Galileo Galilei – Philosopher, physicist, astronomer
Galileo Galilei – In 15.02.1642 was born Italian philosopher, physicist and astronomer Galileo.
Developer basics of modern physics. He confirmed the heliocentric theory of Copernicus.
In 07.01.1610 he discovered the four largest moons of Jupiter, later named in his honor.
Space probe Galileo on Jupiter
Space probe Galileo on Jupiter – In October, 1989. Space shuttle Atlantis took into space probe Galileo. Did not move out of orbit straight to Jupiter, but first flew in the direction of Venus, which was used to assist gravity. In the same order twice used the Earth and finally moved toward the gas giant. Along the way, the first probe approached asteroid, specifically Gaspra, a distance of 1600 km.
Galileo probe to Jupiter was heard after 7 years and accompanied him the next 8. It became his artificial satellite. Among other things, sent into the atmosphere of Jupiter measuring instrument, which in hellish conditions lasted almost an hour. Several times flew near the Galilean moons: Io, Ganymede, Europa and Callisto. Discovered that beneath the surface of the last three is salty ocean water.
Due to the good operation of the systems, the probe mission was extended several times (the last time – at the end of April 2001.). Made a total of 34 laps around Jupiter. At that time, 7 times visited Io, Callisto 8 times, as many times Ganymede, 11 times Europe.
Great Red Spot
Great Red Spot – 03.12.1974 – The probe Pioneer 11 passed Jupiter at a distance of 47760 km. Executing the first observations of polar regions and photographing the Great Red Spot.
Io – most active volcanically object of Solar System
Io most active volcanically – There is, on the same conditions as in hell. It is the most active volcanically object in the Solar System. Throws tons of sulfur, so its poor atmosphere composed predominantly of sulfur dioxide. On the colored surface of Io erupts approx. 400 volcanoes. And it plays an important role in shaping the magnetosphere of Jupiter.
Earth larger compared Mars – Red Planet very small
Earth larger compared Mars – The Red Planet is very small compared to the Earth – is only one-tenth its mass. 15% of the volume and half the size. It is a mystery, because according to the traditional theory of planet formation distribution of the material in the protoplanetary disk (the disk around the star where planets are formed) should be equal. This would mean that Mars should be like Venus and Earth. Why not? In the region of our solar system, which was built had to be relatively little material.
It is possible that this was due to the migration of Jupiter and Saturn, which astronomers suspect is that at the beginning of its history, went towards the sun. To then return to their orbits, sweeping the road dust from orbit forming a Mars. The new theory does not imply interference gas giants, scientists say Mars began to form near the present orbit of the Earth. But then gravitational forces pushed the go further, where there was a lower density of the protoplanetary disk.
Falling planet – Phenomenon of extrasolar planet
Falling planet – The phenomenon of an extrasolar planet falling to its parent star. Observed by Dr. Gracjan Maciejewski of the Center for Astronomy, of the Nicolaus Copernicus University, along with guided their international research team. As for the planet WASP-12b, discovered in 2008. Planet is among the gas giants – planets similar to Jupiter or Saturn. There is, however, surprisingly close to its parent star, because within 3.4 million km (17 times closer than Mercury from the Sun). This causes the planet high temperatures, of the order of 2000 °C. Calculations show that the planet ultimately fall on the star for about one million years. It is a very short time compared with the estimated at about 2 billion years older tested planetary system. For closer orbits are responsible tides, which inspires the planet on its parent star.