Naked mole – rat – Heterocephalus glaber

Naked mole-rat - Heterocephalus glaber - EatingNaked mole-rat - Heterocephalus glaberHeterocephalus glaber - Louisville-ZooHeterocephalus glaber - Museum of Natural History - Genova, Italy

Naked mole-rat – Heterocephalus glaber

Naked mole-rat – Heterocephalus glaber – Is practically blind and has no pain. This rodent lives in East Africa. It is digging underground corridors in search of tubers and roots. For this he uses the incisors that are in front of the lips, so that the soil does not get into the mouth.
Mole-rats spend almost their entire lives underground without going to the surface. They are unusual for many reasons. Not only are they the only cold-blooded mammals, they are also resistant to cancer, aging, hypoxia and pain.
Their almost completely hairless, thick and wrinkled skin. It is insensitive to abrasions or scratches. Because Mole-rats do not have the key neurotransmitter for pain conduction (substance P).

Naked mole-rats are the longest-living rodents (they live to 30 years)

And their risk of death doesn’t increase with age. These animals have very active mechanisms repair DNA.
They also tolerate extreme hypoxia, which often occurs in narrow and stuffy underground tunnels. When there is a lack of air, mole-rats reduce life activity. They change the energy supply process (break down fructose instead of glucose). In this way they avoid brain damage.
The equally interesting is structure Social. Which resembles swarms of bees or ant colonies. Flocks of these rodents count from several dozen to 300 individuals. At the same time, only the queen and prolific male breeds. The rest are sterile and conscientiously work for the herd.

Poisonous birds – Not venomous discovered so far

Poisonous birds - Pitohui dichrousPoisonous birds - Plectropterus gambensisPoisonous birds - Common quail (Coturnix coturnix)

Poisonous birds – Not venomous discovered so far

Poisonous birds – No venomous bird has been discovered so far. That is, one whose body would produce a poisonous substance. That would then be transmitted by pecking or wounding with a claw. There are several groups of poisonous birds, that is, poisoning us when we touch or eat them. Their organisms are also probably not producing toxins, but they are able to obtain them from poisonous insects or plants.

Most of them live in New Guinea. Where are several species of Pitohui. Also representatives of the families, store the strong neurotoxin (batrachotoxin) in the skin.

The Gambian Goose from the Anatidae family living in Africa. It accumulates in its tissues another poison, a kantaridine (it gets it from the eaten beetles). Plectropterus gambensis, however, are poisonous only after their consumption. So they gain little thanks to this weapon (except revenge from beyond the grave). On the other hand, other animals of this species benefit from this – a predator who once encountered goose meat will avoid it.

A similar phenomenon applies to the European Common Quail, whose meat is also poisonous, although only for part of the year. Probably quails get their toxin from being eaten plants, and poisoning them are known for a long time and referred to as a coturnism (from the Latin name of the quail Coturnix coturnix).

First birds – Victims of dinosaurs

First birds - victims of dinosaurs - Microraptor_575_AL

First birds – Victims of dinosaurs

First birds – Victims of dinosaurs – Paleontologist Jingmal O’Connor made in China discovery,
that the first
birds were victims of representatives of the dinosaurs.

– “125 million years ago, dinosaur Microraptor Gui hunted and devoured entirely
representative of
primitive birds from the group Enantiornithines.
The find
confirms our belief that the dromerosaurs lived on the trees.

Cave lions – Cause of their extinction

Cave lions - Cave lion skeleton

Cave lions – Cause of their extinction was narrow nutrition specialization

Cave lions – Cause of their extinction was narrow nutrition specialization – With accurate analysis
of the bones of extinct Cave lions that the cause of their extinction was narrow nutrition specialization.
Research collagen have shown that these animals mainly liked to the reindeer that consume lichens.
With the change in climate 19 thousand. years ago, this type of lichens disappeared from Europe,
which began dying reindeer. Cave lions also not able to adapt to new conditions,
and consequently
became extinct.

Cartilaginous fish – 455 species of sharks

Cartilaginous fish - currently live 455 species of sharks

Cartilaginous fish – 455 species of sharks

Cartilaginous fish – 455 species of sharks – Found fossils show that sharks
living
today belong to a group of cartilaginous fish. There are still very similar to their ancestors
who
existed 150 million years ago. According to experts, currently in the waters of the seas
and oceans
live 455 species of sharks. Joe Quattro professor of biology at
the University of
South Carolina. In 2006 he discovered species, which is very similar to the
famous
hammerhead sharks, but differs from it in terms of genetics.

Beluga whale – Delphinapterus leucas

Beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas)Beluga whale - Delphinapterus leucas

Beluga whale – Delphinapterus leucas

Beluga whale – Delphinapterus leucas –Toothed whale from the family monodontidae. Lives in the cold waters of the Arctic and is one of the most endangered species. It is able to receive ultrasound at a frequency of 200 kHz (the human ear has the audible range from 20 Hz to 20 kHz).

 

Los Angeles underground discoveries

Los Angeles underground discoveries - Parking under UCLA

Los Angeles underground discoveries

Los Angeles underground discoveries – In downtown Los Angeles during the construction
of
the underground car park, have been dug up animal remains from the Ice Age.

Called
to the place paleontologists have discovered bones of: cougar, wolves, horses,
European bisons
and other mammals. Near the main findings lay the skeleton of the mammoth.

Mass genera extinctions – Phanerozoic biodiversity

Mass genera extinctions - Phanerozoic biodiversity

Mass genera extinctions – Phanerozoic biodiversity

Mass genera extinctions – Phanerozoic biodiversity – So far, on the Earth was 5 great periods of extinction. The oldest occurred in the Ordovician period 440 million years ago. The next it: in the Devonian period – 365 million years ago, in the Permian 245 million years ago. Silurian 210 million years ago and the biggest in the Cretaceous 65 million years ago. During the last dinosaurs became extinct all.

Birds made sounds

Birds made sounds - Indian birdBirds made sounds - Bird RespirationBirds made sounds

Birds made sounds

Birds made sounds – Birds make sounds using a special organ called the lower larynx. Situated at the end of the trachea, it has no vocal cords, such as mammals. Their function is performed membrane located in the trachea and bronchi major. A loud sound is made possible by strengthening it in the air sacspecial tabs lungs. In addition, organ voice bird consists of two parts which can work independently of each other, and some species are able to sing at the same time two different melodies. Many species of birds there is no organ voice, and the sound from such dates. Clatter of the bow (storks) or hitting with various hard objects (woodpeckers).