Fort Jefferson – Florida, USA – In left fortress-reserve

Fort Jefferson - Florida, USAFort Jefferson - Florida, USAFort Jefferson - Florida, USAFort Jefferson - Florida, USAFort Jefferson - Florida, USAFort Jefferson - Florida, USAGarden and Bush Keys - FloridaGarden and Bush Keys - FloridaFlorida Keys - (02-05-2014)Florida Keys - (02-05-2014)

Fort Jefferson – Florida, USA – In left fortress-reserve

Fort Jefferson – On the Florida Keys, it was supposed to be a fortress for eternity, but life verified these bold plans. It gave shelter to soldiers for only a few years. This is one of the most ambitious construction projects in US history: thousands of workers worked on the Garden Key island. Who used nearly 16 million bricks for nearly 30 years to build the largest fort on the American coast. It was built on a hexagon plan, its walls were 14 m high, and the space in it was enough for: 450 cannons, 1500 soldiers.

The problem was that the fortress was named after President Thomas Jefferson. Most of the time it was simply unnecessary. That is why the government began to use it as a place of isolation for political prisoners in the Civil War. That was until 1867.
When an epidemic of yellow fever broke out in the fort. One of her first victims was a prison doctor. So, to stop the rampant disease, he began, Dr. Samuel Mudd – serving life imprisonment for participating in the plot for the life of Abraham Lincoln. He succeeded: he saved hundreds of prisoners and guards. Mudd was pardoned and the prison was soon closed.

Today there is a bird sanctuary in the abandoned fortress. It is also one of the favorite diving spots on the Florida Keys.

Amoco Cadiz – Biggest oil spills

Amoco Cadiz - Grounding and oil spill - 01.03.1978Amoco Cadiz - Sinking tanker - Brittany-France - 01.03.1978Impact of oil spill - 01.03.1978Oil spill - 01.03.1978

Amoco Cadiz – Biggest oil spills

  • Place: France
  • Date: 16 March 1978
  • Amount of spill: 254 400 000 liters
  • Costs: $ 136 mln

Amoco Cadiz – In 1978, the tanker crashed off the coast of France. On its standard route, from the Persian Gulf to the Dutch port of Rotterdam. When a 335 meter ship passed the west coast of France. It got inside a violent storm. High waves damaged the rudder and directed the tanker directly to the coast. The ship first hit a coral reef, as a result of which water flooded the engine room. Another blow to the rocks caused the oil tanks to crack. The contents of all of them spilled into the sea in 14 days.

Could the disaster be prevented

The crew was warned of a possible disaster, but they were unable to stop the ship in time. Therefore, the tanker impacted the sanding. In total, over 2.5 million liters of oil spilled near Portsall. It reached about 360 km of coastline. About 14,000 volunteers and soldiers fought the effects of the accident. However, around 37,000 birds and 6,400 oysters died. Nature returned to balance seven years after the disaster.

Deepwater Horizon – Biggest oil spills

Deepwater Horizon - Fire on the drilling rigDeepwater Horizon - Dark smoke and fire on drilling rig (6 May 2010) Deepwater Horizon - Coast cleanupDeepwater Horizon - Oil spillGulf of Mexico - 28-04-2010Aerial view reconnaissance of Louisiana coastline, USAU.S. Coast-Guard, BP, other federal agencies working after explosion in Gulf of Mexico

Deepwater Horizon – Biggest oil spills

  • Place: Gulf of Mexico
  • Date: 22 april 2010
  • Amount of spill: 779 100 000 liters
  • Costs: $ 5 billion

Deepwater Horizon – It was a floating oil rig. Built in 2001. In 2009, it bore the largest well in history – 10 km. A year later, this record was overshadowed by a tragic explosion. Which created biggest oil spill in history. This tragedy happened at a depth of 1500 m. Two days after the explosion the platform sank. A few months later, technicians managed to introduce a special sealing compound into the damaged well. Which blocked the crack.

The explosion kills

The accident occurred due to highly compressed methane. Which tore the top cover of the drilling rig and exploded after contact with air. It killed 11 people on the spot and then disrupted the platform statistics. Within days, the stain reached the shores of Louisiana. Ravaging nature on the way. The coast of five US states was affected by this. Including the rare Mississippi wetlands. As a result of this disaster, died 6,000 sea turtles, 26 thousand dolphins and whales, 82 thousand birds and huge numbers of fish and invertebrates.

Oil stain in Kuwait – Biggest oil spills

Oil stain in Kuwait - 1.01.1991Oil stain in Kuwait - 1.01.1991Oil stain in Kuwait - 5–14 June 1991Oil stain in Kuwait - 08.03.1991Oil fires in Kuwait - 7-April-1991Oil well fires rage outside Kuwait City - 21.03.1991Oil well fires south of Kuwait City - 01.03.1991

Oil stain in Kuwait – Biggest oil spills

  • Place: Kuwait
  • Date: 19 January 1991
  • Amount of spill: 906 300 000 liters
  • Costs: $ 484,5 million

Oil stain in Kuwait – The largest oil-related disaster took place during the Gulf War. This was not due to a technical defect or explosion, but to planned sabotage. Oil was released by the Iraqi army. Whose goal was to slow down US troops planning to take over Kuwait. To prevent further leakage, US Air Force destroyed the oil towers. According to international research, 5.7 barrels of oil spilled into the sea. Later, it was even speculated that Saddam Hussein wanted to light all continuous reserves. Thus destroy the global economy. Fortunately, this did not happen.

