Worlds smallest countries – 10 record breakers

Worlds smallest countries – 10 record breakers

 
Worlds smallest countries - Vatican City - panoramaWorlds smallest countries - Vatican City - panorama (2)Worlds smallest countries - Vatican City - panorama (3) - Pope Francis in the window
 
 
 
 
 
 
1. Vatican City – The record is church enclave in Italy with an area of only 0.44 km². Official languages: Italian and … Latin.

 
Worlds smallest countries - Monaco - StadiumWorlds smallest countries - Monaco - Panorama, 2015Worlds smallest countries - Monaco - map
 
 
 
 
 
 
2. Monaco – This principality, covering only 2.02 km², has an impressive population density of 18,775 people per km².

 
Worlds smallest countries - Nauru - mapWorlds smallest countries - Nauru-parliamentWorlds smallest countries - View of Nauru (NOAA)
 
 
 
 
 
 
3. Nauru – The island state in the Pacific Ocean has an area of 21.3 km², so it is smaller than Zielona Góra.

 
Worlds smallest countries - Tuvalu - Inaba (1)Worlds smallest countries - Tuvalu - Inaba (2)Worlds smallest countries - Tuvalu - Inaba (3)
 
 
 
 
 
 
4. Tuvalu – Located also in the Pacific, the archipelago occupies 26 km², and its highest point rises only 5 meters above sea level.

 
Worlds smallest countries - San Marino - Panorama (1)Worlds smallest countries - San Marino 2008 - Panorama (2)Worlds smallest countries - San Marino - Panorama (3)
 
 
 
 
 
 
5. San Marino – The enclave, surrounded by Italy, has an area of 61 km² and is the oldest republic in the world.

 
Worlds smallest countries - Liechtenstein - BalzersWorlds smallest countries - Liechtenstein - 2017.07.16Worlds smallest countries - Liechtenstein - Castle Of Gutenberg, Balzers
 
 
 
 
 
 
6. Liechtenstein – It is the only country located entirely in the Alps. It has an area of 160 km², and up to 33% of its inhabitants are foreigners.

 
Worlds smallest countries - Marshall Islands - Photo from Bikrin IslandWorlds smallest countries - Marshall IslandsWorlds smallest countries - Marshall Islands - At Gugeegue Islands Northern Point Looking South
 
 
 
 
 
 
7. Marshall Islands – More than 1,200 islands included in this Pacific located country have a total area of 181 km².

 
Worlds smallest countries - Saint Kitts and Nevis - Caribbean CruiseWorlds smallest countries - Saint Kitts and Nevis - Caribbean Cruise, 2016.02 (2)Worlds smallest countries - Saint Kitts and Nevis - North Frigate Bay - View from Timothy Hill - Panorama
 
 
 
 
 
 
8. Saint Kitts and Nevis – This Caribbean federation covers 269 km². The islands were discovered by Christopher Columbus in 1493.

 
Worlds smallest countries - Maldives - 2008.10.24 - PanoramaWorlds smallest countries - MaldivesWorlds smallest countries - Maldives, Kandooma - Panorama (2)
 
 
 
 
 
 
9. Maldives – Located in the Indian Ocean, the archipelago includes 1196 islands. It has a total area of 300 km² and a height of max. 1 m above sea level.

 
Worlds smallest countries - Malta - PanoramaWorlds smallest countries - Malta - The Spur TowerWorlds smallest countries - Malta - Valletta at night
 
 
 
 
 
 
10. Malta – This state in the Mediterranean Sea extends over an area of 316 km² (similar to Cracow) and consists of three inhabited and several uninhabited islands.

Ponte Vecchio – Old Bridge connects two Arno banks

Ponte Vecchio - Florence, Italy, 2004Ponte Vecchio - Florence bridges

Ponte Vecchio - Snowy

Ponte Vecchio – Old Bridge connects two Arno banks

Ponte Vecchio – Old Bridge connects two Arno banks. It is also known as the Bridge of Goldsmiths. It managed to survive long centuries, wars and floods. Thanks to which, became a symbol of Florence. It was based on the design of the architect Neri di Fioravante. The original tenants of the picturesque stalls, however, were not artisans who dealt with the production of artistic objects from precious metals, but fish traders, tanners and butchers. The Arno River served them as a garbage dump, to which they threw all waste. This was what the space with the arcades under the central arches of the bridge served. At the end of the sixteenth century, Prince Ferdynand I of the Medici family removed from the stalls representatives of “smelly” professions, and offered their place to jewelers and goldsmiths. On the orders of Cosimo Medici over their studios, a covered corridor was created that connected his Florentine palaces.

