CME – Coronal mass ejection – Eruptions on the Sun
CME – Coronal mass ejection – Every second the Sun emits around two million tons of particulate matter – or at least that’s usually the case. In the atmosphere, however, sometimes there are enormous eruptions from the corona (Coronal Mass Eruptions, CME). These types of hurricanes are among the most spectacular phenomena in our part universe . In the process, the Sun loses much more weight than usual. The speed of winds reaches even 10 million / h. CME is a cloud of gas built of electrically charged particles (physicists call it plasma gas). Plasma hurricanes can reach Earth and call the so-called geomagnetic storms that affect electronic devices, causing short circuits and equipment damage.
It is impossible to predict how dangerous it can be for satellites. The Internet and computer-controlled objects, such as nuclear power plants. The last really strong solar storm took place in the telegraph age, i.e. long before the appearance of PCs. Although astronomers are constantly observing the behavior of the Sun, they can anticipate it only slightly ahead of time. This means that in the future we will have at least 24 hours to disable all sensitive systems (even those in nuclear power plants) and secure computers. But geomagnetic storms are not the only problem facing us by the most important star …
ALMA – Atacama Large Millimeter Array
ALMA – Atacama Large Millimeter Array – 5000 meters above sea level in the Atacama Desert in Chile. So in one of the driest places in our globe. Also one of the least friendly places on our planet. Especially Chajnantor plateau. Here, in northern Chile, the temperature can drop from 20 degrees Celsius to -20 at night. A strong wind rages over the infertile, red-shining plateau, lashing sharp rocks and few bushes that survive here. The air contains half as much oxygen as at sea level. Humidity is almost zero, which makes the atmosphere more transparent. What penetrates from space, reaches the plateau almost unfiltered. Thanks to this, the Atacama desert is the Mecca of astronomers.
The largest radio telescope in the world was created on it. Using the Atacama Large Millimeter Array, a device with revolutionary design. Scientists can reach extremely cold and dark areas in the universe for the first time. Thanks to this network of radio telescopes, specialists are even able to penetrate the impenetrable nebulae. In this way, discover the stars that were created shortly after the Big Bang.
Sixty-six ALMA antennas were mounted in the base at a height of 3000 meters and trucks were transported to the plateau. There they were set with millimeter precision. After their launch and connection, a receiver with an area of approx. 16 km² was created.
Space probe Galileo Jupiter
Space probe Galileo Jupiter – In October, 1989. Space shuttle Atlantis took into space probe Galileo. Did not move out of orbit straight to Jupiter, but first flew in the direction of Venus, which was used to assist gravity. In the same order twice used the Earth and finally moved toward the gas giant. Along the way, the first probe approached asteroid, specifically Gaspra, a distance of 1600 km.
Galileo probe to Jupiter was heard after 7 years and accompanied him the next 8. It became his artificial satellite. Among other things, sent into the atmosphere of Jupiter measuring instrument, which in hellish conditions lasted almost an hour. Several times flew near the Galilean moons: Io, Ganymede, Europa and Callisto. Discovered that beneath the surface of the last three is salty ocean water.
Due to the good operation of the systems, the probe mission was extended several times (the last time – at the end of April 2001.). Made a total of 34 laps around Jupiter. At that time, 7 times visited Io, Callisto 8 times, as many times Ganymede, 11 times Europe.
Solar wind – The Sun has an impact on the processes
Solar wind – The Sun has an impact on the processes in the solar system in many different ways. Although gravity is maintained thanks to its system time emits a space wide range of molecular types of radiation, to which the feature ” wind of the Sun”. Researchers from the University of Leicester have combined the data. Obtained during the observations of solar activity from data obtained during observations of the Martian atmosphere, provided by satellites. The solar corona disappears from the environment until 2.5 x more particles. Observations were conducted during the fall of solar activity within the 11 – year solar cycle.
Phenomena on Saturn
Phenomena on Saturn – Huge and majestic ring system around Saturn has its own atmosphere. It is the only planet of the Solar System, which has a lower average density than water.
Phenomena on Uranus
Phenomena on Uranus – The axis of the planet lies almost in a plane in which the planet revolves around the Sun. Uranus is the coldest planet of the Solar System (-220 ° C in the atmosphere).
Martian rover Opportunity
Martian rover Opportunity – Even the greatest optimists did not count on that mission Opportunity could last so long. Famous vehicle landed on Mars January 25, 2004, 21 days after its sister rover Spirit. The probe flew in thin Martian atmosphere at a speed of 20920 km / h. Then spread a parachute and auxiliary nozzles, which have slowed down the fall of the rover.
Above the surface filled with airbags, which enabled a soft landing. Opportunity probe fell to the surface like a soccer ball, several times ricocheted off the ground and rolled on the heterogeneous landscape. 15 minutes of tension in the center ground, NASA ended signal that the probe had reached its destination without any obstacles and failures.
For 10 years of work Opportunity rover has experienced many adventures. In 2005. Nearly two months stuck in a sand dune. Many engineers have placed the cross on him, but the rover piece by piece freed the treacherous traps. Rover, using solar batteries, sometimes struggled with energy shortages. While the twin probe Spirit last time sent a signal to Earth 22 March 2010. Opportunity continues its mission today.
Its largest and most revolutionary discovery was to find the mineral jarosite. It is unequivocal proof that Mars also once were streams, rivers and lakes. Opportunity to learned the hard way how Martian storm. It has already defeated the marathon distance and despite some faults continues its mission.
Curiosity – Mars rover Curiosity
Curiosity – 6 August 2012. Mars rover Curiosity landed. The main objective of this most complicated equipment is to check that on Mars there were or there are conditions for microbial life. Equipment for the rover prepared scientific organizations from the USA, Canada, Germany, France, Russia and Spain.
Drive of the rover is radioisotopic thermoelectric generator that uses the natural decay of plutonium 238, which has proven itself in the American Viking missions of the program. Device is equipped with various revolutionary instruments for the analysis of soil, rocks and atmosphere. One of the devices is eg. Laser cannon that hits a rock from a distance of 7 m., And from the done spark is able to determine its chemical composition.
For more than eight months interplanetary probe covered more than 566 million km. Through the atmosphere of Mars flew at a speed of approx. 20800 km / h, but just above the reduced speed of just 3.22 km / h. Landing NASA has provided operators with seven minutes of terror, but in the end everything was a success. One of the biggest surprises of the mission was the discovery of a liquid, although salt water on Mars.
Rainbow forming ways – Meteorological phenomenon
Rainbow forming ways – It meteorological phenomenon, optical (photo-meteor). Being produced by the refraction of light rays in the water droplets in the atmosphere. Where it is distributed across all colors.