Bacteriophage – Natural enemy of bacteria fights disease

Bacteriophage T4 - Artistic rendering

Bacteriophage - Bacillus phi29 - Illustration based on electron microscopy data

Bacteriophage - Cartoon representation of the entire bacteriophage MS2 protein capsid

Bacteriophage - Phage injecting genome into bacterial cell

Bacteriophage T7 - Structure

Bacteriophage - Artistic rendering - (09-04-2019)
Bacteriophage Synechococcus S-PM2 - Electron Microscope ImageBacteriophage P2 - View from Electron MicroscopeBacteriophage - Artists renderingVirus that feeds on bacteriaInfection at atomic resolution shows how the virus approaches the E.coli membrane and interacts with receptorsLego model - (01-02-2015)

Bacteriophage – Natural enemy of bacteria fights disease

Portrait of Felix d'Herelle– Felix d’Herelle

Bacteriophage – It was discovered over 100 years ago. Felix d’Herelle came up with the idea to use these natural enemies of bacteria in the fight against disease in 1919. The results of his first trials were very promising, but work ceased with the invention of antibiotics. These drugs were cheap and extremely effective, so they were quickly recognized as the ideal solution to fight disease.

However, it took several dozen years of excessive, inappropriate use of antibiotics for bacteria resistant to most or even all of these drugs to appear. This problem has again brought the attention of bacteriophages.

One of the main lines of research is devising a therapy effective against infections with bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas. Which very often cause pneumonia, sepsis, urinary tract infections and postoperative wound infections. In patients with weakened immune systems. In studies aimed at developing an alternative to antibiotics. It turned out that a mixture of several phages is definitely more effective than just one virus infecting Pseudomonas cells.

Prof. Rotem Sorek - Weizmann Institute’s Molecular Genetics Department– Prof. Rotem Sorek

Rotem Sorek, an Israeli geneticist from the Weizmann Institute of Science, found a trail of viral communication by studying bacteriophages found in soil. He discovered the social side of life of viruses that can attack bacteria. The so-called bacteriophages or shorter phages. These viruses can either stay in stand-by mode or multiply rapidly, destroying the attacked bacteria. And spreading in search of new hosts. Until now, scientists believed that the change in the dynamics of development was a process dependent only on the conditions in the bacterial cell.

Meanwhile, Dr. Sorek has proved that viruses are actively “discussing” about their strategy. When a bacteriophage enters bacteria, it can cause the release of a protein molecule made up of just six amino acids. This is news for other viruses. The more bacteria attacked, the more protein and the louder the signal that there are less and less free bacterial cells. The phages then stop the multiplication process and go into the dormant phase.

Because the virus that multiplies, breaks down the bacterial cell, and the daughter virions are released into the environment. It is when the host is scarce, that the virus stops infecting and saves.

Prof. Bonnie Bassler - In her officeProf. Bonnie Bassler - Talk on bacterial communication– Prof. Bonnie Bassler

The protein that changes the phage’s strategy was called arbitrium and, as its discoverer himself admits, it is quite a revolution in virology. Research has begun seeking arbitration in the community. It is already known that this protein produces at least a dozen other phages. Each of them probably “speaks” in their own language, so the conversation can only take place among the closest relatives.

On the other hand, phages are able to eavesdrop on information communicated by their victims. Molecular biologist prof. Bonnie Bassler of Princeton University found that viruses use chemical signals released by bacteria to choose the best time to multiply and annihilate the host. The natural abilities of molecular espionage were discovered, among others phages that infect cholera comma.

This is a great chance to effectively fight pathogens. Prof. Bassler – using the methods of biotechnologycreated phages that can eavesdrop on the bacteria Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium, which are harmful to health. This is the first step to obtain programmed killers of any chosen species of microbe. Dr. Sorek, on the other hand, has another idea: If we could genetically engineer a system that produces arbitrium into human viruses. Such as HIV or the herpes virus, which can stay hidden in cells for many years. It is the “sleep” molecule that would become a new therapy for these diseases. Despite decades of research on antivirals, we still have very little.

