Naked mole – rat – Heterocephalus glaber

Naked mole-rat - Heterocephalus glaber - EatingNaked mole-rat - Heterocephalus glaberHeterocephalus glaber - Louisville-ZooHeterocephalus glaber - Museum of Natural History - Genova, Italy

Naked mole-rat – Heterocephalus glaber

Naked mole-rat – Heterocephalus glaber – Is practically blind and has no pain. This rodent lives in East Africa. It is digging underground corridors in search of tubers and roots. For this he uses the incisors that are in front of the lips, so that the soil does not get into the mouth.
Mole-rats spend almost their entire lives underground without going to the surface. They are unusual for many reasons. Not only are they the only cold-blooded mammals, they are also resistant to cancer, aging, hypoxia and pain.
Their almost completely hairless, thick and wrinkled skin. It is insensitive to abrasions or scratches. Because Mole-rats do not have the key neurotransmitter for pain conduction (substance P).

Naked mole-rats are the longest-living rodents (they live to 30 years)

And their risk of death doesn’t increase with age. These animals have very active mechanisms repair DNA.
They also tolerate extreme hypoxia, which often occurs in narrow and stuffy underground tunnels. When there is a lack of air, mole-rats reduce life activity. They change the energy supply process (break down fructose instead of glucose). In this way they avoid brain damage.
The equally interesting is structure Social. Which resembles swarms of bees or ant colonies. Flocks of these rodents count from several dozen to 300 individuals. At the same time, only the queen and prolific male breeds. The rest are sterile and conscientiously work for the herd.

Los Angeles underground discoveries

Los Angeles underground discoveries - Parking under UCLA

Los Angeles underground discoveries

Los Angeles underground discoveries – In downtown Los Angeles during the construction
of
the underground car park, have been dug up animal remains from the Ice Age.

Called
to the place paleontologists have discovered bones of: cougar, wolves, horses,
European bisons
and other mammals. Near the main findings lay the skeleton of the mammoth.

Birds made sounds

Birds made sounds - Indian birdBirds made sounds - Bird RespirationBirds made sounds

Birds made sounds

Birds made sounds – Birds make sounds using a special organ called the lower larynx. Situated at the end of the trachea, it has no vocal cords, such as mammals. Their function is performed membrane located in the trachea and bronchi major. A loud sound is made possible by strengthening it in the air sacspecial tabs lungs. In addition, organ voice bird consists of two parts which can work independently of each other, and some species are able to sing at the same time two different melodies. Many species of birds there is no organ voice, and the sound from such dates. Clatter of the bow (storks) or hitting with various hard objects (woodpeckers).

From mouse to elephant

From mouse to elephant - House mouse (Mus musculus)

From mouse to elephant - African Elefant (Loxodonta africana)

From mouse to elephant

From mouse to elephant – The size of modern mammals oscillates between individuals of the size of the coin until after the giant animals, measuring tens of meters. The researchers found that before mammals reached the size of a mouse the size of an elephant, had to pass at least 24 million generations.

Anthropoids penis size

Anthropoids penis size - Marilyn Monroe with chimpanzee

Anthropoids penis size

Anthropoids penis size – According to a study conducted in 2013 at Indiana University. The average of human male penis length in erection is 14, 15 cm. The best equipped, the mammal is a chimpanzee chief, whose penis in erection reaches a length of 8 cm. Larger orangutans have almost twice shorter penis, and male gorillas, which reach adulthood growth of 165-175 cm and weigh 140-204 kg, have a penis length of only 3 cm.

Animal olfactory opportunities

Animal olfactory opportunities - Aussie Bonnie plays with footballAnimal olfactory opportunities - Male African Elefant (Loxodonta africana) in Serengeti

Animal olfactory opportunities

Animal olfactory opportunities – Researchers at the University of Tokyo compared the number of genes responsible for the sense of smell in 13 mammals, including man. It turned out that of all the animals tested was the elephant has the most olfactory genesin 1948. In second place came the rat (1207 genes), followed by the cow (1186 genes). Dogs of 811 genes were in the middle of the statement, and a man of 396 genes was ninth. Worst fell orangutan, which has only 296 olfactory genes.

Longest pregnancy – Terrestrial and sea animals

Longest pregnancy - Frilled shark (Chlamydoselachus anguineus)Longest pregnancy - African Elefant (Loxodonta africana)

Longest pregnancy - Alpine salamander (Salamandra atra)

Longest pregnancy – Terrestrial and sea animals

Longest pregnancy – Frilled shark (Chlamydoselachus anguineus), a primitive deep-sea shark, pregnancy lasts until 3.5 years. From terrestrial animals record holder is alpine salamander (Salamandra atra), 12inch amphibian, which lives only in the central and eastern Alps. At the height of 650-1000 m.a.s.l. its pregnancy lasts two years, and at an altitude of 1400-1700 m.a.s.l. up to 3 years. With mammals longest pregnancy are elephants up to 2 years.