Long-lived companies – Record holders are real Methuselah’s

Kongo Gumi

Long-lived companies - Kongo Gumi

Nishiyama Onsen Keiunkan

Staffelter Hof

Zum Roten Bären

Long-lived companies

The Olde Bell

Long-lived companies

Sudo Honke

Sudo Honke

Long-lived companies - Sudo-Honke

Frapin

Long-lived companies - Frapin

R. Durtnell and Sons

R. Durtnell and Sons

Long-lived companies - Poundsbridge-Manor

Long-lived companies – Record holders are real Methuselah’s

Long-lived companies – Record holders are real Methuselah’s, operating continuously for over ten centuries. Tokyo Shoko Research agency dealing with market research since 1892. It found over 5.5 thousand enterprises that have existed for at least 200 years.
More than half of long-lived companies operate in Japan. There are six in the top ten. Among the aforementioned 5.5 thousand – up to 3100. As the reason for this dominance, scientists point to the island’s location of the country and centuries-old isolation.
Most of these long-lived businesses are family businesses, emphasizes prof. Toshio Goto from Japan University of Economics. He sees the root cause of their longevity in the system known as Ie. It is a set of rules determining the position of individual family members, and most importantly – the rules of inheritance of property.

Ie system

It began to take shape in the XII century, when Japan plunged into the chaos of civil wars. The survival of families living in constant danger depended on the strength and intellect of their leaders. According to eternal tradition, the eldest son should be the head of the family. In wartime, however, this only worked if he had the warrior’s qualities and talents. If he did not have them, the family was in grave danger.
To prevent it, the so-called adoption Ie. It consisted in the fact that the aging patriarch of the family found a young, promising man. Which he provided with appropriate education. When the chosen one met his expectations and proved himself in battle, he became the official heir. All other family members had to submit to him. The Ie system thus replaced traditional blood ties and prevented the division of property between heirs. As a result, the estate, workshop, and trading company passed from generation to generation in an unchanged form.
Rules tested in warrior families were adopted by other social groups, especially merchants and craftsmen. In the XVII century, Ie was formally introduced into the legal system and was in force until the end of World War II. When civil law changed under pressure from Americans, it gave all children equal shares in the parents’ estate. This threatened old family businesses, but the tradition turned out to be strong enough that many of them survived to this day. Professor Toshio Goto calls them the Japanese treasure.

Record holders list:

Kongo Gumi – Japanese construction company is record holder. 1427 years of existence,

Nishiyama Onsen Keiunkan – Traditional Japanese hotel – ryokan. 1315 years of existence,

Staffelter Hof – Oldest winery in Europe. 1158 years of existence,

Zum Roten Bären – Hotel The Red Bear. 900 years of existence,

The Olde Bell – Oldest english hotel in Hurley. 885 years of existence,

Sudo Honke – Sake brewery oldest of world. 879 years of existence,

Frapin – Cognac producer from Grande Champagne. 750 years of existence,

R. Durtnell and Sons – Oldest european construction company. 429 years of existence,

Popocatépetl – Mexico

The active volcano located about 70 km southeast of Mexico City - 23.01.2001 - NASASeen from Mexico CityPopocatépetl - MexicoCholula PyramidVolcano from Mexico CityPopocatépetl VolcanoSatellite image of Popocatépetl Volcano - NASA, 19.04.2012Popocatépetl - View from San-Matias

 
 
 

Popocatépetl – Mexico

 

  • Location: Mexico
  • Peak: 5452 m a. s. l.

 
Popocatépetl volcano lies about 72 km south-west of the capital of Mexico, it is the second largest peak of the country. Popocatépetl is connected by a pass with a height of 3000 meters above sea level. Paso de Cortés and the second volcano – Iztaccihuatl. The top of the mountain is covered with snow and ice throughout the year. Often, over the top, visible clouds appear that arise from ongoing volcanic processes. The highest volcanic activity took place in 1994, when ash and gases covered an area of ​​25 km.

The Aztecs considered the mountain to be holy. According to their mythology, the volcano depicts a Popocatépetl warrior in which the Princess Iztaccihuatl fell in love. Her father, however, was not sympathetic to their feelings and sent the young man to war. The princess lied to him, claiming that Popocatépetl died in battle. Iztaccihuatl died of sorrow for her beloved. When the man returned from the war and learned about her death, his heart could not stand and he also died of grief. Gods turned lovers into snow-covered mountains. Locals believe that eruptions are the image of Popocatépetl drama – In Aztec language, this word means “Smokey Mountain”.

Due to volcanic activity, the mountain is guarded by the army, and only groups of scientists have access to it.

