Muscular dystrophy – Is caused by muscle weakness

Muscular dystrophy - Make A Wish participant enlisted

Muscular dystrophy - National Poster Child of the Year

Muscular dystrophy - Cleveland, Ohio, USA

Muscular dystrophy - Child receiving torch money - Federal Building in Cleveland, Ohio, USA
 
 
 
Stem cells administrationDuchenne muscular dystrophyDefense.gov photo essayDuchenne muscular dystrophy

Muscular dystrophy – Is caused by muscle weakness

Muscular Dystrophy – This disease is the result of weakened muscles and has nothing to do with damage to the nervous system. There is a 25% chance that the child will acquire muscular dystrophy from the parents. What is certain, however, is that the problem lies in the muscle cells themselves. The patient’s body is unable to produce protein dystrophins, without which our muscles cannot work. There are two types of dystrophy. The more severe one is Duchenne dystrophy, which affects both adults and children. Sick boys quickly end up in a wheelchair, and the work of their hearts and lungs deteriorates. The maximum life expectancy with the disease is 20 years.

The second type of dystrophy is called Becker’s dystrophy. It manifests itself in patients a little later, usually after the age of 10. The first symptoms of this type of dystrophy include weakness in the calf, pelvic and thigh muscles. Scientists warn that 30% of patients did not get sick for reasons genetic , but their chromosome was attacked by a new mutation.

Down syndrome – Chromosomal birth defect

Down syndrome - Blue Apple Theater Hamlet Actors

Down syndrome - Charity gifts for children with cancer, the Vanessa Isabel Foundation

Down syndrome - 2019

Down syndrome - Trisomia

Down syndrome - Guy with down syndrome
 
 
 
Down syndrome - He just having fun at workPianistNewborn with down syndromeWilliam i Tommy JessopMarch for Life 2019

Down syndrome – Chromosomal birth defect

Down syndrome – This is the most common chromosomal birth defects. This happens just after fertilization, when one extra chromosome appears in the first cell. Each healthy cell in the human body contains 46 chromosomes in 23 pairs. In Down’s syndrome, there is an anomaly in which each cell contains three 21 chromosomes, instead of two. This is why the other name of this disease is chromosome 21 trisomy (tripling). Only 4% of patients experience this so-called translocation (displacement), whereby a redundant part of the 21st chromosome attaches to another chromosome.

The outbreak of this disease is considered a genetic lottery, and scientists have yet to investigate the cause of the mutation. Children with Down syndrome have distinctive facial features – slanted eyes. A stronger build and a flat rounded face. They are also often more prone to cardiovascular disease. They are also 3-5 times more likely to suffer from Alzheimer’s.

The risk factor is the age of the parents – in mothers over 35, in fathers more than 50. 92% of affected fetuses in Europe are aborted.

Long-lived companies – Record holders are real Methuselah’s

Kongo Gumi

Long-lived companies - Kongo Gumi

Nishiyama Onsen Keiunkan

Staffelter Hof

Zum Roten Bären

Long-lived companies

The Olde Bell

Long-lived companies

Sudo Honke

Sudo Honke

Long-lived companies - Sudo-Honke

Frapin

Long-lived companies - Frapin

R. Durtnell and Sons

R. Durtnell and Sons

Long-lived companies - Poundsbridge-Manor

Long-lived companies – Record holders are real Methuselah’s

Long-lived companies – Record holders are real Methuselah’s, operating continuously for over ten centuries. Tokyo Shoko Research agency dealing with market research since 1892. It found over 5.5 thousand enterprises that have existed for at least 200 years.
More than half of long-lived companies operate in Japan. There are six in the top ten. Among the aforementioned 5.5 thousand – up to 3100. As the reason for this dominance, scientists point to the island’s location of the country and centuries-old isolation.
Most of these long-lived businesses are family businesses, emphasizes prof. Toshio Goto from Japan University of Economics. He sees the root cause of their longevity in the system known as Ie. It is a set of rules determining the position of individual family members, and most importantly – the rules of inheritance of property.

Ie system

It began to take shape in the XII century, when Japan plunged into the chaos of civil wars. The survival of families living in constant danger depended on the strength and intellect of their leaders. According to eternal tradition, the eldest son should be the head of the family. In wartime, however, this only worked if he had the warrior’s qualities and talents. If he did not have them, the family was in grave danger.
To prevent it, the so-called adoption Ie. It consisted in the fact that the aging patriarch of the family found a young, promising man. Which he provided with appropriate education. When the chosen one met his expectations and proved himself in battle, he became the official heir. All other family members had to submit to him. The Ie system thus replaced traditional blood ties and prevented the division of property between heirs. As a result, the estate, workshop, and trading company passed from generation to generation in an unchanged form.
Rules tested in warrior families were adopted by other social groups, especially merchants and craftsmen. In the XVII century, Ie was formally introduced into the legal system and was in force until the end of World War II. When civil law changed under pressure from Americans, it gave all children equal shares in the parents’ estate. This threatened old family businesses, but the tradition turned out to be strong enough that many of them survived to this day. Professor Toshio Goto calls them the Japanese treasure.

