Technological metals – Term introduced in 2007
Technological metals – A concept that is relatively new, in contrast to the actual use of metals in science and industry. The date in 2007 was introduced by American chemist and physicist Jack Lifton. Since then, it is often used in industry. Generally, you can say that the tech. metals are basically precious metals and those that are necessary for the production of hi-tech devices and engineering systems. This category includes:
- commercial production of miniature electronic devices li>
- advanced military systems li>
- generating electricity using alternative sources, for example solar panels or wind turbines li>
- electricity storage using batteries and cells. li>
There are of course a lot of other uses of these elements. Almost all technological metals are a by-product of the treatment of basic metals (except for precious and lithium).
DNA chain – Ladders with millions rungs
DNA chain – ladders with millions rungs – DNA strands looks like spiral ladders
with the millions rungs, each of which carries the instructions written by chemical code.
If we could unravel and stretch the DNA of a single human cell, measure the approx.
2 meters, its thickness, however, would amount to approx. 0.000002 mm. Chain DNA from
the body of one man is 16 times longer than the path from Earth to the Moon.
DNA types – Distinction between two types of DNA
DNA types – Distinction is made between two types of DNA:
- Nuclear DNA, in the nucleus of each cell of the human body consists of 20-25 thousand. genes. After the death of its host quickly degrades.
- Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), contains only 37 genes. During the study, scientists use mtDNA, which is inherited only from the mother, it retains a relatively high resistance to the influence of sexual selection, however, it is a frequent mutations.
Human body bacteria – Weight of digestive tract microorganisms
Human body bacteria – Weight of digestive tract microorganisms – The total weight of bacteria
living in the human digestive system is approx. 1.5 kg. In the large intestine,
we have 100 trillion microorganisms. 10 times more than the number of all cells in the body.
They are divided into roughly 400 species.
Studies have shown that it is the changes in the number and species of bacteria in the gut
have a negative impact on the psyche of the patients. According to specialists bacterial flora
may be responsible not only prone to depression, but depression symptoms in themselves.
At one cm square elbow stays on average 10 thousand. bacteria – 113 different species,
but more than 90% are 10 of them. The least bacteria on human skin found between the toes,
the largest habitat of the navel.
Old age mental activity – number of neurons
Old age mental activity – number of neurons – The decrease in mental activity in old age
was attributed to the decreasing with age, the number of brain cells.
Neurologists from universities in Boston and Washington, however, proved.
That almost all of the 10 billion cells used while thinking, they are active even in 80-year-olds.
Alcoholism effects – Repairing damaged neurons
Alcoholism effects – repairing damaged neurons – Scientists from Wurzburg in Germany
found that damage to brain cells caused by excessive alcohol consumption can be repaired only partially.
They note that in the interest of alcoholics is the fastest return to sobriety. Longer heavy drinking
causes brain regeneration proceeds with great difficulty.
Proteomics – The science of proteins
Proteomics – The science of proteins – about how they arise, how they change and how they affect various processes in the cell.
Bacteria in human body
Bacteria in human body – In the body of an adult human lives approx. 500 trillion of different bacteria, which is a lot more than your own body cells. Fortunately, most of these microorganisms are harmless.
Interferon – Compound protecting against viruses
Interferon – It is a compound protecting against viruses. A protein produced and released by the cells of the body, provides communication between them by activating the immune system.
Yeast milk – Longing for the taste of cow’s milk
Yeast milk – Longing for the taste of cow’s milk, but professing an orthodox vegan scientists from the US. Solved their problem by introducing into yeast cells cow genes for the synthesis of milk components. In a similar way is prepared for quite a time certain medications. The milk milked from yeast has a chance to appear in stores in two years.