GJ 273b – Exoplanet in the constellation Little Dog
GJ 273b – Planet orbiting the Luyten star
Size: 1,47 Earth
Mass: 3 Earth
Equivalent temperature: -6°C
Twelve light-years from our solar system, Luyten’s star, the red dwarf, wanders from Earth in the constellation Little Dog. Astronomers have discovered two exoplanets next to it. At the same time one of them belongs to the superearth category and at the same time circulates at the edge of the ecosystem. In contrast to the many other planets whose parent star is a red dwarf, GJ273b knows what day is and what is the night. Usually, the planets move close enough that their rotation is connected, and their parent star only puts one hemisphere.
Ross-128b – 11 light years away from Earth
Ross-128b – The planetary system around the red dwarf Ross 128 for about 70,000 years will become our closest star neighbor.
Size: 1,2 Earth
Mass: 1,3 Earth
Equivalent temperature: 7°C
Even closer than the GJ 273b is the Ross-128b exoplanet. It is away from us, just like a star. Which is a very quiet red dwarf, less than 11 light-years away and gradually approaching us. Based on the obtained data, astronomers have discovered that planet Ross 128b circulates around its star twenty times closer than Earth circulates the Sun. Despite such a short distance, the planet gets only 1.38 times more energy than our planet. Thanks to the cool and stable star, whose surface temperature in comparison with the sun is halved, the equivalent temperature on its surface is estimated to be from -60°C to 20°C.
CME – Coronal mass ejection – Eruptions on the Sun
CME – Coronal mass ejection – Every second the Sun emits around two million tons of particulate matter – or at least that’s usually the case. In the atmosphere, however, sometimes there are enormous eruptions from the corona (Coronal Mass Eruptions, CME). These types of hurricanes are among the most spectacular phenomena in our part universe . In the process, the Sun loses much more weight than usual. The speed of winds reaches even 10 million / h. CME is a cloud of gas built of electrically charged particles (physicists call it plasma gas). Plasma hurricanes can reach Earth and call the so-called geomagnetic storms that affect electronic devices, causing short circuits and equipment damage.
It is impossible to predict how dangerous it can be for satellites. The Internet and computer-controlled objects, such as nuclear power plants. The last really strong solar storm took place in the telegraph age, i.e. long before the appearance of PCs. Although astronomers are constantly observing the behavior of the Sun, they can anticipate it only slightly ahead of time. This means that in the future we will have at least 24 hours to disable all sensitive systems (even those in nuclear power plants) and secure computers. But geomagnetic storms are not the only problem facing us by the most important star …
ALMA – Atacama Large Millimeter Array
ALMA – Atacama Large Millimeter Array – 5000 meters above sea level in the Atacama Desert in Chile. So in one of the driest places in our globe. Also one of the least friendly places on our planet. Especially Chajnantor plateau. Here, in northern Chile, the temperature can drop from 20 degrees Celsius to -20 at night. A strong wind rages over the infertile, red-shining plateau, lashing sharp rocks and few bushes that survive here. The air contains half as much oxygen as at sea level. Humidity is almost zero, which makes the atmosphere more transparent. What penetrates from space, reaches the plateau almost unfiltered. Thanks to this, the Atacama desert is the Mecca of astronomers.
The largest radio telescope in the world was created on it. Using the Atacama Large Millimeter Array, a device with revolutionary design. Scientists can reach extremely cold and dark areas in the universe for the first time. Thanks to this network of radio telescopes, specialists are even able to penetrate the impenetrable nebulae. In this way, discover the stars that were created shortly after the Big Bang.
Sixty-six ALMA antennas were mounted in the base at a height of 3000 meters and trucks were transported to the plateau. There they were set with millimeter precision. After their launch and connection, a receiver with an area of approx. 16 km² was created.
Supersensitive cameras – Detects threats for Earth
Supersensitive cameras – Will be the heart of the NEOSTEL ground-based telescope, whose task will be to detect dangerous for Earth objects. It will be part of the space situational awareness system (SSA) created by the European Space Agency (ESA). It’s about supervising space and tracking space objects. The NEOSTEL ground-based telescope is designed to help you with tasks that can detect various threats to objects Earth. The heart of the telescope will be the super sensitive CCD (Charge Coupled Device) cameras used for astronomical observations. Creotech Instruments S.A. is responsible for the development and production of cameras.
The cameras are cooled down to -50 ° C and maintained in a similar environment to the vacuum, so that when installed on the telescope it can observe the object of the size of a tennis ball, from a distance of 1000 km. This will not only detect asteroids that threaten Earth, but also space debris that can threaten functioning satellites and damage or destroy International Space Station (ISS).
Stars turnover – Speed of stars rotation
Stars turnover – Speed of stars rotation – The Sun rotates at the equator at a speed of 2 km / s.
Astronomers have discovered that the star of the Tarantula Nebula – VFTS102,
rotates at a record speed of 600 km/s.
Galileo Galilei – Philosopher, physicist, astronomer
Galileo Galilei – In 15.02.1642 was born Italian philosopher, physicist and astronomer Galileo.
Developer basics of modern physics. He confirmed the heliocentric theory of Copernicus.
In 07.01.1610 he discovered the four largest moons of Jupiter, later named in his honor.
Measuring asteroids – Shape and size
Measuring asteroids – Shape and size – French scientists from the Observatoire de la Cote d’Azur have developed a new way of measuring the shape and size of asteroids. They used an interferometer constructed of 2 VLT telescopes, with diameters of 8.2 m. To measure the asteroid Barbara. The results indicate that the asteroid is composed of two parts with a diameter of 37 and 21 km. Apart from each other 24 km.