Berkut – Spacesuit for spacecraft Voskhod 2

Space suit - BerkutSpace suit - Memorial Museum of AstronauticsBerkut - Smithsonian National Air and Space MuseumBerkut - Smithsonian Air and Space Museum

Berkut – Spacesuit for spacecraft Voskhod 2


  • In use over the years: 1964 – 1965
  • Space ships: Voskhod 2.
  • Mass: 20 kg plus backpack 21 kg.

Berkut – Created on the order of the conversion of a one-person cabin from Vostok to Voskhod. Adapted to a three-person crew. The equipment of the cabin had to be kept to a minimum, and this also applied to the suits. On October 12, 1964, the Voskhod 1 spacecraft took off into space. There were three cosmonauts in it, dressed only in woolen trousers and jackets. The mission was surprisingly successful, but the risk was very high. Another goal of the competing US and USSR was to go out into the open space (EVA).

In order to save space in the cabin, the new Soviet suit, called Berkut, i.e. the golden eagle, chose a soft construction for itself. To keep it supplied with oxygen for an extended period of time, a backpack containing three 2-liter oxygen cylinders is included. Providing its inflow for 45 minutes. With this equipment, on March 18, 1965, the Voschod 2 spacecraft set off into space. The crew was made up of Pavel Belyayev and Alexey Leonov. Under the conditions of space vacuum, his suit expanded in volume and literally turned into concrete. On his way back to the ship, Leonov realized that he simply couldn’t fit into the pressure chamber anymore.

He started fighting for his life. He lowered the pressure to the critical 270 hPa, which corresponds to a pressure of 10,000 meters above sea level. It reduced the stiffness of the suit and eventually got into the chamber, but head first. So he had to flexibly get into the correct position for returning to the ship. During this maneuver, he got stuck in the narrower part of the chamber, but eventually succeeded. He spent 23 minutes outside the ship, 12 of them in open space. Cooling the suit turned out to be problematic as well, Leonov was overheating during the space walk and he was in danger of collapsing.

TOI 700 d – Exoplanet from constellation Dorado

TOI 700 d - Exoplanet from constellation DoradoTOI 700 d - Exoplanet in planetary systemTOI 700 d - Dorado constellation mapDorado constellation

TOI 700 d – Exoplanet from constellation Dorado

TOI 700 d – In early 2020, astronomers managed to discover a planet about the size of the Earth. They discovered it thanks to the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellit (TESS) – NASA’s space telescope. Designed to search for extrasolar planets by transit. The planet TOI 700 d, located relatively close to our solar system, orbits its own star. It is located approximately 100 light-years from Earth.

An Earth-sized planet lies within the habitable zone of its parent star. That is, circulating at such a distance from it that there are suitable conditions for maintaining the presence of liquid water on the surface. This, in turn, gives rise to presumptions about the existence of life there. TOI700 is a small, cool M dwarf with a mass of 30% of the mass of the Sun. Three planets orbit a star within the constellation Dorado.

Several similar planets were found in the TRAPPIST-1 system, named after the TRAPPIST telescope in Chile. Another was discovered thanks to the Spitzer Space Telescope.

TOI-700 is approximately 20% larger than Earth. The year on it lasts 37 earthly days. It receives 86% of the energy supplied by the Sun to Earth from the star. The exact conditions on it are unknown. But with the information gathered, the scientists prepared 20 models of potential environments. Able to reign on TOI-700. Some of these models suggest that the planet may be livable and colonized in the future.

Muscular dystrophy – Is caused by muscle weakness

Muscular dystrophy - Make A Wish participant enlisted

Muscular dystrophy - National Poster Child of the Year

Muscular dystrophy - Cleveland, Ohio, USA

Muscular dystrophy - Child receiving torch money - Federal Building in Cleveland, Ohio, USA
Stem cells administrationDuchenne muscular photo essayDuchenne muscular dystrophy

Muscular dystrophy – Is caused by muscle weakness

Muscular Dystrophy – This disease is the result of weakened muscles and has nothing to do with damage to the nervous system. There is a 25% chance that the child will acquire muscular dystrophy from the parents. What is certain, however, is that the problem lies in the muscle cells themselves. The patient’s body is unable to produce protein dystrophins, without which our muscles cannot work. There are two types of dystrophy. The more severe one is Duchenne dystrophy, which affects both adults and children. Sick boys quickly end up in a wheelchair, and the work of their hearts and lungs deteriorates. The maximum life expectancy with the disease is 20 years.

