Topiary – Artistic shaping shrubs and trees
Topiary – Artistic shaping shrubs and trees. Both shrubs and conifers as well as deciduous trees are used to form shapes. It is best to carve: boxwood, thuja, myrtle, laurel, privet or holly. Shaping tools as well as wire frames that give the plants the right shape are used when shaping the shrubs. The technique, which is actually called ars topiaria, was known in antiquity, and then forgotten for centuries, revived in Europe in the sixteenth century. Especially during the Baroque period, it flourished up to the 18th century. Although Versailles are the flagship examples of the outer gardens, they have never been as complex as the somewhat later artistic structures in the Netherlands or England. Where this art spread after 1660. This is one of the most difficult gardening techniques, requires a lot of time and patience. Creating perfect shapes and motifs is not a matter of one season, but often many years of powerful work. You always have to cut out individual twigs of shrubs and trees.
First birds – Victims of dinosaurs
First birds – Victims of dinosaurs – Paleontologist Jingmal O’Connor made in China discovery,
that the first birds were victims of representatives of the dinosaurs.
– “125 million years ago, dinosaur Microraptor Gui hunted and devoured entirely
representative of primitive birds from the group Enantiornithines.
The find confirms our belief that the dromerosaurs lived on the trees.“
Cave lions – Cause of their extinction was narrow nutrition specialization
Cave lions – Cause of their extinction was narrow nutrition specialization – With accurate analysis
of the bones of extinct Cave lions that the cause of their extinction was narrow nutrition specialization.
Research collagen have shown that these animals mainly liked to the reindeer that consume lichens.
With the change in climate 19 thousand. years ago, this type of lichens disappeared from Europe,
which began dying reindeer. Cave lions also not able to adapt to new conditions,
and consequently became extinct.
Dinosaurs nest – Paleontological discovery in Mongolia
Dinosaurs nest – paleontological discovery in Mongolia – Paleontologists have discovered
in Mongolia population of 70 million years old dinosaur nest kind of Protoceratops Andrewsi.
It was in the 15 newly hatched young. This discovery proves that immature individuals
were in the nest after hatching and died not only as food for others.
But also because to external conditions.
Cartilaginous fish – 455 species of sharks
Cartilaginous fish – 455 species of sharks – Found fossils show that sharks
living today belong to a group of cartilaginous fish. There are still very similar to their ancestors
who existed 150 million years ago. According to experts, currently in the waters of the seas
and oceans live 455 species of sharks. Joe Quattro professor of biology at
the University of South Carolina. In 2006 he discovered species, which is very similar to the
famous hammerhead sharks, but differs from it in terms of genetics.
Beluga whale – Delphinapterus leucas
Beluga whale – Delphinapterus leucas –Toothed whale from the family monodontidae. Lives in the cold waters of the Arctic and is one of the most endangered species. It is able to receive ultrasound at a frequency of 200 kHz (the human ear has the audible range from 20 Hz to 20 kHz).
Los Angeles underground discoveries
Los Angeles underground discoveries – In downtown Los Angeles during the construction
of the underground car park, have been dug up animal remains from the Ice Age.
Called to the place paleontologists have discovered bones of: cougar, wolves, horses,
European bisons and other mammals. Near the main findings lay the skeleton of the mammoth.
Mass genera extinctions – Phanerozoic biodiversity
Mass genera extinctions – Phanerozoic biodiversity – So far, on the Earth was 5 great periods of extinction. The oldest occurred in the Ordovician period – 440 million years ago. The next it: in the Devonian period – 365 million years ago, in the Permian 245 million years ago. Silurian 210 million years ago and the biggest in the Cretaceous – 65 million years ago. During the last dinosaurs became extinct all.
Jean Baptiste de Lamarck – French biologist
Jean Baptiste de Lamarck – French biologist – In 08.01.1744 born French biologist
J. B. de Lamarck, the founder of the theory called Lamarckism, speaking about
the fact that animals are capable of intentional transformation of their bodies,
to meet the challenges posed by the environment. This theory is incompatible
with the present resource of knowledge.
Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov – Zoologist and microbiologist
Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov – Zoologist and microbiologist – In 15.07.1916 In Paris,
died Russian zoologist and microbiologist Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov (born in 1845).
He observed the phenomenon of phagocytosis. In 1908 he won the Nobel Prize,
for his work on resistance.