Animals in danger

A layer of oil, 12 centimeters thick, covered the sea over an area of ​​over 4,000 km². It has affected the entire marine ecosystem. While US soldiers could bypass the contaminated area. Animals did not have this option anymore. At least 30,000 sea birds wintering there have died. And a large number of fish. A quarter of the Kuwait desert was also flooded with oil.

Poisonous birds – Not venomous discovered so far

Poisonous birds - Pitohui dichrousPoisonous birds - Plectropterus gambensisPoisonous birds - Common quail (Coturnix coturnix)

Poisonous birds – Not venomous discovered so far

Poisonous birds – No venomous bird has been discovered so far. That is, one whose body would produce a poisonous substance. That would then be transmitted by pecking or wounding with a claw. There are several groups of poisonous birds, that is, poisoning us when we touch or eat them. Their organisms are also probably not producing toxins, but they are able to obtain them from poisonous insects or plants.

Most of them live in New Guinea. Where are several species of Pitohui. Also representatives of the families, store the strong neurotoxin (batrachotoxin) in the skin.

The Gambian Goose from the Anatidae family living in Africa. It accumulates in its tissues another poison, a kantaridine (it gets it from the eaten beetles). Plectropterus gambensis, however, are poisonous only after their consumption. So they gain little thanks to this weapon (except revenge from beyond the grave). On the other hand, other animals of this species benefit from this – a predator who once encountered goose meat will avoid it.

A similar phenomenon applies to the European Common Quail, whose meat is also poisonous, although only for part of the year. Probably quails get their toxin from being eaten plants, and poisoning them are known for a long time and referred to as a coturnism (from the Latin name of the quail Coturnix coturnix).

Kiwi Chinese gooseberry – Most often cultivated Actinidia deliciosa

Kiwi Chinese gooseberry - Actinidia deliciosaKiwi Chinese gooseberry - KiwifruitKiwi Chinese gooseberry - Kiwifruit (2)Kiwi Chinese gooseberry - Kiwifruit cross section

Kiwi Chinese gooseberry – Most often cultivated Actinidia deliciosa

Kiwi Chinese gooseberry – With over 50 species of kiwi, the most popular is Actindia deliciosa. In China, the fruits of woody Actinidia vines with a green jelly-like flesh in a rough skin have been eaten for a long time. With time, this Chinese gooseberry was cultivated in New Zealand. There, American soldiers stomped on it, stationed on the island during World War II. In the 1960s, farmers introduced these fruits to their export offer. But to increase their market attractiveness, they changed their name to kiwi. Today, New Zealand is one of the largest kiwi exporters in the world, and its symbol is the non-flying kiwi birds.

Oldest pictogram – Presentation of concept

Oldest pictogram - presentation of concept with image - Göbekli Tepe map

Oldest pictogram – Presentation of concept

Oldest pictogram – Presentation of concept with image – Archaeologists in Gobekli Tepe
in Turkey have found the oldest pictogram, the representation of the concept with the image.

On one of the obelisks they discovered the drawing of a human head in the wing of the vulture
and the headless human body under the stele.
Around the body are birds and scorpions.
According to experts, this is a pictorial representation of a particular event.
The drawing comes
from 12 thousands
years.

Probably the scene is related to funeral rituals. At that time, people buried dead in open graves,
where they left them to devour predators and scavengers.

The locals believed that the soul of the deceased would then go to heaven.
Imagery about
the funeral habits of the then Gobekli Tepe inhabitants, archaeologists gain first of all from
the findings of the oldest temple complex that served as a religious center for a larger region.

First birds – Victims of dinosaurs

First birds - victims of dinosaurs - Microraptor_575_AL

First birds – Victims of dinosaurs

First birds – Victims of dinosaurs – Paleontologist Jingmal O’Connor made in China discovery,
that the first
birds were victims of representatives of the dinosaurs.

– “125 million years ago, dinosaur Microraptor Gui hunted and devoured entirely
representative of
primitive birds from the group Enantiornithines.
The find
confirms our belief that the dromerosaurs lived on the trees.

Birds made sounds

Birds made sounds - Indian birdBirds made sounds - Bird RespirationBirds made sounds

Birds made sounds

Birds made sounds – Birds make sounds using a special organ called the lower larynx. Situated at the end of the trachea, it has no vocal cords, such as mammals. Their function is performed membrane located in the trachea and bronchi major. A loud sound is made possible by strengthening it in the air sacspecial tabs lungs. In addition, organ voice bird consists of two parts which can work independently of each other, and some species are able to sing at the same time two different melodies. Many species of birds there is no organ voice, and the sound from such dates. Clatter of the bow (storks) or hitting with various hard objects (woodpeckers).

Aggression among animals – Defending the young

Aggression among animals - Hippos fighting in Amboseli National Park

Aggression among animals – Defending the young

Aggression among animals – Many species of animals avoiding battles, shows aggression usually defending the defenseless young. Musk oxen during the attack of wolves to protect offspring by surrounding them with a circle forming on the outside wall with sharp corners. Blackbirds attack cats located near their outlet. Sow boar in fear of children can compel a man to flee to the tree.