The second type of dystrophy is called Becker’s dystrophy. It manifests itself in patients a little later, usually after the age of 10. The first symptoms of this type of dystrophy include weakness in the calf, pelvic and thigh muscles. Scientists warn that 30% of patients did not get sick for reasons genetic , but their chromosome was attacked by a new mutation.

Dead Sea salinity – Salt lake without outflow

Dead Sea salinityDead Sea salinityDead Sea salinityDead Sea salinityDead Sea salinityDead Sea salinityDead Sea salinityDead Sea salinityDead Sea salinityIsrael - (07-07-2016)Sunset - Jordan - (2013)View from U.S. Space Shuttle mission-STS-28 - (01-08-1989)Stones at shore - IsraelBeit-HaArava - Before the 1948 Arab–Israeli WarNatural Bitumen from shoreCobble with rock-salt - from Israel

Dead Sea salinity – Salt lake without outflow

Dead Sea salinity – 33.7%, which is 10 times higher than for normal water use. About 40 billion tons of salt are contained in the sea. By evaporating one liter of its water, you can get about 250 grams of this mineral. Due to the high salinity in the Dead Sea, which is actually a salt lake without outflow. There is no right life. For comparison, the salinity of the Baltic Sea is only about 7 ‰.

Dead Sea mud has antiseptic and bactericidal properties.

Annapurna – Himalayas, Nepal – Risky for climbers

Annapurna - Himalayas, NepalAnnapurna - Himalayas, NepalAnnapurna - Himalayas, NepalAnnapurna - Himalayas, NepalAnnapurna - Himalayas, NepalAnnapurna - Himalayas, NepalNepalese Mountains and a twinkling skyAaron Benson - Nepal - (27-01-2017)South Mountain - (17-01-2005)Base of Mount - (17-01-2017)

Annapurna – Himalayas, Nepal – Risky for climbers

„Annapurna takes life” – wrote in the diary Mingma Sherpa, conqueror of the Himalayan Crown and Karakoram. „To climb this mountain, you need perseverance – and happiness.” Before the start, the expedition leader once again looked deeply into the eyes of each member of his team. Everyone knew well that there are nine higher peaks than rising 8091 meters above sea level Annapurna. But none of them killed so many daredevils – statistically every fourth climber never returns from it.To this day more than 60 people have lost their lives there, and the bodies of many of them lie frozen somewhere in rocky cracks or under the snow. Extracting them is too risky.
For comparison: on the much more frequented Mount Everest mortality is only 4%. There is a reason why climbers call Annapurna the mountain of death. On the 2.6 km steep southern wall, there are avalanches – apart from altitude sickness, loss of orientation and freezing. Also for the 13-man expedition led by Mingma Sherpa. This eight-thousander turned out to be unlucky: although they all reached the top, but two of its members died on the way back. In the dark of night they fell into the abyss …

Annapurna is dangerous not only when climbing.

In October 2014, at least 43 people died during snowstorms and avalanches in the area. Including many himalaists. It was the most tragic accident in history of Nepal.

Naked mole – rat – Heterocephalus glaber

Naked mole-rat - Heterocephalus glaber - EatingNaked mole-rat - Heterocephalus glaberHeterocephalus glaber - Louisville-ZooHeterocephalus glaber - Museum of Natural History - Genova, Italy

Naked mole-rat – Heterocephalus glaber

Naked mole-rat – Heterocephalus glaber – Is practically blind and has no pain. This rodent lives in East Africa. It is digging underground corridors in search of tubers and roots. For this he uses the incisors that are in front of the lips, so that the soil does not get into the mouth.
Mole-rats spend almost their entire lives underground without going to the surface. They are unusual for many reasons. Not only are they the only cold-blooded mammals, they are also resistant to cancer, aging, hypoxia and pain.
Their almost completely hairless, thick and wrinkled skin. It is insensitive to abrasions or scratches. Because Mole-rats do not have the key neurotransmitter for pain conduction (substance P).

Naked mole-rats are the longest-living rodents (they live to 30 years)

And their risk of death doesn’t increase with age. These animals have very active mechanisms repair DNA.
They also tolerate extreme hypoxia, which often occurs in narrow and stuffy underground tunnels. When there is a lack of air, mole-rats reduce life activity. They change the energy supply process (break down fructose instead of glucose). In this way they avoid brain damage.
The equally interesting is structure Social. Which resembles swarms of bees or ant colonies. Flocks of these rodents count from several dozen to 300 individuals. At the same time, only the queen and prolific male breeds. The rest are sterile and conscientiously work for the herd.

