Ricinus communis – Castor oil plant
Ricinus communis – It probably comes from the north of Africa. It is a 10-meter tall plant that enjoys great popularity in gardening.
- Deadly dose: 15 – 20 seeds
- Death: to 1 week
- Poison: ricin
- Aftermath: renal, liver and spleen failure
- Where it grows: in all tropical and subtropical areas of the world
- Occurrence in Poland: artificially bred
The most dangerous are the bars of its seeds, about 6,000 times more aggressive than cyanide. Causes agglutination of red blood cells and damages the liver, kidneys and spleen. The first symptoms are similar to a cold, followed by headaches, mouth burning, vomiting and internal bleeding. It gradually attacks the entire human circulatory system.
History of the plant:
Castor oil is squeezed from the seeds, from which soap, ointments, drops or perfumes are made. Apparently Cleopatra applied it to her eyes to have a “wider perspective”. In 1978, a Bulgarian secret interview was used to murder the writer and journalist Georgie Markov, who after several days of the fight for his life died of kidney failure in a London hospital.
First in vitro
First in vitro – Scientists have debated whether the experiment of John Rock and Miriam Menkin in 1944. Actually been fertilized. However, even if announced to the world the success was a mistake, fulfilled its role in the history of medicine – pushed forward research on in vitro fertilization. 25 July 1978 through in vitro fertilization was born the first baby – Louise Brown today – more than 5 million children.
Biggest oil spills – Have long-term consequences
Biggest oil spills:
– The largest oil-related disaster took place during the Gulf War. This was not due to a technical defect or explosion, but to planned sabotage. Oil was released by the Iraqi army. Whose goal was to slow down US troops planning to take over Kuwait.
– 20.04.2010 On an oil rig Deepwater Horizon in the Gulf of Mexico exploded for unknown reasons, as a result of which sank the entire platform. The result was disaster oil spill area of 10 thousands km².
– An oil well belonging to the Mexican oil company Pemex. It was in the Gulf of Mexico, almost 1,000 km off the coast of Texas. At that time, the company was extracting oil from a 3 km deep well. When a huge explosion broke out.
– An accident that occurred near Tobago. It was not caused by the failure of the oil rig, but the collision of two tankers during a tropical storm.
– The tanker exploded unexpectedly and burned off the coast of South Africa in 1983. The ship traveled on the sea since 1978.
– In May 1991 exploded almost 1500 km off the coast of Angola. The ship was built in the South Korean shipyard Ulsan. It traveled on the sea since 1974.
– In 1978, the tanker crashed off the coast of France. On its standard route, from the Persian Gulf to the Dutch port of Rotterdam. When a 335 meter ship passed the west coast of France. It got inside a violent storm.
– An American ship exploded about a thousand kilometers, off the east coast of Canada. About 162 million liters of crude oil spilled out of it. Into the open sea.
– The tanker was built in Cardiz shipyards in 1973. The ship was 334 meters long and 51 meters wide. In 1991 a catastrophic explosion took place near Genoa, Italy. During routine pumping operations, a part of the load.
– 19.11.2002 Tanker MT Prestige sank off the northern coast of the Iberian Peninsula. Leaked it 63 thousand tons of oil, and the cost of their removal amounted to more than 8 billion euros.
– 24.03.1989 Tanker Exxon Valdez crashed off the coast of Alaska. Leaked out of it approx. 41 million liters of crude oil. It was one of the biggest ecological disasters. It happened in Prince William’s Bay, where the ship crashed into a cliff. Having a full oil tank.
Oil spill has long-term consequences. As a result, thousands are dying of marine animals including birds. Hazardous substances accumulate in the bodies of animals and also threaten the health of consumers.