World journalists – Committee to Protect Journalists alarm

World journalists - CPJ - logoWorld journalists - CPJ(2017)World journalists - CPJ(2016)World journalists - Reporters Without Borders - logo

World journalists – Committee to Protect Journalists alarm

World journalists – At the end of 2018, 251 journalists were held in prisons in relation to their work. Most of them are serving judgments for anti-state activities, such as belonging to groups considered to be terrorist in a given country. As many as 28 have been punished for allegedly spreading fake news. Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ), an international non-governmental organization claiming the rights of representatives of this profession. Alarms that independent journalists are exposed to legal sanctions. The situation in Turkey, China and Egypt since 2016 is tragic. Only these three countries are responsible for more than half of the cases of detention of media workers.

HP – Founded in 1939 in United States

HP - Hewlett-Packard logoHP - HP LaserJet 4HP - HP Pavilion dv6618eoHP - HP Elitebook 8770w

HP – Founded in 1939 in United States

HP – Hewlett-Packard was founded in 1939 in the American city of Palo Alto. Currently deals with information technology. It specializes in the design and production of computer hardware, software and mass storage. It is known especially as a manufacturer of printers, personal computers, scanners, notebooks and servers. Hewlett-Packard focuses primarily on home use, small and medium sized offices and public administration. Since 1990, expanded the product line with computers to scientific university research. Hewlett-Packard is one of the largest personal computer retailers in the world. Even managed to outdo Dell. It can boast over one billion clients in over 170 countries. It is also the leader among ink manufacturers of one and multi-functional printers. This is confirmed by the number of such devices produced weekly. A million printers in such a short time are not enough. HP employs approximately 321 thousand employees around the world.

Oleander – Nerium oleander

Oleander - Nerium oleander (1)Oleander - Nerium oleander (2)Oleander - Nerium oleander (3)

Oleander – Nerium oleander

Oleander – Nerium oleander – This beautifully blooming shrub belongs to the most common plants not only in the countries of the Mediterranean.

  • Deadly dose: 2 leaves
  • Death: in few hours
  • Poison: oleander
  • Aftermath: cardiac arrhythmia
  • Where it grows: from the Mediterranean, through North Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, to southern Asia
  • Occurrence in Poland: artificially bred

In order to say goodbye to your life, it’s enough to chew on one leaf. The honey obtained from oleander flowers may also be toxic. The first signs of intoxication include vomiting, fever and dizziness. The substance directly attacks the heart and increases muscle tone.

History of the plant:
Together with Conium maculatum was the most popular medieval poison. It was used as a means to control rats and mice. In the past, many people lost their lives because they roasted meat on oleander branches.

Mostly practiced sports – 10 most popular disciplines

Mostly practiced sports – 10 most popular disciplines in the world:

 
 
Mostly practiced sports - Football - pictogram1. Football: 4 bln fans
It is practiced all over the world. In Poland, sports clubs play over 300,000 people.
 
 
 
 
 
Mostly practiced sports - Cricket - pictogram2. Cricket: 2,5 bln fans
A team game based on bouncing the ball with a stick. The most popular is in Great Britain and its former colonies.
 
 
 
 
Mostly practiced sports - Field hockey - pictogram3. Field hockey: 2 bln fans
Team game is popular mainly in Western Europe, South Asia, South Africa and Australia.
 
 
 
 
 
Mostly practiced sports - Tennis - pictogram4. Tennis: 1 bln fans
The History of tennis dates back to the 12th century. Its original form evolved in French … monasteries.
 
 
 
 
Mostly practiced sports - Volleyball - pictogram5. Volleyball: 900 mln fans
Volleyball is popular especially in Europe and America.
 
 
 
 
 
Mostly practiced sports - Table tennis - pictogram6. Table tennis: 875 mln fans
Also known as ping pong, it is played and is seen mainly in Europe and Asia.
 
 
 
 
 
Mostly practiced sports - Basketball - pictogram7. Basketball: 875 mln fans
This sports discipline is particularly popular in the USA. Around 450 million people throw in the basket all over the world.
 
 
 
 
Mostly practiced sports - Baseball - pictogram8. Baseball: 500 mln fans
Team game derived from with cricket, very popular in the United States.
 
 
 
 
 
Mostly practiced sports - Rugby - pictogram9. Rugby: 475 mln fans
This discipline requiring great physical effort is mainly cultivated in the Great Britain, RSA and on the antipodes.
 
 
 
 
Mostly practiced sports - Golf - pictogram10. Golf: 450 mln fans
North America, Western Europe, East Asia – golf is popular primarily in developed countries.

Bowling game – One of the oldest sports of world

Bowling game - Bowling ball looking good for a strikeBowling game - Bowling joyBowling game - Bowling ball

Bowling game – One of the oldest sports of world

Bowling game – As with most games, the exact beginning date of the bowling game is unknown. It is assumed that it has roots in the Stone Age and is associated with the creation of man. The first discovered instruments for this game come from Egypt, and they were found in 1932 by the expedition of the British Egyptologist Matthew Flinders Petrie (1853-1942). Among the things buried with a small boy was found a stone ball, which was probably thrown in nine stone bowling pins. Their age was estimated at 5,200 years BC. But even if Petrie was not right, bowling is still one of the oldest sports in the world. Today it is played in not 90 countries around the world, the number of players is around 100 million a year.