Diatoms – Microscopic size, single-celled algae

Diatoms - McMurdo Station, South Antarctica

Diatoms - Under Light Microscope

Diatoms - Under Light Microscope 40x

Diatoms - Lorella Kennedy Diatomea (silica algae)
Diatoms - Shell of the fossil diatom - Trinacria ariesStar stick diatomStephanopyxis grunow - Bottom view, under light microscopyWagon wheel diatom - NOAA

Diatoms – Microscopic size, single-celled algae

Diatoms – A component of the ocean plant plankton, diatoms are microscopic size, single-celled algae. The cell wall of these organisms is made of hard silica (noble opal, by the way), and forms a kind of box with a bottom and a lid. During reproduction by division, the new diatom takes with it a part of the “parent” shell and adds a smaller bottom to it. As a result, the next generations of these algae are getting smaller and smaller

However, the process does not last forever. When the minimum size limit is exceeded, the generally unarmored sexual generation (the so-called auxospore) appears in the sea. Which has the ability to grow unhindered – and then the cycle starts all over again …

We owe 25 percent of the oxygen in the Earth’s atmosphere to diatoms that produce it in the process of photosynthesis. They also account for a quarter of the biomass of all seas and oceans.

Muscular dystrophy – Is caused by muscle weakness

Muscular dystrophy - Make A Wish participant enlisted

Muscular dystrophy - National Poster Child of the Year

Muscular dystrophy - Cleveland, Ohio, USA

Muscular dystrophy - Child receiving torch money - Federal Building in Cleveland, Ohio, USA
Stem cells administrationDuchenne muscular photo essayDuchenne muscular dystrophy

Muscular dystrophy – Is caused by muscle weakness

Muscular Dystrophy – This disease is the result of weakened muscles and has nothing to do with damage to the nervous system. There is a 25% chance that the child will acquire muscular dystrophy from the parents. What is certain, however, is that the problem lies in the muscle cells themselves. The patient’s body is unable to produce protein dystrophins, without which our muscles cannot work. There are two types of dystrophy. The more severe one is Duchenne dystrophy, which affects both adults and children. Sick boys quickly end up in a wheelchair, and the work of their hearts and lungs deteriorates. The maximum life expectancy with the disease is 20 years.

The second type of dystrophy is called Becker’s dystrophy. It manifests itself in patients a little later, usually after the age of 10. The first symptoms of this type of dystrophy include weakness in the calf, pelvic and thigh muscles. Scientists warn that 30% of patients did not get sick for reasons genetic , but their chromosome was attacked by a new mutation.

Down syndrome – Chromosomal birth defect

Down syndrome - Blue Apple Theater Hamlet Actors

Down syndrome - Charity gifts for children with cancer, the Vanessa Isabel Foundation

Down syndrome - 2019

Down syndrome - Trisomia

Down syndrome - Guy with down syndrome
Down syndrome - He just having fun at workPianistNewborn with down syndromeWilliam i Tommy JessopMarch for Life 2019

Down syndrome – Chromosomal birth defect

Down syndrome – This is the most common chromosomal birth defects. This happens just after fertilization, when one extra chromosome appears in the first cell. Each healthy cell in the human body contains 46 chromosomes in 23 pairs. In Down’s syndrome, there is an anomaly in which each cell contains three 21 chromosomes, instead of two. This is why the other name of this disease is chromosome 21 trisomy (tripling). Only 4% of patients experience this so-called translocation (displacement), whereby a redundant part of the 21st chromosome attaches to another chromosome.

The outbreak of this disease is considered a genetic lottery, and scientists have yet to investigate the cause of the mutation. Children with Down syndrome have distinctive facial features – slanted eyes. A stronger build and a flat rounded face. They are also often more prone to cardiovascular disease. They are also 3-5 times more likely to suffer from Alzheimer’s.

The risk factor is the age of the parents – in mothers over 35, in fathers more than 50. 92% of affected fetuses in Europe are aborted.

Evergreen plants secrets – Retain metabolic activity

Evergreen plants secrets - Tree infested by MistletoeEvergreen plants secrets - Entrance to High Castle, MalborkEvergreen plants secrets - Common ivy (Hedera helix) - Botanical Garden of University in WroclawEvergreen plants secrets - Holly in winterEvergreen plants secrets - Holly (Ilex aquifolia) plantation
Evergreen plants secrets - Hollies (Ilex aquifolia) - Along Westside Linear TrailHolly (Ilex aquifolia)Lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea)Ribes viburnifolium - Botanical Garden in El Chorro Regional ParkRibes viburnifolium - University of California - UC Davis Arboretum

Evergreen plants secrets – Retain metabolic activity

Evergreen plants secrets – Retain metabolic activity – Adapting it to winter conditions. They do it, among others preventing the formation of intracellular ice crystals. Their specific structure also helps them to survive the difficult conditions.
Conifer pins are narrow, which reduces the evaporation surface and prevents water loss. In this trees, the pins covers with a thick layer of wax skin, and the buds covers with thick shells. This makes the conifers able to survive even the most severe frosts.
Green in winter also remain, among others mosses, club moss, and some shrubs, such as rhododendrons. The leaves of the latter covers a special protective layer, and additionally, on frosty and sunny days, they curl or change from horizontal to vertical. This limits the amount of light reaching them. As a result, their evaporation surface is reduced and the plant protects itself against moisture loss.

