Nyiragongo – Congo
- Location: Congo
- Peak: 3470 m a. s. l.
Nyiragongo volcano is located in the Virunga mountain chain and although its side craters are already extinct, the main one is one of the most active in the world. This stratovolcano is formed by a group of several volcanoes at Lake Kiwu. In the crater there is a huge lava lake, still active. The temperature of the lava located there varies between 800 and 950 ° C, has a thin consistency and flows very quickly. For this reason, the volcano is a constant threat to the surrounding cities.
The most horrible eruption took place in 1977, when lava flowing down the mountainside killed thousands of people. Magma got to the city of Goma, in which she destroyed 15% of the building and killed about 150 people. A stream of lava reached the shore of Lake Kiwu, forming a peninsula. Another volcanic eruption took place in 2002.
According to legends told by local citizens, Nyiragongo is a holy mountain. The natives believe that an enchanted spirit lives on it, which is trying hard to get out of its earthly dungeon. His angry scream explodes in the form of lava geysers and dense fogs.
Kilauea – United States of America, Hawaii
- Location: United States of America, Hawaii
- Szczyt: 1247 m a. s. l.
Kilauea is located on the Hawaiian island of Hawai’i (also known as Big Island) and is one of the volcanoes that form it. It occupies 14% of this island. The mountain, on the slope of which the lava flows, belongs to the most active volcanoes in the world. According to the Hawaiian history, it spits out lava uninterruptedly since 1983, an average of 400,000 m³ per day. The volcano was created as a result of tectonic movements of the Pacific plate. Which in 70 million years resulted in the creation of a chain of 6,000 km long submarine volcanoes.
The testimonies of the first eruptions come from 1750. However, we learn from the Polynesian myth that the mountain spit out lava much earlier. The lava flows covered the area of hundreds of square kilometers and affected the appearance of the whole coast line. The indigenous islanders believe that Pele, the goddess of fire, lives on the mountain. Goddess punishes anyone who dares to steal volcanic stones. Being for her like children. A thief of such a stone can expect bad luck that will never leave him.
Locals, to the honor of the goddess Pele, perform ritual dances. According to tradition, they throw flowers and food into the volcano crater, which is to give them favor.
Nevado del Ruiz – Colombia
- Location: Colombia
- Peak: 5321 m a. s. l.
Nevado del Ruiz volcano, already active for around 2,000,000 years, is 130 km west of the capital of Colombia – Bogota. It has many layers of lava hardened alternately with volcanic ash and other pyroclastic rocks. The mountain is part of the volcanic massifs created by five more volcanoes covered with glaciers. Four of them are still active.
The volcano became famous thanks to its catastrophic eruption, which took place on November 13, 1985. As a result, glacier peaks of 25 km² have melted. The resulting lahars, flowing at a speed of 40 to 60 km / h, flooded the city of Armero and several surrounding villages with a layer of mud deep for 6 meters. Only in the city more than 21,000 citizens died (out of a total of 23,000). Losses reached $ 1 billion. The consequence of this catastrophe was the adoption by Colombia of security measures that should reduce the risk of death for so many people.
In September and October 2010, a gradual increase in seismic activity near the Arenas crater was noticed. Over the next four months, there were earthquakes that increased fear of further devastating eruptions.
Pico del Teide – Spain, Tenerife
- Location: Spain, Tenerife
- Peak: 3718 m a.s.l.
Pico del Teide volcano is located in Tenerife, which is the largest of the seven Canary Islands. The mountain lies near the north-west coast of Africa and occupies the greater part of the island’s surface. The crater’s circumference is unbelievable 48 km. Tenerife experienced its greatest eruption in 1709, when a stream of lava destroyed most of the port of Garachico and the northern coast. Magma sailed the valley for nine days. For the last time the volcano was active in 1909. When through the north-western slope of the mountain, flowed a lava river, long for 5 km.
Along the foot of the volcano spreads a very fertile lowland, which is moist and green all year long. Bananas, almonds, orange trees and vegetables are grown there. The southern slopes, on the contrary – moisture and rain almost do not know. The mountain can boast a world record – at sunrise the volcano casts a pyramid-shaped shadow, up to 200 km long. Which is undoubtedly the longest shadow in the world.
In the Stone Age people considered the volcano as the seat of the cruel god Guayot. During one of his trips to the New World, Christopher Columbus witnessed the activity of this dangerous mountain.
Phobos – One of the two moons of Mars
Phobos – One of the two moons of Mars resembles its shape potato cratered. Red Planet caught the flying asteroid and made it their satellite. Phobos looks like it went through a herd of worms, because the inside is full of holes. The object awaits the sad fate of Mars, Phobos still draws closer and for approx. 50 million years, tidal forces of Mars moon tear to shreds. Thanks to the Red Planet will become a decoration in the form of a ring.