Xerox – Known for production of copiers and printers
Xerox – The company, known primarily for the production of copiers and printers, was founded in 1906 in Rochester in the USA. Initially, it focused on the production of photographic paper. Chester Carlson in 1938 created the first photocopier in the laboratory. Gradually, the company began to specialize in the production of copiers. In 1956, the 914 model was released to the market. It was the first fully automatic office copier. Later, the company started cooperation with Apple. It is no secret that in 1963, Douglas Engelbart presented the design of the device, which began to be called a mouse. It was to make it easier to control a computer with a graphical interface. Xerox also produced personal computers. The most famous is Alto. Despite the revolutionary idea, the board decided not to sell the device. They invited Steve Jobs, who liked the project so much that he immediately used it in his project Lisa, which he worked on. Other known products include the 9700 laser printer, Ethernet and electronic paper known as the SmartPaper.
IBM – International Business Machines Corporation
IBM – International Business Machines Corporation, also known under the pseudonym Big Blue, was founded on June 16, 1911. Initially, the company was involved in the production of everyday items, such as scales, meat slicers and other appliances. From 1924, was involved in the production of equipment for perforated cards. Later, the company devoted itself to information technology. Produced and sold computer equipment, software and services. With assets of USD 120.4 billion and 355,776 employees, it is today one of the largest companies in the world. Her main achievements include the creation of a compact IBM PC in 1981. These devices have become the most popular type of microcomputers on the electronics market. Their success ensured not only a low price, but also a high degree of compatibility. In 2004, IBM stopped producing computers. The last step was the sale of ThinkPad notebooks to the Chinese company Lenovo.
Atari – Founded in 1972 by N. Bushnell and T. Dabney
Atari – Company founded in 1972 by Nolan Bushnell and Ted Dabney, was a pioneer in the field of computer games. In the 1980s, it belonged to the most important manufacturers of personal computers and computer games. The Pong game was the first video game console to be connected to TV. It subscribed to history thanks to game consoles such as Atari 2600 or the revolutionary 64-bit Atari Jaguar console. It also created one of the first portable Atari Lynx gaming consoles. Among the personal computers, the hit was the 16-bit Atari ST computer system, and later the 8-bit versions of Atari 400/800 / XL / XE, which production lasted until 1992. Four years later, the company was in crisis and the brand Atari was slowly disappearing.
In 2000, the company was taken over by the French company Infogrames. Under the Atari brand, several games have been released. However, on January 21, 2013, the company officially declared bankruptcy.
Intelligent power distribution – All-wheel drive
Intelligent power distribution – In many cars, the drive is electronically controlled, which allows better separation of torque between wheels. Some systems, as in the case of the Haldex system, redirect drive to the second axis when the sensors catch the slip.
In others – as in the xDrive system in BMW – the drive hits both axles. In normal conditions, i.e. when the grip is good or very good, 40% of the drive is directed to the front and the rest to the rear – BMW thus behaves typically sports characteristics. Torque, through a multi-plate clutch with a suitable control computer. It can be easily and continuously distributed in xDrive between axles – up to 100%, only for two wheels.
In Subaru, the drive was driven with semi-axles driving the wheels, which are the same length. This “symmetry”, according to the Japanese, greatly improves the confidence of running on curves, especially on slippery surfaces.
CME – Coronal mass ejection – Eruptions on the Sun
CME – Coronal mass ejection – Every second the Sun emits around two million tons of particulate matter – or at least that’s usually the case. In the atmosphere, however, sometimes there are enormous eruptions from the corona (Coronal Mass Eruptions, CME). These types of hurricanes are among the most spectacular phenomena in our part universe . In the process, the Sun loses much more weight than usual. The speed of winds reaches even 10 million / h. CME is a cloud of gas built of electrically charged particles (physicists call it plasma gas). Plasma hurricanes can reach Earth and call the so-called geomagnetic storms that affect electronic devices, causing short circuits and equipment damage.
It is impossible to predict how dangerous it can be for satellites. The Internet and computer-controlled objects, such as nuclear power plants. The last really strong solar storm took place in the telegraph age, i.e. long before the appearance of PCs. Although astronomers are constantly observing the behavior of the Sun, they can anticipate it only slightly ahead of time. This means that in the future we will have at least 24 hours to disable all sensitive systems (even those in nuclear power plants) and secure computers. But geomagnetic storms are not the only problem facing us by the most important star …
Vladimir Leonidovich Levin – Caught by partner help
Vladimir Leonidovich Levin – born in 1971, St. Petersburg, Russia. He carried out the largest computer theft for 100 dollars. This hacker really stands out from the others. It is not widely known, but he was the initiator and executor of the largest computer theft in history .
After studying, Levin for $ 100 bought access codes and passwords from the ArkanoiD hacking group to the American Citibank. It was gradually transferring the sum of 10.7 million dollars to bills in the USA, the Netherlands, Finland, Germany and Israel. Any transactions were made during rush hour. At the bank, this was noticed when 400,000 dollars were missing. The Russian police did not want to cooperate with the FBI, which is why Levin’s shot was not easy. The Americans forced his partner to invite him to London, where he was captured and taken to the USA. Vladimir Leonidovich Levin was sentenced to 3 years in prison and to pay a fine of 240,000 dollars. Since then, Citibank has one of the best security systems.
Kevin Mitnick – Broke-into US Gov. and NASA nets
Kevin Mitnick – b. 6.08.1963, Los Angeles, United States of America. Nickname: “Condor”. He belongs to the most famous hackers in the world. As a teenager, during a conversation with the bus driver, he learned where to get the ticket validation. He used the so-called social engineering, or manipulation to obtain information. He won it for 15 dollars. At the age of 13, he got the opportunity to travel by bus and public transport in the Los Angeles area. During IT studies he explored the secrets of IT.
He managed to get all the secret access codes for IBM computers. He broke into the Pentagon and NASA networks several times. In 1979 he copied the IT system of the DEC company. He was sentenced to one year in prison and an additional three years under the supervision of freedom. At the end of the trial period, Mitnick broke into the Pacific Bell voicemail computers. Fearing re-arrest, he hid for 2.5 years. He was employed as a security consultant.
Kevin Poulsen – Thanks to fraud won Porsche 994
Kevin Poulsen – born 30.11.1965, Pasadena, United States of America. Nickname: “Dark dante”. He started hacking as a 17-year-old in high school. He then broke into several systems on the Arpanet network, which was the predecessor of the Internet operated since 1969 by the US Defense Ministry. Telephones for Poulsen were more fascinating than computers. He managed to gain access to Bell, which was one of the best secured telephone companies in the US. In 1991 he made his biggest fraud. The KISS-FM radio station announced a competition in which competitor could win the Porsche 994. It was enough to be the 102 person who will connect with studio. Kevin and his friends took control of the telephone exchanges and at the right moment blocked the phones from other participants. Thanks to this fraud, Poulsen “won” the car. He was captured by the police in the same year. He spent 51 months in prison and had to pay a fine of $ 56,000.