Inchman ant – Myrmecia forficata – Extremely aggressive

Inchman ant - Myrmecia forficata - WorkerInchman ant - Myrmecia - Nest in lateritic soils - Darling Range, Western AustraliaInchman ant - Myrmecia - Honeysuckle Creek, Namadgi National Park, AustraliaInchman ant - Myrmecia - Terrick Terrick National Park, Victoria, AustraliaMyrmecia forficata - Worker - Darling Range, Western AustraliaMyrmecia - Terrick Terrick National Park, Victoria, AustraliaMyrmecia forficata - Kialla, AustraliaMyrmecia forficata - Austins Ferry, Tasmania, Australia

Inchman ant – Myrmecia forficata – It is big, fast and extremely aggressive

Inchman ant – Also called a bull ant. It has a jaw that is strong enough to chew through human skin. She is big, fast and extremely aggressive. It lives endemically on the Australian continent and is considered the largest ant in the world. It grows up from 15 to 40 mm.

They attack their prey from hiding, grab and hold with their powerful jaws, and then stab with a deadly sting. The sting is very painful and can cause anaphylactic shock. Australian scientists are studying the chemical composition of the poison injected by ants and hope to fight cancer with it.

Bacteriophage – Natural enemy of bacteria fights disease

Bacteriophage T4 - Artistic rendering

Bacteriophage - Bacillus phi29 - Illustration based on electron microscopy data

Bacteriophage - Cartoon representation of the entire bacteriophage MS2 protein capsid

Bacteriophage - Phage injecting genome into bacterial cell

Bacteriophage T7 - Structure

Bacteriophage - Artistic rendering - (09-04-2019)
 
 
 
Bacteriophage Synechococcus S-PM2 - Electron Microscope ImageBacteriophage P2 - View from Electron MicroscopeBacteriophage - Artists renderingVirus that feeds on bacteriaInfection at atomic resolution shows how the virus approaches the E.coli membrane and interacts with receptorsLego model - (01-02-2015)

Bacteriophage – Natural enemy of bacteria fights disease

Portrait of Felix d'Herelle– Felix d’Herelle

 
 
Bacteriophage – It was discovered over 100 years ago. Felix d’Herelle came up with the idea to use these natural enemies of bacteria in the fight against disease in 1919. The results of his first trials were very promising, but work ceased with the invention of antibiotics. These drugs were cheap and extremely effective, so they were quickly recognized as the ideal solution to fight disease.

However, it took several dozen years of excessive, inappropriate use of antibiotics for bacteria resistant to most or even all of these drugs to appear. This problem has again brought the attention of bacteriophages.

One of the main lines of research is devising a therapy effective against infections with bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas. Which very often cause pneumonia, sepsis, urinary tract infections and postoperative wound infections. In patients with weakened immune systems. In studies aimed at developing an alternative to antibiotics. It turned out that a mixture of several phages is definitely more effective than just one virus infecting Pseudomonas cells.

Prof. Rotem Sorek - Weizmann Institute’s Molecular Genetics Department– Prof. Rotem Sorek

 
 
Rotem Sorek, an Israeli geneticist from the Weizmann Institute of Science, found a trail of viral communication by studying bacteriophages found in soil. He discovered the social side of life of viruses that can attack bacteria. The so-called bacteriophages or shorter phages. These viruses can either stay in stand-by mode or multiply rapidly, destroying the attacked bacteria. And spreading in search of new hosts. Until now, scientists believed that the change in the dynamics of development was a process dependent only on the conditions in the bacterial cell.

Meanwhile, Dr. Sorek has proved that viruses are actively “discussing” about their strategy. When a bacteriophage enters bacteria, it can cause the release of a protein molecule made up of just six amino acids. This is news for other viruses. The more bacteria attacked, the more protein and the louder the signal that there are less and less free bacterial cells. The phages then stop the multiplication process and go into the dormant phase.

