Our planet composition – What is inside the Earth?

Our planet composition - Earth crust - cutaway

Our planet composition – What is inside the Earth?

Our planet composition – Crust, mantle and core. In this abbreviated way one could characterize three layers of Earth, which were created at the beginning of its existence.

  • Lithosphere – Top layer of Earth, which is in direct interaction with other terrestrial spheres, such as the hydrosphere, atmosphere and biosphere.
  • Crust – It consists of the oceanic and earth’s crust. The thickness of the earth’s reaches up to 70 kilometers. The oceanic is thinner and its thickness varies between five and ten kilometers.
  • Conrad’s discontinuity – Horizontal surface of the discontinuity in the earth’s crust that forms the transition between the upper and lower layers. Its depth varies in different types of crust from 5 to 30 km.
  • Mohorovićic’s discontinuity – A layer that geologically defines the passage of the earth’s crust and upper mantle. Occurs in 20-90 kilometers deep under continents, and 10-20 kilometers under the oceans.
  • Earth’s mantle – Layer consisting of upper and lower mantle. The upper reaches the depth of 90 kilometers. The lower one is assigned a depth of 650 km to the Earth’s core, and therefore approximately 2,900 km.
  • Repetti’s discontinuity – The area between the upper and the lower mantle.
  • Gutenberg’s discontinuity – Part of the Earth’s envelope, which is assigned at depth of 2,900 kilometers. Below it is the core of the Earth.
  • Core – Geosphere, located in the center of the Earth. It starts at depth of 2,900 kilometers below the surface and covers approximately 31% of the Earth’s mass, with iron and nickel being the largest part of it. The core is twice as heavy as the Earth’s mantle and consists of a semi-internal inner core, which, among other things, creates the Earth’s magnetic field.

KEPLER-442b – Stony exoplanet in superearth class

KEPLER-442bKEPLER-442b - Comparison of exoplanets from the Kepler system to EarthKEPLER-442b

KEPLER-442b – Stony exoplanet in superearth class

KEPLER-442b – Stony exoplanet in superearth class, which the parent star is the orange dwarf.

ESI: 0,84
Size: 1,3 Earth
Mass: 2,3 Earth
Equivalent temperature: -65°C

The planet KEPLER-442b, from which light has been running for 1115 years, belongs to the so-called Super-Earth. In this way, rocky exoplanets are determined whose mass does not exceed tenfolds Earth. The parent star of this planet is an orange dwarf. The star larger than a red dwarf, but smaller than a yellow dwarf, which is the Sun. This type of star has calmer youth, and therefore does not send its planetary children too much UV. In addition, the planet is in the ecosphere, so it can not be ruled out that the ocean is splashing on its rocky surface. If it has a more complex atmosphere, it does not have to be at the same time a kingdom of cold. According to some calculations, it is the smaller superearth that are most suitable for life, even more than our own planet.

TRAPPIST-1d – Representative of TRAPPIST-1 sys

TRAPPIST-1d - Artistic impression of exoplanetTRAPPIST-1d - Statistics tableTRAPPIST-1d - Comparison of the sizes of TRAPPIST-1 planets with Solar System bodies

TRAPPIST-1d – Representative of TRAPPIST-1 sys

TRAPPIST-1d – One of representatives of the TRAPPIST-1 planetary system

ESI: 0,91
Size: 0,8 Earth
Mass: 0,3 Earth
Equivalent temperature: 15°C

The relatively small weight of this planet indicates that its surface can be flooded by a deep ocean.
According to some speculations, here is 250 times more water than in the Earth’s oceans.
The first measurements showed that the planet is moving outside of the living zone, but now it seems that it will enter it safely. Exoplanet can boast a dense atmosphere and is so close to its star that it circulates in four days. It only drops by 4.3% more light than on Earth. Although TRAPPIST-1d circulates its star in synchronous rotation, a dense atmosphere in which there should be a lot of water vapor helps in thermal exchange. The difference between the illuminated and the dark hemisphere is not like that of other celestial bodies.