It resisted destruction during World War II. When in 1944 the Germans withdrew from Italy, Adolf Hitler ordered the commanding German forces to the field marshal Albert Kesselring not to destroy the bridge. Who took him with his beauty while traveling to Italy.

Galileo Galilei – Philosopher, physicist, astronomer

Galileo Galilei

Galileo Galilei – Philosopher, physicist, astronomer

Galileo Galilei – In 15.02.1642 was born Italian philosopher, physicist and astronomer Galileo.
Developer basics of modern physics. He confirmed the heliocentric theory of Copernicus.
In
07.01.1610 he discovered the four largest moons of Jupiter, later named in his honor.

Guglielmo Marconi – Italian inventor of radio

Guglielmo Marconi - Italian inventor of radio

Guglielmo Marconi – Italian inventor of radio

Guglielmo Marconi – Italian inventor of radio 25.04.1874 born Italian physicist
G. Marconi. He works on the construction of the radio. In 1897.
He received a patent for “The transmission of electrical signals and in 1901.
Conducted a radio transmission across the Atlantic. In 1909. together with Karl Braun,
he received the Nobel Prize
in Physics for the development of wireless telegraphy.

Penalty kick statistics – European three seasons

Penalty kick statistics - Penalty kick success graphPenalty kick statistics - Green color

– Successful penalty kick (74.7 %)

 

Penalty kick statistics - Blue color
– Saved by goalkeeper (18.2 %)

 

Penalty kick statistics - Red color
– Shot missed the goal (3.6 %)

 

Penalty kick statistics - Brown color
– Hit the woodwork (and not ended with goal) (3.5 %)

Penalty kick statistics – European three seasons

Penalty kick statistics – In 2008. Castrol has commissioned a detailed study of penalty kicks executed in three seasons in football leagues: English, Spanish, Italian, French and German. The whole is complemented by the results of the Champions League, UEFA Cup and European Championship. With the 1527 penalty shoot the ball landed in the net in 75.7% of cases. It follows that the ¼ of penalties will not translate into goals. 3.6% of all shots landed outside the goal, stopped the remaining 3.5% of the posts or crossbar. Goalkeepers managed to defend up 18.2% strokes.

Female smell sense – Menstrual cycle effects

Female smell sense - Human nose

Female smell sense – Menstrual cycle effects

Female smell sense – In 2001. Italian scientists have studied the effects of the menstrual cycle on the sense of smell. It turned out that the nose is the most sensitive in the ovulation period, at a time when they are most fertile women. After three months of hormonal contraception women lost their greater sensitivity to odors in about ovulation.

Scientific journal PLoS ONE – Research findings

Scientific journal PLoS ONE - PLoS ONE Logo

Scientific journal PLoS ONE – Research findings

Scientific journal PLoS ONE – Researchers from Italy and the US scientific journalPLoS ONEpublished their findings. Which looked at the behavior of more than a million Facebook users, and 73 sites promoting scientific and pseudo-scientific content. The main conclusions of these publications are: Facebook users have a strong tendency to polarize opinion and search for content corresponding to or rather confirm their beliefs.

Copper cube cryostat – Cryostat construction

Copper cube cryostat - Cryostat construction

Copper cube cryostat – Cryostat construction

Copper cube cryostat – Italian researchers from the Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN). Put the copper cube with a volume of 1 and 400 kg in a special cryostat designed so that extremely cool down items. This is the first cryostat, which maintains the temperature course barely above the absolute zero (0 Kelvin = -273.15 ° C). In the case of copper cube thermometer stopped just 6 milikelwinach, or 0.006 degree above absolute zero.

Mirror neurons – Responsible for empathy

Mirror neurons - Rafal Ohme

Mirror neurons – Responsible for empathy

– For our extraordinary abilities are responsible mirror neurons, the nerve cells scattered in different regions of the brain. They allow you to feel the emotions and intentions of others. Responsible for empathy.

says Prof.. Rafal Ohme, psychologist and specialist in neuroscience consumer.

Mirror neurons - Giacomo Rizzolatti

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Without mirror neurons would not be possible, most human relationships. We could not understand each other

– adds Prof. Giacomo Rizzolatti of the University of Parma in the Italy. He got on the trail of mirror neurons by accident, when in the late 80’s led research on the effects of motor cortex in the brain. He wanted to know how the brain behaves monkeys family of macaques, when performing simple tasks.