Because the virus that multiplies, breaks down the bacterial cell, and the daughter virions are released into the environment. It is when the host is scarce, that the virus stops infecting and saves.

Prof. Bonnie Bassler - In her officeProf. Bonnie Bassler - Talk on bacterial communication– Prof. Bonnie Bassler

 
 
The protein that changes the phage’s strategy was called arbitrium and, as its discoverer himself admits, it is quite a revolution in virology. Research has begun seeking arbitration in the community. It is already known that this protein produces at least a dozen other phages. Each of them probably “speaks” in their own language, so the conversation can only take place among the closest relatives.

On the other hand, phages are able to eavesdrop on information communicated by their victims. Molecular biologist prof. Bonnie Bassler of Princeton University found that viruses use chemical signals released by bacteria to choose the best time to multiply and annihilate the host. The natural abilities of molecular espionage were discovered, among others phages that infect cholera comma.

This is a great chance to effectively fight pathogens. Prof. Bassler – using the methods of biotechnologycreated phages that can eavesdrop on the bacteria Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium, which are harmful to health. This is the first step to obtain programmed killers of any chosen species of microbe. Dr. Sorek, on the other hand, has another idea: If we could genetically engineer a system that produces arbitrium into human viruses. Such as HIV or the herpes virus, which can stay hidden in cells for many years. It is the “sleep” molecule that would become a new therapy for these diseases. Despite decades of research on antivirals, we still have very little.

Sweet Potato – Alerts other plants

Sweet PotatoSweet PotatoSweet PotatoSweet PotatoSweet PotatoBatata L-shaped - (08-11-2017)L-shaped - (08-11-2017)National Cancer Institutes - (16-04-2004)

Sweet Potato – Alerts other plants

Sweet potato – This is a popular plant cultivated in the tropical zone, and came to Europe thanks to Christopher Columbus. Has no spikes or produces poison. It would seem that is defenseless against herbivorous insects. However, these appearances. New research shows that after its leaf is bitten, the batata produces a chemical substance. Which not only warns the rest of the plant, but also those adjacent to it. As a result of this alarm, plants produce chemicals that make them inedible for insects. Scientists say the discovery is the first step towards producing a natural, batata-derived pesticide.

Strongest acid – Fluoroantimonic acid

Strongest acid - Fluoroantimonic acid

Colors:

Hydrogen, H: white
Fluorine, F: green
Antimony, Sb: violet

Strongest acid – Fluoroantimonic acid

Strongest acid – Fluoroantimonic acid – Actually, it is a super acid that is a mixture of hydrofluoric acid (HF) and antimony pentafluoride (SbF5). It is a thousand trillion times stronger than concentrated sulfuric acid. Even short-term contact with the skin can result in serious injuries or death – just like inhaling its vapors. Fluoroantimonic acid is stored in special containers.

Andre-Marie Ampere – Thoughtful and versatile scientist

Andre-Marie AmpereAndre-Marie AmpereAndre-Marie AmpereAndre-Marie Ampere - Museum of Ampere - Poleymieux, Mont d'Or, France, 2007Andre-Marie Ampere - Ampere grave in Montmartre, Paris, 2006Andre-Marie Ampere - Ampere grave (detail) - Montmartre, Paris, France, 2006Andre-Marie Ampere - Museum of Ampere - Poleymieux, Mont d'Or, FranceAndre-Marie Ampere - Museum of Ampere - Poleymieux, Mont d'Or, France

Andre-Marie Ampere – Thoughtful and versatile scientist

Andre-Marie Ampere – (1775 – 1836) – The ancestor of electrodynamics did not go to primary school, his father taught him alone. Ampere sent his first scientific work to the Lyon Academy of Sciences (Academie de Lyon) at the age of 13! A quiet life and urgent studies were interrupted when his father was guillotined in 1793 for the Jacobin dictatorship. Eighteen-year-old Ampere has suffered this trauma. After the period of mourning, he returned to science and spiritual work. He was interested in mathematics and physics as well as in philosophy, botany, chemistry, as well as Latin, Italian and Greek.

