Andre-Marie Ampere – Thoughtful and versatile scientist
Andre-Marie Ampere – (1775 – 1836) – The ancestor of electrodynamics did not go to primary school, his father taught him alone. Ampere sent his first scientific work to the Lyon Academy of Sciences (Academie de Lyon) at the age of 13! A quiet life and urgent studies were interrupted when his father was guillotined in 1793 for the Jacobin dictatorship. Eighteen-year-old Ampere has suffered this trauma. After the period of mourning, he returned to science and spiritual work. He was interested in mathematics and physics as well as in philosophy, botany, chemistry, as well as Latin, Italian and Greek.
Son Jean-Jacques Ampere (1800 – 1864) after his father’s death finished his work. Which was to classify the sciences –
Sketches from the philosophy of science, or an analytic representation of the general classification of all human knowledge
But his greatest merit is description of magnetism and subsequent establishment of the theory of electromagnetic phenomena as the basis of electrodynamics. He also created the first magnetic coil, which became the basis for the later telegraph.
At the age of 22, he began to teach mathematics in Lyon and later became a professor of chemistry and physics. For nineteen years he taught at the Polytechnique in Paris. During his lifetime he belonged to many scientific societies and he was also appreciated abroad. Unfortunately, his financial situation did not reflect merit. He often lacked money for experiments, which delayed his work.
He spent most of his life traveling, while on one of them in Marseilles, on June 10, 1836, he died. On the gravestone, according to his wishes, engraved: Tandem felix – Finally happy.
Technological metals – Term introduced in 2007
Technological metals – A concept that is relatively new, in contrast to the actual use of metals in science and industry. The date in 2007 was introduced by American chemist and physicist Jack Lifton. Since then, it is often used in industry. Generally, you can say that the tech. metals are basically precious metals and those that are necessary for the production of hi-tech devices and engineering systems. This category includes:
- commercial production of miniature electronic devices li>
- advanced military systems li>
- generating electricity using alternative sources, for example solar panels or wind turbines li>
- electricity storage using batteries and cells. li>
There are of course a lot of other uses of these elements. Almost all technological metals are a by-product of the treatment of basic metals (except for precious and lithium).
Molecules from space – Primary gas created shortly after Big Bang
Molecules from space – Primary gas created shortly after Big Bang – Has been confirmed the
hypothesis about the origin of molecules from space. The researchers were able to discover
the so-called. Primary gas, which was created shortly after the Big Bang, it consists of hydrogen
and its heavier isotope deuterium. This finding confirms that in the Big Bang were created only the
lightest chemical elements, hydrogen and helium. Heavier elements appeared only after 100 Mln years.
Brussels tunnel – Experiment with photocatalysis
Brussels tunnel – Experiment with photocatalysis – In 09.2011. European experts began their
experiment in the Brussels tunnel, through which passes every day 25 thousand. cars.
100 meter length of building was covered with cement with titanium dioxide TiO2,
which is the source of a chemical process called photocatalysis, acts as a catalyst driven by
solar radiation (UV).
DNA chain – Ladders with millions rungs
DNA chain – ladders with millions rungs – DNA strands looks like spiral ladders
with the millions rungs, each of which carries the instructions written by chemical code.
If we could unravel and stretch the DNA of a single human cell, measure the approx.
2 meters, its thickness, however, would amount to approx. 0.000002 mm. Chain DNA from
the body of one man is 16 times longer than the path from Earth to the Moon.
Antimalarial effective drug – Isolated Quinine
Antimalarial effective drug – Isolated Quinine. One of the first effective drugs for malaria was the bark of the Peruvian cinchona tree (Cinchona) containing alkaloid – quinine. Its action convinced the Jesuits and approx. 1640. Brought it from South America. to Europe. It was not until 1820. Quinine isolated the French chemists – Pierre Joseph Pelletier and Joseph Bienaime Caventou.
John Dalton – English physicist, chemist, meteorologist
John Dalton – English physicist, chemist, meteorologist – In 27.07.1844 died English physicist,
chemist and meteorologist J. Dalton (born in 1766). Founder of modern atomic theory of matter.
He described the vision defect, which was later called daltonism. Atomic mass unit,
also acquired his name (Da).
Hans von Euler-Chelpin – Swedish chemist and biochemist
Hans von Euler-Chelpin – Swedish chemist and biochemist – In 15.02.1873 was born Swedish
chemist and biochemist Hans von Euler-Chelpin. He dealt with vitamins and enzymes.
In 1929 together with Arthur Harden was awarded the Nobel Prize in chemistry.
For explaining the participation of enzymes in the fermentation of sugars.
Melvin Ellis Calvin – American physical chemist
Melvin Ellis Calvin – American physical chemist – specialist of photosynthesis, catalysis, molecular structure – In 04.08.1911
was born American physical chemist Melvin E. Calvin. He was a specialist in the field of organic chemistry, catalysis, molecular structures. Calvin conducted research on chemical reactions of carbon
associated with the process of photosynthesis. He received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for
the discovery of the so-called. photosynthetic pathway.
Wilhelm Friedrich Ostwald – Modern physical chemist
Wilhelm Friedrich Ostwald – Modern physical chemist – In 04.04.1932 died German chemist Wilhelm F. Ostwald. He conducted research in the field of statics and chemical kinetics, catalysis issues, the theory of electrolytic dissociation and scheme of colors. He was one of the founders of modern physical chemistry. Nobel Prize laureate.