TRAPPIST-1e – Exoplanet from system TRAPPIST-1

TRAPPIST-1eTRAPPIST-1e - Planetary system orbitsTRAPPIST-1e

TRAPPIST-1e – Exoplanet from system TRAPPIST-1

TRAPPIST-1e – The stony exoplanet of the TRAPPIST-1 system, according to physical properties, is the “e” from the planetary system TRAPPIST is the most similar to Earth.

ESI: 0,85
Size: 0,9 Earth
Mass: 0,8 Earth
Equivalent temperature: -22°C

It moves in the middle of the ecosystem of the entire collection, but there is the least water here. TRAPPIST-1e has a smaller size than Earth, but it has a larger mass. Possible inhabitants would have to be smaller in height and more important to cope with the pressure of local gravity. Red dwarfs, to which the TRAPPIST-1 star belongs, do not emit as much light and heat as the Sun. This means that the ecosphere, in which liquid water can sustain in proper conditions, is located in much closer orbits than in our solar system. A year on the planet TRAPPIST-1e lasts six ordinary earth days.
The planet probably also has a compact atmosphere where hydrogen is lacking. This type of atmosphere can also be found on the rocky planets of our solar system. Hydrogen is also a greenhouse gas, if it was a large amount in the local atmosphere, the surface of the planet would be uninhabitable.

TRAPPIST-1f – Rocky exoplanet the size of Earth

TRAPPIST-1f - Artistic impression of exoplanetTRAPPIST-1f - Comparison of the data of the stony planets of the TRAPPIST-1 system with the planets of the solar systemTRAPPIST-1f - Planetary system around the red dwarf TRAPPIST-1

TRAPPIST-1f – Rocky exoplanet the size of Earth

TRAPPIST-1f – Rocky exoplanet, from the planetary system around red dwarf TRAPPIST-1

ESI: 0,68
Size: 1,1 Earth
Mass: 0,9 Earth
Equivalent temperature: -65°C

Around the star, 40 light-years away from us, are seven stony planets. The sixth in turn has very similar sizes to Earth. But its density is generally lower. The composition is close to the ice or water worlds of the moon Jupiter – Europe or the moon of Saturn – Enceladus. The first measurements determined that not a small part of the mass of the planet is ice, and that under the surface perhaps liquid water. The atmosphere here is not the densest, so the equivalent temperature probably does not differ from the proper one.

CME – Coronal mass ejection – Eruptions on the Sun

CME - Coronal mass ejection - Eruptions on the SunCME - Coronal mass ejection - Eruptions on the SunCME - Sun in X-Ray

CME – Coronal mass ejection – Eruptions on the Sun

CME – Coronal mass ejection – Every second the Sun emits around two million tons of particulate matter – or at least that’s usually the case. In the atmosphere, however, sometimes there are enormous eruptions from the corona (Coronal Mass Eruptions, CME). These types of hurricanes are among the most spectacular phenomena in our part universe . In the process, the Sun loses much more weight than usual. The speed of winds reaches even 10 million / h. CME is a cloud of gas built of electrically charged particles (physicists call it plasma gas). Plasma hurricanes can reach Earth and call the so-called geomagnetic storms that affect electronic devices, causing short circuits and equipment damage.

It is impossible to predict how dangerous it can be for satellites. The Internet and computer-controlled objects, such as nuclear power plants. The last really strong solar storm took place in the telegraph age, i.e. long before the appearance of PCs. Although astronomers are constantly observing the behavior of the Sun, they can anticipate it only slightly ahead of time. This means that in the future we will have at least 24 hours to disable all sensitive systems (even those in nuclear power plants) and secure computers. But geomagnetic storms are not the only problem facing us by the most important star …