Son Jean-Jacques Ampere (1800 – 1864) after his father’s death finished his work. Which was to classify the sciences –

Sketches from the philosophy of science, or an analytic representation of the general classification of all human knowledge

But his greatest merit is description of magnetism and subsequent establishment of the theory of electromagnetic phenomena as the basis of electrodynamics. He also created the first magnetic coil, which became the basis for the later telegraph.

At the age of 22, he began to teach mathematics in Lyon and later became a professor of chemistry and physics. For nineteen years he taught at the Polytechnique in Paris. During his lifetime he belonged to many scientific societies and he was also appreciated abroad. Unfortunately, his financial situation did not reflect merit. He often lacked money for experiments, which delayed his work.
He spent most of his life traveling, while on one of them in Marseilles, on June 10, 1836, he died. On the gravestone, according to his wishes, engraved: Tandem felix – Finally happy.

Technological metals – Term introduced in 2007

Technological metals - Jack Lifton

Technological metals – Term introduced in 2007

Technological metals – A concept that is relatively new, in contrast to the actual use of metals in science and industry. The date in 2007 was introduced by American chemist and physicist Jack Lifton. Since then, it is often used in industry. Generally, you can say that the tech. metals are basically precious metals and those that are necessary for the production of hi-tech devices and engineering systems. This category includes:

  • commercial production of miniature electronic devices
  • advanced military systems
  • generating electricity using alternative sources, for example solar panels or wind turbines
  • electricity storage using batteries and cells.

There are of course a lot of other uses of these elements. Almost all technological metals are a by-product of the treatment of basic metals (except for precious and lithium).

Molecules from space – Primary gas after Big Bang

Molecules from space - Universe expansion

Molecules from space – Primary gas created shortly after Big Bang

Molecules from space – Primary gas created shortly after Big Bang – Has been confirmed the
hypothesis
about the origin of molecules from space. The researchers were able to discover
the so-called
. Primary gas, which was created shortly after the Big Bang, it consists of hydrogen
and
its heavier isotope deuterium. This finding confirms that in the Big Bang were created only the
lightest
chemical elements, hydrogen and helium. Heavier elements appeared only after 100 Mln years.

Brussels tunnel – Experiment with photocatalysis

Brussels tunnel - Arcades and tunnel Cinquantenaire, Belgium

Brussels tunnel – Experiment with photocatalysis

Brussels tunnel – Experiment with photocatalysis – In 09.2011. European experts began their
experiment
in the Brussels tunnel, through which passes every day 25 thousand. cars.
100
meter length of building was covered with cement with titanium dioxide TiO2,
which
is the source of a chemical process called photocatalysis, acts as a catalyst driven by
solar radiation
(UV).

DNA chain – Ladders with millions rungs

Dna chain - ladders with millions rungs

DNA chain – Ladders with millions rungs

DNA chain – ladders with millions rungs – DNA strands looks like spiral ladders
with the millions rungs, each of which carries the instructions written by chemical code.
If we could unravel and stretch the DNA of a single human cell, measure the approx.
2 meters, its thickness, however, would amount to approx. 0.000002 mm. Chain DNA from
the body of one man is 16 times longer than the path from Earth to the Moon.

Antimalarial effective drug – Isolated Quinine

Antimalarial effective drug - isolated Quinine

Antimalarial effective drug – Isolated Quinine

Antimalarial effective drug – Isolated Quinine. One of the first effective drugs for malaria was the bark of the Peruvian cinchona tree (Cinchona) containing alkaloid quinine. Its action convinced the Jesuits and approx. 1640. Brought it from South America. to Europe. It was not until 1820. Quinine isolated the French chemists Pierre Joseph Pelletier and Joseph Bienaime Caventou.

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