Men’s emancipation – Matriarchate in India

Men's emancipation - Khasi GirlsMen's emancipation - Khasi - Artistic showMen's emancipation - Public information campaign in the Meghalaya district, India (21.09.2013)

Men’s emancipation – Matriarchate in India

Men’s emancipation – Matriarchate in India – In some cultures people have a subordinate position in society. They slowly begin to rebel. Khasi’s people, who live in the Meghalaya region in the north-east of India, are demanding their rights. In this ethnic group, after the marriage, the man takes the wife’s surname. She enters her home and her mother-in-law rules. Women are the main heirs, almost all their assets are in their hands. They enjoy much more freedom than in the rest of the country.

“In my community, people are only useful for breeding, I feel useless.” He complained in the Indian magazine “Caravan” Keith Pariat, president of Syngkhong Rympei Thymmai (SRT), an organization fighting for the equal rights of Khasi men. They are obliged to maintain the household, but they can not decide on what money they will be spent on. Banks refuse to grant them loans because they do not have the right to make a pledge without holding property rights. All this leads to frustration and drunkenness. Which in turn makes them unattractive in the eyes of Khasi women who prefer men outside this community, so they threaten to be extinct.

Worlds smallest countries – 10 record breakers

Worlds smallest countries – 10 record breakers

 
Worlds smallest countries - Vatican City - panoramaWorlds smallest countries - Vatican City - panorama (2)Worlds smallest countries - Vatican City - panorama (3) - Pope Francis in the window
 
 
 
 
 
 
1. Vatican City – The record is church enclave in Italy with an area of only 0.44 km². Official languages: Italian and … Latin.

 
Worlds smallest countries - Monaco - StadiumWorlds smallest countries - Monaco - Panorama, 2015Worlds smallest countries - Monaco - map
 
 
 
 
 
 
2. Monaco – This principality, covering only 2.02 km², has an impressive population density of 18,775 people per km².

 
Worlds smallest countries - Nauru - mapWorlds smallest countries - Nauru-parliamentWorlds smallest countries - View of Nauru (NOAA)
 
 
 
 
 
 
3. Nauru – The island state in the Pacific Ocean has an area of 21.3 km², so it is smaller than Zielona Góra.

 
Worlds smallest countries - Tuvalu - Inaba (1)Worlds smallest countries - Tuvalu - Inaba (2)Worlds smallest countries - Tuvalu - Inaba (3)
 
 
 
 
 
 
4. Tuvalu – Located also in the Pacific, the archipelago occupies 26 km², and its highest point rises only 5 meters above sea level.

 
Worlds smallest countries - San Marino - Panorama (1)Worlds smallest countries - San Marino 2008 - Panorama (2)Worlds smallest countries - San Marino - Panorama (3)
 
 
 
 
 
 
5. San Marino – The enclave, surrounded by Italy, has an area of 61 km² and is the oldest republic in the world.

 
Worlds smallest countries - Liechtenstein - BalzersWorlds smallest countries - Liechtenstein - 2017.07.16Worlds smallest countries - Liechtenstein - Castle Of Gutenberg, Balzers
 
 
 
 
 
 
6. Liechtenstein – It is the only country located entirely in the Alps. It has an area of 160 km², and up to 33% of its inhabitants are foreigners.

 
Worlds smallest countries - Marshall Islands - Photo from Bikrin IslandWorlds smallest countries - Marshall IslandsWorlds smallest countries - Marshall Islands - At Gugeegue Islands Northern Point Looking South
 
 
 
 
 
 
7. Marshall Islands – More than 1,200 islands included in this Pacific located country have a total area of 181 km².

 
Worlds smallest countries - Saint Kitts and Nevis - Caribbean CruiseWorlds smallest countries - Saint Kitts and Nevis - Caribbean Cruise, 2016.02 (2)Worlds smallest countries - Saint Kitts and Nevis - North Frigate Bay - View from Timothy Hill - Panorama
 
 
 
 
 
 
8. Saint Kitts and Nevis – This Caribbean federation covers 269 km². The islands were discovered by Christopher Columbus in 1493.

 
Worlds smallest countries - Maldives - 2008.10.24 - PanoramaWorlds smallest countries - MaldivesWorlds smallest countries - Maldives, Kandooma - Panorama (2)
 
 
 
 
 
 
9. Maldives – Located in the Indian Ocean, the archipelago includes 1196 islands. It has a total area of 300 km² and a height of max. 1 m above sea level.

 
Worlds smallest countries - Malta - PanoramaWorlds smallest countries - Malta - The Spur TowerWorlds smallest countries - Malta - Valletta at night
 
 
 
 
 
 
10. Malta – This state in the Mediterranean Sea extends over an area of 316 km² (similar to Cracow) and consists of three inhabited and several uninhabited islands.