Andre-Marie Ampere – Thoughtful and versatile scientist

Andre-Marie AmpereAndre-Marie AmpereAndre-Marie AmpereAndre-Marie Ampere - Museum of Ampere - Poleymieux, Mont d'Or, France, 2007Andre-Marie Ampere - Ampere grave in Montmartre, Paris, 2006Andre-Marie Ampere - Ampere grave (detail) - Montmartre, Paris, France, 2006Andre-Marie Ampere - Museum of Ampere - Poleymieux, Mont d'Or, FranceAndre-Marie Ampere - Museum of Ampere - Poleymieux, Mont d'Or, France

Andre-Marie Ampere – Thoughtful and versatile scientist

Andre-Marie Ampere – (1775 – 1836) – The ancestor of electrodynamics did not go to primary school, his father taught him alone. Ampere sent his first scientific work to the Lyon Academy of Sciences (Academie de Lyon) at the age of 13! A quiet life and urgent studies were interrupted when his father was guillotined in 1793 for the Jacobin dictatorship. Eighteen-year-old Ampere has suffered this trauma. After the period of mourning, he returned to science and spiritual work. He was interested in mathematics and physics as well as in philosophy, botany, chemistry, as well as Latin, Italian and Greek.

Son Jean-Jacques Ampere (1800 – 1864) after his father’s death finished his work. Which was to classify the sciences –

Sketches from the philosophy of science, or an analytic representation of the general classification of all human knowledge

But his greatest merit is description of magnetism and subsequent establishment of the theory of electromagnetic phenomena as the basis of electrodynamics. He also created the first magnetic coil, which became the basis for the later telegraph.

At the age of 22, he began to teach mathematics in Lyon and later became a professor of chemistry and physics. For nineteen years he taught at the Polytechnique in Paris. During his lifetime he belonged to many scientific societies and he was also appreciated abroad. Unfortunately, his financial situation did not reflect merit. He often lacked money for experiments, which delayed his work.
He spent most of his life traveling, while on one of them in Marseilles, on June 10, 1836, he died. On the gravestone, according to his wishes, engraved: Tandem felix – Finally happy.

First photographing method – Invention of daguerreotype

First photographing method - invention of daguerreotype

First photographing method – Invention of daguerreotype

First photographing method – Invention of daguerreotype – In 01.09.1839,
the French Academy of Sciences
announced the invention of the daguerreotype,
the first
shooting method. But it was a very expensive method. Which did not give the
possibility of obtaining
multiple copies of a single negative.

Albert Schweitzer – French theologian, philosopher, physician

Albert Schweitzer - French theologian, philosopher, physician

Albert Schweitzer – French theologian, philosopher, physician

Albert Schweitzer – In 01.14.1875 born French theologian, philosopher and physician A. Schweitzer.
In 1912
he resigned from the post of associate professor of theology at the University of Strasbourg.
A year later,
in Lambarene (Gabon today) founded a hospital where he treated residents and
led the
missionary center. In 1952 he received the Nobel Peace Prize.

First Winter Olympics – Chamonix in the French Alps

First Winter Olympics - Chamonix in the French Alps

First Winter Olympics – Chamonix in the French Alps

First Winter Olympics – 25.01.1924 in Chamonix in the French Alps, opened the first
Winter
Olympic Games. Called the Week of Winter Sports. At the conference,
the IOC
in Prague a year later were considered to be the first Winter Olympics.

Measuring asteroids – Shape and size

Measuring asteroids shape and size - Observatory de la Cote d’Azur

Measuring asteroids – Shape and size

Measuring asteroids – Shape and size – French scientists from the Observatoire de la Cote d’Azur have developed a new way of measuring the shape and size of asteroids. They used an interferometer constructed of 2 VLT telescopes, with diameters of 8.2 m. To measure the asteroid Barbara. The results indicate that the asteroid is composed of two parts with a diameter of 37 and 21 km. Apart from each other 24 km.

