HeLa cell cultures – Cellular biology record

HeLa cell cultures - Multiphoton fluorescence image of HeLa cellsHeLa cell cultures - Multiphoton fluorescence image of HeLa cells with cytoskeletal microtubules and DNAHeLa cell - Scanning electron micrographHeLa cell cultures - 6.10.2015HeLa cells stained

 

HeLa cells - Scanning electron micrograph of just divided cellsMulticolor fluorescence image of living HeLa cell - 1.10.2014Multicolor fluorescence image of living HeLa cells - 1.10.2014HeLa cells - 27.11.2011Multiphoton fluorescence image of HeLa cells

HeLa cell cultures – Cellular biology record

HeLa cell cultures – They are the record of cellular biology. They have been used by scientists around the world for nearly seven decades. They come from Henrietta Lacks, a patient who died of cervical cancer in 1951. Cancer cells that were taken from without her consent and knowledge. George Otto Gey, a researcher at Johns Hopkins Hospital, examined them.
He discovered that cells divide extremely efficiently and do not die.
Science had no such material at its disposal before.

Immortal cells are used to research new drugs and vaccines.

They were sent into space (to check if low gravity would damage human tissues) and helped in gene mapping. It is estimated that all HeLa cells that have been produced in laboratories weigh a few dozen thousand tons in total.
Much more than Henrietta Lacks, who has almost been forgotten for many decades.

Technological metals – Term introduced in 2007

Technological metals - Jack Lifton

Technological metals – Term introduced in 2007

Technological metals – A concept that is relatively new, in contrast to the actual use of metals in science and industry. The date in 2007 was introduced by American chemist and physicist Jack Lifton. Since then, it is often used in industry. Generally, you can say that the tech. metals are basically precious metals and those that are necessary for the production of hi-tech devices and engineering systems. This category includes:

  • commercial production of miniature electronic devices
  • advanced military systems
  • generating electricity using alternative sources, for example solar panels or wind turbines
  • electricity storage using batteries and cells.

There are of course a lot of other uses of these elements. Almost all technological metals are a by-product of the treatment of basic metals (except for precious and lithium).

DNA chain – Ladders with millions rungs

Dna chain - ladders with millions rungs

DNA chain – Ladders with millions rungs

DNA chain – ladders with millions rungs – DNA strands looks like spiral ladders
with the millions rungs, each of which carries the instructions written by chemical code.
If we could unravel and stretch the DNA of a single human cell, measure the approx.
2 meters, its thickness, however, would amount to approx. 0.000002 mm. Chain DNA from
the body of one man is 16 times longer than the path from Earth to the Moon.

DNA types – Distinction between two types of DNA

DNA types - Mitochondrial_DNA_versus_Nuclear_DNADNA types - Mitochondrial DNA

DNA types – Distinction between two types of DNA

DNA types – Distinction is made between two types of DNA:

  • Nuclear DNA, in the nucleus of each cell of the human body consists of 20-25 thousand. genes. After the death of its host quickly degrades.
  • Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), contains only 37 genes. During the study, scientists use mtDNA, which is inherited only from the mother, it retains a relatively high resistance to the influence of sexual selection, however, it is a frequent mutations.

Human body bacteria – Digestive tract microorganisms

Human body bacteria - weight of digestive tract microorganisms

Human body bacteria – Weight of digestive tract microorganisms

Human body bacteria – Weight of digestive tract microorganisms – The total weight of bacteria
living
in the human digestive system is approx.
1.5 kg. In the large intestine,
we have
100 trillion microorganisms. 10 times more than the number of all cells in the body.
They are divided into
roughly 400 species.

Studies have shown that it is the changes in the number and species of bacteria in the gut
have a negative impact
on the psyche of the patients. According to specialists bacterial flora
may be responsible
not only prone to depression, but depression symptoms in themselves.

At one cm square elbow stays on average 10 thousand. bacteria 113 different species,
but more than
90% are 10 of them. The least bacteria on human skin found between the toes,
the largest
habitat of the navel.

Old age mental activity – Number of neurons

Old age mental activity - Brain weight with age

Old age mental activity – number of neurons

Old age mental activity – number of neuronsThe decrease in mental activity in old age
was attributed to the decreasing with age, the number of brain cells.
Neurologists from universities in Boston and Washington, however, proved.
That almost
all of the 10 billion cells used while thinking, they are active even in 80-year-olds.

Alcoholism effects – Repairing damaged neurons

Alcoholism effects - Alcoholic on street in Spain

Alcoholism effects – Repairing damaged neurons

Alcoholism effects – repairing damaged neurons – Scientists from Wurzburg in Germany
found that
damage to brain cells caused by excessive alcohol consumption can be repaired only partially.

They note that
in the interest of alcoholics is the fastest return to sobriety. Longer heavy drinking
causes
brain regeneration proceeds with great difficulty.