Record holders list:

Kongo Gumi – Japanese construction company is record holder. 1427 years of existence,

Nishiyama Onsen Keiunkan – Traditional Japanese hotel – ryokan. 1315 years of existence,

Staffelter Hof – Oldest winery in Europe. 1158 years of existence,

Zum Roten Bären – Hotel The Red Bear. 900 years of existence,

The Olde Bell – Oldest english hotel in Hurley. 885 years of existence,

Sudo Honke – Sake brewery oldest of world. 879 years of existence,

Frapin – Cognac producer from Grande Champagne. 750 years of existence,

R. Durtnell and Sons – Oldest european construction company. 429 years of existence,

Staffelter Hof – The oldest winery in Europe

Staffelter Hof

Staffelter Hof – The oldest winery in Europe

Staffelter Hof – The oldest winery in Europe. Established when the king of Lorraine gave the Cistercians earth on the Moselle. That’s how it rolled history a company from the German town of Kröv, which in 2012 celebrated its 1150 anniversary. Its origins date back to 862, when a Cistercian estate founded a vineyard on their estate. They dealt with it for almost a thousand years – until 1804. When Napoleon’s decision deprived them of earth. The confiscated vineyard was bought by the French court clerk Peter Schneiders.
Heirloom after him was taken over by children and grandchildren. When the male line expired, great-granddaughter Maria Schneiders married the winemaker Kilian Klein in 1894 – their descendants run the company to this day. They stopped at a modest family business, skillfully responding to the challenges of the times. In 1960, they built a small guest house at a 10-hectare vineyard, in 2014 they obtained an ecological certificate for their wines.
Staffelter Hof is one of the most typical companies with longevity. Brilliant inventors or fashion creators did not set up businesses that survived several centuries. Almost exclusively ventures that met the basic needs of customers had a chance to do so.

Cicuta virosa – It is 150 centimeters high

Cicuta virosa - Oulu, Finland (18.07.2013)Cicuta virosa (1)Cicuta virosa (2)

Cicuta virosa – It is 150 centimeters high

The highest concentration of toxic substances is found in its rhizome.

  • Deadly dose: 2g root
  • Death: within 24 hours
  • Poison: cicutoxin
  • Aftermath: degeneration of skeletal muscles
  • Where it grows: North and South America, Europe, Asia
  • Occurrence in Poland: yes

In North America it has hundreds of poisoned sheep per year on its conscience. People can mistake its root with the parsley root, and the most common victims of harmful substances are children. Cicutoxin works very quickly, after just a few minutes you can observe irritations of mucous membranes and abdominal pain. If a man survives poisoning, it is very likely that he will struggle with damage to the central nervous system for the rest of his life. Unlike other animals, mice can without fear of poisoning eat plant seeds.

Kayan tribe women – Secret of women giraffes

Kayan tribe women - Young girl giraffeKayan tribe women - Woman giraffeKayan tribe women - Young woman giraffeKayan tribe women - Women with rings on necksKayan tribe women - Women giraffes with childrenKayan tribe women - Women with elongated necks

Kayan tribe women – Secret of women giraffes

Kayan tribe women – In northern Thailand, in the province of Mae Hong Son in mountain villages, you can meet the so-called giraffe women from the Kayan tribe. They wear brass coils of thick wire on the necks, weighing about 10 kg. The first hoops are assumed for girls at the age of 5, and more are added successively. The spiral rests on the shoulders and puts pressure on the collarbones, creating the illusion of the elongated neck. This is really just an illusion, because the necks of women are of normal length. The spiral can be removed, and women sometimes do it, but not for long. Because the flaccid muscles of the neck make it impossible to keep the head without support. The custom of establishing a spiral is very old, the first mention comes from the 11th century. They are associated with the legend of the first woman Kayan, who was the daughter of a sea dragon.

Growth psychology – Laughter isn’t acquired but innate

Growth psychology - Fetal face profile

Growth psychology – laughter isn’t acquired but innate

Growth psychology – laughter isn’t acquired but innate – British scientists have proved
that laughter
is not something acquired, but innate. With the help of ultrasound was recorded
children in the
uteri. The first facial movements have been observed in the second trimester,
and all elements
detecting a laugh approx. 30 weeks. It was thus negated one of the existing
theory of
psychological development.

Genius brain-damaged

Genius brain-damaged - Autism

Genius brain-damaged

Genius brain-damaged – Savant, or learned fool is a man showing outstanding talent or extremely detailed knowledge of the field, while mentally retarded. Although savants often also suffer from autism, it does not mean that all savants are autistic. Such cases account for approx. 50 %, the second half of the savants suffer from other developmental disorders or central nervous system damage. Only 10 % of children with autism are savants. Among people with learning disabilities (more frequent than autism) savants account for only 1 %. Savant syndrome is more common in males, it is estimated that, compared to women, this is approx. 5: 1.

Dyslexia gene and hand

Dyslexia gene and hand - Human Brain

Dyslexia gene and hand

Dyslexia gene and hand – In 2007. Scientists from Oxford University, who studied in children with dyslexia association preference of a particular hand, have discovered a gene LRRTM1. It is assumed that it is one of the strongest factors that cause the appearance of left-handed. This could also explain heredity left-handedness. If both parents are left-handed, the likelihood that their child will be left-handed, is 26%.

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