ALMA – Atacama Large Millimeter Array

ALMA - From aboveALMA - Atacama Large Millimeter ArrayALMA - Atacama Large Millimeter ArrayALMA - Atacama Large Millimeter ArrayALMA - Atacama Large Millimeter ArrayALMA - Star explosion in the constellation of Orion
ALMA - Observes a giant sunspotALMA - Atacama Large Millimeter Array

ALMA – Atacama Large Millimeter Array

ALMA – Atacama Large Millimeter Array – 5000 meters above sea level in the Atacama Desert in Chile. So in one of the driest places in our globe. Also one of the least friendly places on our planet. Especially Chajnantor plateau. Here, in northern Chile, the temperature can drop from 20 degrees Celsius to -20 at night. A strong wind rages over the infertile, red-shining plateau, lashing sharp rocks and few bushes that survive here. The air contains half as much oxygen as at sea level. Humidity is almost zero, which makes the atmosphere more transparent. What penetrates from space, reaches the plateau almost unfiltered. Thanks to this, the Atacama desert is the Mecca of astronomers.

The largest radio telescope in the world was created on it. Using the Atacama Large Millimeter Array, a device with revolutionary design. Scientists can reach extremely cold and dark areas in the universe for the first time. Thanks to this network of radio telescopes, specialists are even able to penetrate the impenetrable nebulae. In this way, discover the stars that were created shortly after the Big Bang.

Sixty-six ALMA antennas were mounted in the base at a height of 3000 meters and trucks were transported to the plateau. There they were set with millimeter precision. After their launch and connection, a receiver with an area of ​​approx. 16 km² was created.

Space probe Galileo Jupiter – Extended several times

Space probe Galileo Jupiter - Io and Jupiter

Space probe Galileo Jupiter

Space probe Galileo Jupiter – In October, 1989. Space shuttle Atlantis took into space probe Galileo. Did not move out of orbit straight to Jupiter, but first flew in the direction of Venus, which was used to assist gravity. In the same order twice used the Earth and finally moved toward the gas giant. Along the way, the first probe approached asteroid, specifically Gaspra, a distance of 1600 km.

Galileo probe to Jupiter was heard after 7 years and accompanied him the next 8. It became his artificial satellite. Among other things, sent into the atmosphere of Jupiter measuring instrument, which in hellish conditions lasted almost an hour. Several times flew near the Galilean moons: Io, Ganymede, Europa and Callisto. Discovered that beneath the surface of the last three is salty ocean water.

Due to the good operation of the systems, the probe mission was extended several times (the last time at the end of April 2001.). Made a total of 34 laps around Jupiter. At that time, 7 times visited Io, Callisto 8 times, as many times Ganymede, 11 times Europe.

Solar wind – The Sun has an impact on the processes

Solar wind - Solar wind from the star L.L.Orionis

Solar wind – The Sun has an impact on the processes

Solar wind – The Sun has an impact on the processes in the solar system in many different ways. Although gravity is maintained thanks to its system time emits a space wide range of molecular types of radiation, to which the feature ” wind of the Sun”. Researchers from the University of Leicester have combined the data. Obtained during the observations of solar activity from data obtained during observations of the Martian atmosphere, provided by satellites. The solar corona disappears from the environment until 2.5 x more particles. Observations were conducted during the fall of solar activity within the 11 – year solar cycle.

Indonesian volcano explosion – Volcano Tambora

Indonesian volcano explosion - Volcano TamboraIndonesian volcano explosion - Volcano Tambora craterIndonesian volcano explosion - Sumbawa island map

Indonesian volcano explosion – Volcano Tambora

Indonesian volcano explosion – Volcano Tambora – 10. 04. 1815. On the Indonesian island of Sumbawa exploded volcano Tambora. Experts compared the strength of its 1000 US atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima. The explosion brought with it 50 thousand. human victims. From the crater blown up about 150 km³ stones. The volcano threw into the atmosphere huge amounts of dust and sulfur dioxidea cloud stretched across the earth and covered the sun, another period has been recorded as the “year without a summer.” Summer frosts have caused damage to the collections of Europe and North America. In many areas were the cause of starvation.