HeLa cell cultures – Cellular biology record

HeLa cell cultures - Multiphoton fluorescence image of HeLa cellsHeLa cell cultures - Multiphoton fluorescence image of HeLa cells with cytoskeletal microtubules and DNAHeLa cell - Scanning electron micrographHeLa cell cultures - 6.10.2015HeLa cells stained


HeLa cells - Scanning electron micrograph of just divided cellsMulticolor fluorescence image of living HeLa cell - 1.10.2014Multicolor fluorescence image of living HeLa cells - 1.10.2014HeLa cells - 27.11.2011Multiphoton fluorescence image of HeLa cells

HeLa cell cultures – Cellular biology record

HeLa cell cultures – They are the record of cellular biology. They have been used by scientists around the world for nearly seven decades. They come from Henrietta Lacks, a patient who died of cervical cancer in 1951. Cancer cells that were taken from without her consent and knowledge. George Otto Gey, a researcher at Johns Hopkins Hospital, examined them.
He discovered that cells divide extremely efficiently and do not die.
Science had no such material at its disposal before.

Immortal cells are used to research new drugs and vaccines.

They were sent into space (to check if low gravity would damage human tissues) and helped in gene mapping. It is estimated that all HeLa cells that have been produced in laboratories weigh a few dozen thousand tons in total.
Much more than Henrietta Lacks, who has almost been forgotten for many decades.

Technological metals – Term introduced in 2007

Technological metals - Jack Lifton

Technological metals – Term introduced in 2007

Technological metals – A concept that is relatively new, in contrast to the actual use of metals in science and industry. The date in 2007 was introduced by American chemist and physicist Jack Lifton. Since then, it is often used in industry. Generally, you can say that the tech. metals are basically precious metals and those that are necessary for the production of hi-tech devices and engineering systems. This category includes:

  • commercial production of miniature electronic devices
  • advanced military systems
  • generating electricity using alternative sources, for example solar panels or wind turbines
  • electricity storage using batteries and cells.

There are of course a lot of other uses of these elements. Almost all technological metals are a by-product of the treatment of basic metals (except for precious and lithium).

DNA chain – Ladders with millions rungs

Dna chain - ladders with millions rungs

DNA chain – Ladders with millions rungs

DNA chain – ladders with millions rungs – DNA strands looks like spiral ladders
with the millions rungs, each of which carries the instructions written by chemical code.
If we could unravel and stretch the DNA of a single human cell, measure the approx.
2 meters, its thickness, however, would amount to approx. 0.000002 mm. Chain DNA from
the body of one man is 16 times longer than the path from Earth to the Moon.

DNA types – Distinction between two types of DNA

DNA types - Mitochondrial_DNA_versus_Nuclear_DNADNA types - Mitochondrial DNA

DNA types – Distinction between two types of DNA

DNA types – Distinction is made between two types of DNA:

  • Nuclear DNA, in the nucleus of each cell of the human body consists of 20-25 thousand. genes. After the death of its host quickly degrades.
  • Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), contains only 37 genes. During the study, scientists use mtDNA, which is inherited only from the mother, it retains a relatively high resistance to the influence of sexual selection, however, it is a frequent mutations.

Human body bacteria – Digestive tract microorganisms

Human body bacteria - weight of digestive tract microorganisms

Human body bacteria – Weight of digestive tract microorganisms

Human body bacteria – Weight of digestive tract microorganisms – The total weight of bacteria
in the human digestive system is approx.
1.5 kg. In the large intestine,
we have
100 trillion microorganisms. 10 times more than the number of all cells in the body.
They are divided into
roughly 400 species.

Studies have shown that it is the changes in the number and species of bacteria in the gut
have a negative impact
on the psyche of the patients. According to specialists bacterial flora
may be responsible
not only prone to depression, but depression symptoms in themselves.

At one cm square elbow stays on average 10 thousand. bacteria 113 different species,
but more than
90% are 10 of them. The least bacteria on human skin found between the toes,
the largest
habitat of the navel.