Ricinus communis – Castor oil plant

Ricinus communis - Southern MexicoRicinus communis - Botanic Garden (Frankfurt, Germany)Ricinus communis - Venezuela
Ricinus communis - Castor oil plant (1)Ricinus communis - Castor oil plant (2)

Ricinus communis – Castor oil plant

Ricinus communis – It probably comes from the north of Africa. It is a 10-meter tall plant that enjoys great popularity in gardening.

  • Deadly dose: 15 – 20 seeds
  • Death: to 1 week
  • Poison: ricin
  • Aftermath: renal, liver and spleen failure
  • Where it grows: in all tropical and subtropical areas of the world
  • Occurrence in Poland: artificially bred

The most dangerous are the bars of its seeds, about 6,000 times more aggressive than cyanide. Causes agglutination of red blood cells and damages the liver, kidneys and spleen. The first symptoms are similar to a cold, followed by headaches, mouth burning, vomiting and internal bleeding. It gradually attacks the entire human circulatory system.

History of the plant:
Castor oil is squeezed from the seeds, from which soap, ointments, drops or perfumes are made. Apparently Cleopatra applied it to her eyes to have a “wider perspective”. In 1978, a Bulgarian secret interview was used to murder the writer and journalist Georgie Markov, who after several days of the fight for his life died of kidney failure in a London hospital.

Cicuta virosa – It is 150 centimeters high

Cicuta virosa - Oulu, Finland (18.07.2013)Cicuta virosa (1)Cicuta virosa (2)

Cicuta virosa – It is 150 centimeters high

The highest concentration of toxic substances is found in its rhizome.

  • Deadly dose: 2g root
  • Death: within 24 hours
  • Poison: cicutoxin
  • Aftermath: degeneration of skeletal muscles
  • Where it grows: North and South America, Europe, Asia
  • Occurrence in Poland: yes

In North America it has hundreds of poisoned sheep per year on its conscience. People can mistake its root with the parsley root, and the most common victims of harmful substances are children. Cicutoxin works very quickly, after just a few minutes you can observe irritations of mucous membranes and abdominal pain. If a man survives poisoning, it is very likely that he will struggle with damage to the central nervous system for the rest of his life. Unlike other animals, mice can without fear of poisoning eat plant seeds.

Oleander – Nerium oleander

Oleander - Nerium oleander (1)Oleander - Nerium oleander (2)Oleander - Nerium oleander (3)

Oleander – Nerium oleander

Oleander – Nerium oleander – This beautifully blooming shrub belongs to the most common plants not only in the countries of the Mediterranean.

  • Deadly dose: 2 leaves
  • Death: in few hours
  • Poison: oleander
  • Aftermath: cardiac arrhythmia
  • Where it grows: from the Mediterranean, through North Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, to southern Asia
  • Occurrence in Poland: artificially bred

In order to say goodbye to your life, it’s enough to chew on one leaf. The honey obtained from oleander flowers may also be toxic. The first signs of intoxication include vomiting, fever and dizziness. The substance directly attacks the heart and increases muscle tone.

History of the plant:
Together with Conium maculatum was the most popular medieval poison. It was used as a means to control rats and mice. In the past, many people lost their lives because they roasted meat on oleander branches.

KEPLER-442b – Stony exoplanet in superearth class

KEPLER-442bKEPLER-442b - Comparison of exoplanets from the Kepler system to EarthKEPLER-442b

KEPLER-442b – Stony exoplanet in superearth class

KEPLER-442b – Stony exoplanet in superearth class, which the parent star is the orange dwarf.

ESI: 0,84
Size: 1,3 Earth
Mass: 2,3 Earth
Equivalent temperature: -65°C

The planet KEPLER-442b, from which light has been running for 1115 years, belongs to the so-called Super-Earth. In this way, rocky exoplanets are determined whose mass does not exceed tenfolds Earth. The parent star of this planet is an orange dwarf. The star larger than a red dwarf, but smaller than a yellow dwarf, which is the Sun. This type of star has calmer youth, and therefore does not send its planetary children too much UV. In addition, the planet is in the ecosphere, so it can not be ruled out that the ocean is splashing on its rocky surface. If it has a more complex atmosphere, it does not have to be at the same time a kingdom of cold. According to some calculations, it is the smaller superearth that are most suitable for life, even more than our own planet.

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