Mount Etna – Italy, Sicily

Etna - Panorama 2012Mount Etna - Crater (2)Sailors aboard USNS Carson City - watching Mt.Etna during arrival in CataniaMt.Etna from ISS - 2013Mt.Etna in Sicily
Mount Etna - CraterVolcanic Plumes Tower over Mt.EtnaVolcanic ash from the April 2013 eruption of Mt.EtnaEtna in winterLava flows from Mt.Etna - View from Adrano


Mount Etna – Italy, Sicily


  • Location: Italy, east coast of Sicily
  • Peak: 3350 m a. s. l.

Mount Etna – Is the highest active and the second most powerful volcano in Europe. It lies on the east coast of the island of Sicily, near the cities of Messina and Catania. The age of the volcano is estimated at 700,000 years. The mountain changed with subsequent eruptions, its present appearance was formed about 5000 years ago. Its height is not constant – in 1981 Etna measured 21 meters more. The reduction was caused by eruption and lava flow.

Etna’s volcanic activity is the longest documented of all volcanoes. The oldest eruptions took place in antiquity (135 A.D.). The ancient Greeks called the volcano Mount of Fire and were convinced that one of the Titans was buried beneath. The explosions were meant to mean that he was trying to escape. The most powerful explosion occurred in 1669. When the lava got to Catania, which it partially destroyed. The potential danger lies in the fact that the volcano is located in a densely populated area.

From the beginnings of written historical sources, we know in total about 140 Etna explosions. The most devastating eruption in 1669 was preceded by a three-week earthquake. The volcanic eruption lasted four months.

The Etna volcano explodes on average once every 1.7 years.

Poisonous birds – Not venomous discovered so far

Poisonous birds - Pitohui dichrousPoisonous birds - Plectropterus gambensisPoisonous birds - Common quail (Coturnix coturnix)

Poisonous birds – Not venomous discovered so far

Poisonous birds – No venomous bird has been discovered so far. That is, one whose body would produce a poisonous substance. That would then be transmitted by pecking or wounding with a claw. There are several groups of poisonous birds, that is, poisoning us when we touch or eat them. Their organisms are also probably not producing toxins, but they are able to obtain them from poisonous insects or plants.

Most of them live in New Guinea. Where are several species of Pitohui. Also representatives of the families, store the strong neurotoxin (batrachotoxin) in the skin.

The Gambian Goose from the Anatidae family living in Africa. It accumulates in its tissues another poison, a kantaridine (it gets it from the eaten beetles). Plectropterus gambensis, however, are poisonous only after their consumption. So they gain little thanks to this weapon (except revenge from beyond the grave). On the other hand, other animals of this species benefit from this – a predator who once encountered goose meat will avoid it.

A similar phenomenon applies to the European Common Quail, whose meat is also poisonous, although only for part of the year. Probably quails get their toxin from being eaten plants, and poisoning them are known for a long time and referred to as a coturnism (from the Latin name of the quail Coturnix coturnix).

Conium maculatum – Related to carrots, parsley, caraway

Conium maculatum (1)Conium maculatum (2)Conium maculatum - Germany, 1910

Conium maculatum – Related to carrots, parsley, caraway

Conium maculatum – Plant related with carrots, parsley and caraway seeds. Its main weapon is the violent poison of the coniine, which causes the man to suffocate with full consciousness.

  • Deadly dose: 0,15 g (contained in 20g of the plant)
  • Death: within 2 – 3 days
  • Poison: coniine
  • Aftermath: strangulation through muscle paralysis
  • Where it grows: Europe, Africa and Asia
  • Occurrence in Poland: yes

Coniine easily penetrates the skin and respiratory system. However, the biggest danger is an easy mistake with the vegetable. At first, the poison has a stimulating effect and then starts blocking the spinal cord’s commands. In this way, muscle paralysis and strangulation occur.

History of the plant:
In ancient Greece and Rome often used during the execution. It enjoyed great popularity among the poisoners (allegedly, Socrates was executed with its help). In Europe, it appeared in the Middle Ages, and gradually disappeared during the 20th century. In the meadows and along roads, it began to grow massively in the 80’s.

Cicuta virosa – It is 150 centimeters high

Cicuta virosa - Oulu, Finland (18.07.2013)Cicuta virosa (1)Cicuta virosa (2)

Cicuta virosa – It is 150 centimeters high

The highest concentration of toxic substances is found in its rhizome.

  • Deadly dose: 2g root
  • Death: within 24 hours
  • Poison: cicutoxin
  • Aftermath: degeneration of skeletal muscles
  • Where it grows: North and South America, Europe, Asia
  • Occurrence in Poland: yes

In North America it has hundreds of poisoned sheep per year on its conscience. People can mistake its root with the parsley root, and the most common victims of harmful substances are children. Cicutoxin works very quickly, after just a few minutes you can observe irritations of mucous membranes and abdominal pain. If a man survives poisoning, it is very likely that he will struggle with damage to the central nervous system for the rest of his life. Unlike other animals, mice can without fear of poisoning eat plant seeds.

Datura stramonium – Weed appearing on fertile soils

Datura stramonium (1)Datura stramonium (2)Datura stramonium (3)Datura stramonium (4)

Datura stramonium – Weed appearing on fertile soils

Datura stramonium – It is a weed appearing on fertile soils. It is an instant poison.