Pierre Curie – French physicist

Pierre Curie - French physicist

Pierre Curie – French physicist

Pierre Curie – French physicist – In 05.15.1859 was born French physicist Pierre Curie,
husband of Maria Curie-Sklodowska. He studied crystals and radioactivity.
He found with his wife elements radium and polonium. The first experience of
the use of
radium in the fight against cancer conducted on himself.
In 1903
he received the Nobel Prize.

Antimalarial effective drug – Isolated Quinine

Antimalarial effective drug - isolated Quinine

Antimalarial effective drug – Isolated Quinine

Antimalarial effective drug – Isolated Quinine. One of the first effective drugs for malaria was the bark of the Peruvian cinchona tree (Cinchona) containing alkaloid quinine. Its action convinced the Jesuits and approx. 1640. Brought it from South America. to Europe. It was not until 1820. Quinine isolated the French chemists Pierre Joseph Pelletier and Joseph Bienaime Caventou.

World atomic arsenal

World atomic arsenal - Nuclear explosion in Nagasaki

World atomic arsenal

World atomic arsenal – Nuclear bombs are one of the most powerful and therefore most terrible weapons created by man. Here are the countries which have atomic arsenal:

– USA:

  • the first nuclear explosion: 16 July 1945.
  • the first thermonuclear explosion: 31 October 1952.
  • the number of nuclear warheads: over 10 thousand.
  • number of tests of nuclear weapons: 1030

– Russia (USSR):

 

  • the first nuclear explosion: 29 August 1949.
  • the first thermonuclear explosion: 12 August 1953.
  • the number of nuclear warheads: over 10 thousand.
  • number of tests of nuclear weapons: 715

 

– Great Britain:

 

  • the first nuclear explosion: 3 October 1952.
  • the first thermonuclear explosion: 15 May 1957.
  • the number of nuclear warheads: 185
  • number of tests of nuclear weapons: 45

 

– France:

 

  • the first nuclear explosion: 13 February 1960.
  • the first thermonuclear explosion: 24 September 1966.
  • the number of nuclear warheads: 350
  • number of tests of nuclear weapons: 210

 

– China:

 

  • the first nuclear explosion: 16 October 1964.
  • the first thermonuclear explosion: 17 June 1967.
  • the number of nuclear warheads: 400
  • number of tests of nuclear weapons: 45

 

– India:

 

  • the first nuclear explosion: 18 May 1974.
  • the first thermonuclear explosion: –
  • the number of nuclear warheads: 60
  • number of tests of nuclear weapons: 3

 

– Pakistan:

 

  • the first nuclear explosion: 28 May 1998.
  • the first thermonuclear explosion: –
  • the number of nuclear warheads: ?
  • number of tests of nuclear weapons: 2

 

– Israel:

 

  • the first nuclear explosion: ?
  • the first thermonuclear explosion: –
  • the number of nuclear warheads: approx. 350
  • number of tests of nuclear weapons: 1 (?)

 

– North Korea (DPRK):

 

  • the first nuclear explosion: 9 October 2006
  • the first thermonuclear explosion: –
  • the number of nuclear warheads: ?
  • number of tests of nuclear weapons: 2 (?)

 

Jean Baptiste de Lamarck – French biologist

Jean Baptiste de Lamarck

Jean Baptiste de Lamarck – French biologist

Jean Baptiste de Lamarck – French biologist – In 08.01.1744 born French biologist
J.
B. de Lamarck, the founder of the theory called Lamarckism, speaking about
the fact that
animals are capable of intentional transformation of their bodies,
to meet the challenges
posed by the environment. This theory is incompatible
with the
present resource of knowledge.

Pierre Larousse – Creator of 15-volume Encyclopedia

Pierre Larousse - Creator of 15-volume Encyclopedia

Pierre Larousse – Creator of 15-volume Encyclopedia

Pierre Larousse – Creator of 15-volume Encyclopedia – In 23.10.1817 was born French writer,
grammarian
, lexicographer and publisher P. Larousse (died in 1885)
. He created 15-volume,
Encyclopedic
DictionaryGrand dictionnaire Universal du XIX e siècle“.