Conium maculatum – Related to carrots, parsley, caraway

Conium maculatum (1)Conium maculatum (2)Conium maculatum - Germany, 1910

Conium maculatum – Related to carrots, parsley, caraway

Conium maculatum – Plant related with carrots, parsley and caraway seeds. Its main weapon is the violent poison of the coniine, which causes the man to suffocate with full consciousness.

  • Deadly dose: 0,15 g (contained in 20g of the plant)
  • Death: within 2 – 3 days
  • Poison: coniine
  • Aftermath: strangulation through muscle paralysis
  • Where it grows: Europe, Africa and Asia
  • Occurrence in Poland: yes

Coniine easily penetrates the skin and respiratory system. However, the biggest danger is an easy mistake with the vegetable. At first, the poison has a stimulating effect and then starts blocking the spinal cord’s commands. In this way, muscle paralysis and strangulation occur.

History of the plant:
In ancient Greece and Rome often used during the execution. It enjoyed great popularity among the poisoners (allegedly, Socrates was executed with its help). In Europe, it appeared in the Middle Ages, and gradually disappeared during the 20th century. In the meadows and along roads, it began to grow massively in the 80’s.

Atropa belladonna – Most dangerous in Central Europe

Atropa belladonna - Botanic Garden - Leipzig, GermanyAtropa belladonna (2)Atropa belladonna (3)Atropa belladonna (4)

Atropa belladonna – Most dangerous in Central Europe

Atropa belladonna – This plant is considered the most dangerous in Central Europe. Its all parts are very toxic.

  • Deadly dose: 10 – 12 fruits
  • Death: in few hours
  • Poison: atropine, hyoscyamine
  • Aftermath: nervous system and heart rate weakness, stopping breathing
  • Where it grows: most of Europe, some places in Africa and Asia
  • Occurrence in Poland: yes

The big danger lies in the fact that its shiny fruits can be easily confused with edible forest fruits. Man can poison not only through direct consumption, but also through goat’s milk or meat, if animal earlier ate it. Typical symptoms of poisoning are dilated pupils, an accelerated pulse or redness on the face. There may also be hallucinations and loss of consciousness.

History of the plant:
Atropa belladonna was a component of shampoo drinks and ointments, because after applying to the skin it caused hallucinations – a man seemed to be able to fly.
In ancient Rome, the wives of Emperor Augustus and Claudius poisoned them with a shout. Medieval women applied drops of juice to their eyes. It was to guarantee them beautiful, large eyes. In this way, they risked not only conjunctivitis and eye deterioration, but death as well. Atropine in eye tests doctors are using today.

Hammurabi Codex – Set of laws of ancient Babylon

Hammurabi Codex - Set of laws of ancient BabylonHammurabi Codex - Museum in Louvre, Paris, FranceHammurabi Codex - Set of laws of ancient Babylon

Hammurabi Codex – Set of laws of ancient Babylon

Hammurabi Codex – It was a set of laws that were valid in Babylon. The text of the codex was engraved in the diorite with a cuneiform script in the Babylonian dialect of the Akkadian language. He covered all areas of life – inheritances, adoptions, thefts, medical and many more. With the exception of the king, society was divided into three layers: nobles, plebeians and slaves. In all the layers men were higher than women. Penalties were performed according to the “eye for an eye” principle – if someone damaged the eye of a Babylonian nobleman, he was deprived of his eye. However, when a nobleman who damaged the plebeian’s eye was a nobleman, he was only fined. Robbing the house during a fire was punished with burning, while adultery resulted in throwing connected lovers into the river.

Ancient Persia wells – Archaeological research in Iran

Ancient Persia wells - archaeological research in Iran

Ancient Persia wells – Archaeological research in Iran

Ancient Persia wells – Archaeological research in Iran – Archaeologists conducting research in Iran.
Have discovered
ancient wells of which drew the water – Persepolis, the ancient Parsa,
one of the capitals of ancient Persia. The wells were found with pottery perfect condition.
According to the
believing these structures may have formed in the early days of Persepolis,
in the reign of Darius the Great in the sixth century B.C.

Ancient Greek writing method

Ancient Greek writing method - Boustrophedon

Ancient Greek writing method

Ancient Greek writing method – Boustrophedon is a specific method of writing, which appears in some old Greek inscriptions. The principle of writing based on the fact that in the following lines written text alternately from left to right and from right to left. In addition, the lines written from right to left letters were written to mirror. This way of writing disappeared in the sixth century B.C.

Prehistoric human – Research of male Y chromosome

Prehistoric human - Human

Prehistoric human – Research of male Y chromosome

Prehistoric human – Thanks to the research of the male Y chromosome, scientists discovered when he lived approximately ancestor of all men. At about the same time as the geneticists appeared primeval mother of all women. Based on a thorough comparison of the genetic material, the researchers came to the conclusion that a hypothetical Adam lived approx. 126-150 thousand years ago.

Traditional tattoos

Traditional tattoos - Maori face tattoo

Traditional tattoos

Traditional tattoos – Tatoo in different parts of the world has a very long tradition. Tattoos have performed the ancient peoples: the Egyptians, the Greeks, the Romans, the Aztecs, Mayans, Incas. With carefully designed system of tattooing we meet in Polynesian, Maori in New Zealand, Melanesia, Micronesia and Japan.

Rituals, respect and therapy

Rituals, respect and therapy - Woman with traditional tribal tattoos Kutia

Rituals, respect and therapy

Rituals, respect and therapy – In ancient cultures, tattooing had a ritual character, expressed or belonging to a tribe, race or social position. Sometimes also a tribute to the roots of the culture and customs. Today, the tattoo may be the nature of medical therapy or be a form of communication informing eg. To belong to the group.