MT Exxon Valdez – Biggest oil spills

MT Exxon Valdez - Coast cleanupMT Exxon Valdez - Oil spillInterview with Dennis KelsoSea birds in oil - After spill from tanker

MT Exxon Valdez – Biggest oil spills

  • Place: Alaska
  • Date: 24 March 1989
  • Amount of spill: 41 000 000 liters
  • Costs: $ 4 billion

MT Exxon Valdez – 24 March 1989 the tanker crashed off the coast of Alaska. About 257,000 barrels of oil leaked out. Which is a fraction of biggest oil spill. But the disaster severely affected the local ecosystem . It happened in Prince William’s Bay, where the ship crashed into a cliff. Having a full oil tank. It is estimated that 250,000 seabirds, 2,800 sea otters, 300 seals, 250 eagles and about 22 whales, and billions of salmon and herring eggs were killed as a result of this spill.

Drunken captain

Over 11,000 people participated in the liquidation of the effects of activities. According to the investigation, captain Joe Hazelwood caused the accident himself. Giving chaotic orders when he wanted to apply blows to rocks. Reach tests that had high blood alcohol levels. The resulting stretch stretched along 2,000 km of coastline and touched 28,000 km² of the ocean. The investigation also showed that the ship was not in good condition and had a damaged radar. Who was supposed to alert the crew of danger.

Oil stain in Kuwait – Biggest oil spills

Oil stain in Kuwait - 1.01.1991Oil stain in Kuwait - 1.01.1991Oil stain in Kuwait - 5–14 June 1991Oil stain in Kuwait - 08.03.1991Oil fires in Kuwait - 7-April-1991Oil well fires rage outside Kuwait City - 21.03.1991Oil well fires south of Kuwait City - 01.03.1991

Oil stain in Kuwait – Biggest oil spills

  • Place: Kuwait
  • Date: 19 January 1991
  • Amount of spill: 906 300 000 liters
  • Costs: $ 484,5 million

Oil stain in Kuwait – The largest oil-related disaster took place during the Gulf War. This was not due to a technical defect or explosion, but to planned sabotage. Oil was released by the Iraqi army. Whose goal was to slow down US troops planning to take over Kuwait. To prevent further leakage, US Air Force destroyed the oil towers. According to international research, 5.7 barrels of oil spilled into the sea. Later, it was even speculated that Saddam Hussein wanted to light all continuous reserves. Thus destroy the global economy. Fortunately, this did not happen.

Animals in danger

A layer of oil, 12 centimeters thick, covered the sea over an area of ​​over 4,000 km². It has affected the entire marine ecosystem. While US soldiers could bypass the contaminated area. Animals did not have this option anymore. At least 30,000 sea birds wintering there have died. And a large number of fish. A quarter of the Kuwait desert was also flooded with oil.

GJ 273b – Exoplanet in the constellation Little Dog

GJ 273b - Artist’s impression of the exoplanet

GJ 273b – Exoplanet in the constellation Little Dog

GJ 273b – Planet orbiting the Luyten star

ESI: 0,86
Size: 1,47 Earth
Mass: 3 Earth
Equivalent temperature: -6°C

Twelve light-years from our solar system, Luyten’s star, the red dwarf, wanders from Earth in the constellation Little Dog. Astronomers have discovered two exoplanets next to it. At the same time one of them belongs to the superearth category and at the same time circulates at the edge of the ecosystem. In contrast to the many other planets whose parent star is a red dwarf, GJ273b knows what day is and what is the night. Usually, the planets move close enough that their rotation is connected, and their parent star only puts one hemisphere.

TRAPPIST-1d – Representative of TRAPPIST-1 sys

TRAPPIST-1d - Artistic impression of exoplanetTRAPPIST-1d - Statistics tableTRAPPIST-1d - Comparison of the sizes of TRAPPIST-1 planets with Solar System bodies

TRAPPIST-1d – Representative of TRAPPIST-1 sys

TRAPPIST-1d – One of representatives of the TRAPPIST-1 planetary system

ESI: 0,91
Size: 0,8 Earth
Mass: 0,3 Earth
Equivalent temperature: 15°C

The relatively small weight of this planet indicates that its surface can be flooded by a deep ocean.
According to some speculations, here is 250 times more water than in the Earth’s oceans.
The first measurements showed that the planet is moving outside of the living zone, but now it seems that it will enter it safely. Exoplanet can boast a dense atmosphere and is so close to its star that it circulates in four days. It only drops by 4.3% more light than on Earth. Although TRAPPIST-1d circulates its star in synchronous rotation, a dense atmosphere in which there should be a lot of water vapor helps in thermal exchange. The difference between the illuminated and the dark hemisphere is not like that of other celestial bodies.

TRAPPIST-1e – Exoplanet from system TRAPPIST-1

TRAPPIST-1eTRAPPIST-1e - Planetary system orbitsTRAPPIST-1e

TRAPPIST-1e – Exoplanet from system TRAPPIST-1

TRAPPIST-1e – The stony exoplanet of the TRAPPIST-1 system, according to physical properties, is the “e” from the planetary system TRAPPIST is the most similar to Earth.

ESI: 0,85
Size: 0,9 Earth
Mass: 0,8 Earth
Equivalent temperature: -22°C

It moves in the middle of the ecosystem of the entire collection, but there is the least water here. TRAPPIST-1e has a smaller size than Earth, but it has a larger mass. Possible inhabitants would have to be smaller in height and more important to cope with the pressure of local gravity. Red dwarfs, to which the TRAPPIST-1 star belongs, do not emit as much light and heat as the Sun. This means that the ecosphere, in which liquid water can sustain in proper conditions, is located in much closer orbits than in our solar system. A year on the planet TRAPPIST-1e lasts six ordinary earth days.
The planet probably also has a compact atmosphere where hydrogen is lacking. This type of atmosphere can also be found on the rocky planets of our solar system. Hydrogen is also a greenhouse gas, if it was a large amount in the local atmosphere, the surface of the planet would be uninhabitable.

Lake Baikal bottom – Russian mini-submarine Mir-2

Lake Baikal bottom - Moon on Baikal

Lake Baikal bottom – Russian mini-submarine Mir2

Lake Baikal bottom – In July, 2008. Russian mini-submarine Mir2 reached located at a depth of 1637 m the bottom of the Siberian Lake Baikal. It was the deepest immersion in fresh water in history. Lake Baikal contains 20% of the world‘s fresh water. The lake that formed approx. 20 million years ago, living approx. 1000 unique species of animals and plants. During immersion, scientists collected samples at different depths of the ecosystem so that they could determine the impact of global warming on the lake.

Bacteria under ocean bottom

Bacteria under ocean bottom - Atlantic Ocean surface

Bacteria under ocean bottom

Bacteria under ocean bottom – American geologists from Oregon, performed in Atlantic oceanic crust (where the temperature is approx. 102 ° C) drilling to a depth of 1,391 m. Among granitic igneous rocks found relatively rich bacterial ecosystem. Bacteria feed on methane and benzene there.