - Mars rover Curiosity

Curiosity – Mars rover Curiosity

Curiosity – 6 August 2012. Mars rover Curiosity landed. The main objective of this most complicated equipment is to check that on Mars there were or there are conditions for microbial life. Equipment for the rover prepared scientific organizations from the USA, Canada, Germany, France, Russia and Spain.

Drive of the rover is radioisotopic thermoelectric generator that uses the natural decay of plutonium 238, which has proven itself in the American Viking missions of the program. Device is equipped with various revolutionary instruments for the analysis of soil, rocks and atmosphere. One of the devices is eg. Laser cannon that hits a rock from a distance of 7 m., And from the done spark is able to determine its chemical composition.

For more than eight months interplanetary probe covered more than 566 million km. Through the atmosphere of Mars flew at a speed of approx. 20800 km / h, but just above the reduced speed of just 3.22 km / h. Landing NASA has provided operators with seven minutes of terror, but in the end everything was a success. One of the biggest surprises of the mission was the discovery of a liquid, although salt water on Mars.

Phobos – One of the two moons of Mars

Phobos

Phobos – One of the two moons of Mars

Phobos – One of the two moons of Mars resembles its shape potato cratered. Red Planet caught the flying asteroid and made it their satellite. Phobos looks like it went through a herd of worms, because the inside is full of holes. The object awaits the sad fate of Mars, Phobos still draws closer and for approx. 50 million years, tidal forces of Mars moon tear to shreds. Thanks to the Red Planet will become a decoration in the form of a ring.

Martian life – Theoretically it is possible

Martian life - Mars from Hubble telescope

Martian life – Theoretically it is possible

Martian life – Could exist only in the first 600 million years of its existence. At least, so say scientists from the University of Rhode Island. Climate that prevailed at the time on Mars was wet and warm, experts believe. Theoretically, it is therefore possible that life arose here. Unfortunately, over time the planet dry and reigned on the hostile conditions in which they could not survive even the simplest organisms. Team of researchers came to these conclusions based on the analysis of mineral samples from Mars. The change came about. 4 billion years ago and was most likely the result of volcanic eruptions. Since then, the minerals formed without the aid of water and are very rich in iron.

Martian methane – Detected in meteorites from Mars

Martian methane - MarsMeteorite- NWA7034

Martian methane – Detected in meteorites from Mars

Martian methane – Detected in meteorites from Mars – Canadian researchers from the University of Brock, in six meteorites from Mars have detected the presence of methane. The researchers also found traces of carbon dioxide, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and argon. Methane was formed in meteorites probably under the influence of chemical reactions, so it is not of biological origin as methane on Earth. Scientists believe that the volcanic rocks of Mars there are large quantities of methane, which could be a source of energy for underground microbes. This confirms the theory that the Earth there are microbes that live thanks to methane. They live on the bottoms of the oceans in layers of basalt and do not need oxygen. Signals the presence of methane in the Martian atmosphere appeared more than 10 years ago, but so far have failed to unequivocally confirm.

Earth larger compared Mars – Red Planet very small

Earth larger compared Mars - Earth - Mars, size comparison

Earth larger compared Mars – Red Planet very small

Earth larger compared Mars – The Red Planet is very small compared to the Earth – is only one-tenth its mass. 15% of the volume and half the size. It is a mystery, because according to the traditional theory of planet formation distribution of the material in the protoplanetary disk (the disk around the star where planets are formed) should be equal. This would mean that Mars should be like Venus and Earth. Why not? In the region of our solar system, which was built had to be relatively little material.

It is possible that this was due to the migration of Jupiter and Saturn, which astronomers suspect is that at the beginning of its history, went towards the sun. To then return to their orbits, sweeping the road dust from orbit forming a Mars. The new theory does not imply interference gas giants, scientists say Mars began to form near the present orbit of the Earth. But then gravitational forces pushed the go further, where there was a lower density of the protoplanetary disk.