  • Deadly dose: 10 – 12 leaves
  • Death: 1 – 2 days
  • Poison: atropine, scopolamine
  • Aftermath: heart failure, fever, muscle paralysis
  • Where it grows: all over the world
  • Occurrence in Poland: yes

Used both in Europe and in the New World because of the hallucinogenic and medicinal action. It was an important ingredient in the charlatanists mixtures. In India, it is considered a strong aphrodisiac – it was claimed that deprived women of shame. Alkaloids, especially in veins and petioles, tend to increase motility, arousal and cause anxiety. Then there is weakness, narcotic sleep and exhaustion. In some Indian tribes, datura is one of saint hallucinogens and is of great importance in the rituals of initiation. It also serves as anesthesia during surgery.

Atropa belladonna – Most dangerous in Central Europe

Atropa belladonna - Botanic Garden - Leipzig, GermanyAtropa belladonna (2)Atropa belladonna (3)Atropa belladonna (4)

Atropa belladonna – Most dangerous in Central Europe

Atropa belladonna – This plant is considered the most dangerous in Central Europe. Its all parts are very toxic.

  • Deadly dose: 10 – 12 fruits
  • Death: in few hours
  • Poison: atropine, hyoscyamine
  • Aftermath: nervous system and heart rate weakness, stopping breathing
  • Where it grows: most of Europe, some places in Africa and Asia
  • Occurrence in Poland: yes

The big danger lies in the fact that its shiny fruits can be easily confused with edible forest fruits. Man can poison not only through direct consumption, but also through goat’s milk or meat, if animal earlier ate it. Typical symptoms of poisoning are dilated pupils, an accelerated pulse or redness on the face. There may also be hallucinations and loss of consciousness.

History of the plant:
Atropa belladonna was a component of shampoo drinks and ointments, because after applying to the skin it caused hallucinations – a man seemed to be able to fly.
In ancient Rome, the wives of Emperor Augustus and Claudius poisoned them with a shout. Medieval women applied drops of juice to their eyes. It was to guarantee them beautiful, large eyes. In this way, they risked not only conjunctivitis and eye deterioration, but death as well. Atropine in eye tests doctors are using today.

Tv 8K – Japanese broadcaster NHK launched first channel

Tv 8K - NHK-BS8K (logo)Tv 8K - NHK-MoriokaTv 8K - NHK-FukushimaTv 8K - Diagram of resolution of different quality tv

Tv 8K – Japanese broadcaster NHK launched first channel

Tv 8K – Japanese broadcaster NHK launched first channel
Television 8K – In Europe, TV providers are still boasting of HD programs. Meanwhile, the Japanese went a step (or even two) further. At the beginning of December 2018, the local broadcaster NHK launched the world’s first TV channel in 8K quality. What does it mean? Image resolution 7680 x 4320 (33.2 megapixels), supplemented by multi-channel sound 22.2. In the future, the BS8K station is to broadcast, among others direct broadcasts from the Olympic Games, which will take place in this country in mid-2020. So far, viewers can watch breathtaking shots for 18 hours a day. Filmed in the most beautiful corners of the Earth, and concerts of famous orchestras.

Mostly practiced sports – 10 most popular disciplines

Mostly practiced sports – 10 most popular disciplines in the world:

Mostly practiced sports - Football - pictogram1. Football: 4 bln fans
It is practiced all over the world. In Poland, sports clubs play over 300,000 people.
Mostly practiced sports - Cricket - pictogram2. Cricket: 2,5 bln fans
A team game based on bouncing the ball with a stick. The most popular is in Great Britain and its former colonies.
Mostly practiced sports - Field hockey - pictogram3. Field hockey: 2 bln fans
Team game is popular mainly in Western Europe, South Asia, South Africa and Australia.
Mostly practiced sports - Tennis - pictogram4. Tennis: 1 bln fans
The History of tennis dates back to the 12th century. Its original form evolved in French … monasteries.
Mostly practiced sports - Volleyball - pictogram5. Volleyball: 900 mln fans
Volleyball is popular especially in Europe and America.
Mostly practiced sports - Table tennis - pictogram6. Table tennis: 875 mln fans
Also known as ping pong, it is played and is seen mainly in Europe and Asia.
Mostly practiced sports - Basketball - pictogram7. Basketball: 875 mln fans
This sports discipline is particularly popular in the USA. Around 450 million people throw in the basket all over the world.
Mostly practiced sports - Baseball - pictogram8. Baseball: 500 mln fans
Team game derived from with cricket, very popular in the United States.
Mostly practiced sports - Rugby - pictogram9. Rugby: 475 mln fans
This discipline requiring great physical effort is mainly cultivated in the Great Britain, RSA and on the antipodes.
Mostly practiced sports - Golf - pictogram10. Golf: 450 mln fans
North America, Western Europe, East Asia – golf is popular primarily in developed countries.

Brussels tunnel – Experiment with photocatalysis

Brussels tunnel - Arcades and tunnel Cinquantenaire, Belgium

Brussels tunnel – Experiment with photocatalysis

Brussels tunnelĀ – Experiment with photocatalysis – In 09.2011. European experts began their
in the Brussels tunnel, through which passes every day 25 thousand. cars.
meter length of building was covered with cement with titanium dioxide TiO2,
is the source of a chemical process called photocatalysis, acts as a catalyst driven by
solar radiation

Cave lions – Cause of their extinction

Cave lions - Cave lion skeleton

Cave lions – Cause of their extinction was narrow nutrition specialization

Cave lions – Cause of their extinction was narrow nutrition specialization – With accurate analysis
of the bones of extinct Cave lions that the cause of their extinction was narrow nutrition specialization.
Research collagen have shown that these animals mainly liked to the reindeer that consume lichens.
With the change in climate 19 thousand. years ago, this type of lichens disappeared from Europe,
which began dying reindeer. Cave lions also not able to adapt to new conditions,
and consequently
became extinct.