Plant nutrition speed – Plants also hunters

Plant nutrition speed - Drosera intermedia (2018)Plant nutrition speed - Drosera rotundifolia (2011)Plant nutrition speed - Drosera rotundifolia at Corsica (1998)Plant nutrition speed - Drosera rotundifolia (1)Plant nutrition speed - Drosera rotundifolia (2)Plant nutrition speed - Drosera rotundifolia (3)Plant nutrition speed - Itermediate sundewPlant nutrition speed - Round leaf sundew
 
 
 
Plant nutrition speedPlant nutrition speedPlant nutrition speedPlant nutrition speed

Plant nutrition speed – Plants also hunters

Plant nutrition speed – And it’s not just about insectivorous representatives of the world of flora. Their victims are quanta of light, necessary for photosynthesis (the biological process of obtaining energy). The photon flux reaches the leaf at an unbelievable rate of about 300,000 km / s – and thus at the speed of light in a vacuum. To deprive him of the energy necessary for the development of the plant, he most often uses chlorophyll: the so-called chlorophyll antenna catches quanta, whose energy in a maximum of about one picosecond (10-12 seconds) is temporarily stored during the first photosynthesis reaction. At this time, the photon ceases to exist.

Poisonous birds – Not venomous discovered so far

Poisonous birds - Pitohui dichrousPoisonous birds - Plectropterus gambensisPoisonous birds - Common quail (Coturnix coturnix)

Poisonous birds – Not venomous discovered so far

Poisonous birds – No venomous bird has been discovered so far. That is, one whose body would produce a poisonous substance. That would then be transmitted by pecking or wounding with a claw. There are several groups of poisonous birds, that is, poisoning us when we touch or eat them. Their organisms are also probably not producing toxins, but they are able to obtain them from poisonous insects or plants.

Most of them live in New Guinea. Where are several species of Pitohui. Also representatives of the families, store the strong neurotoxin (batrachotoxin) in the skin.

The Gambian Goose from the Anatidae family living in Africa. It accumulates in its tissues another poison, a kantaridine (it gets it from the eaten beetles). Plectropterus gambensis, however, are poisonous only after their consumption. So they gain little thanks to this weapon (except revenge from beyond the grave). On the other hand, other animals of this species benefit from this – a predator who once encountered goose meat will avoid it.

A similar phenomenon applies to the European Common Quail, whose meat is also poisonous, although only for part of the year. Probably quails get their toxin from being eaten plants, and poisoning them are known for a long time and referred to as a coturnism (from the Latin name of the quail Coturnix coturnix).

Kiwi Chinese gooseberry – Most often cultivated Actinidia deliciosa

Kiwi Chinese gooseberry - Actinidia deliciosaKiwi Chinese gooseberry - KiwifruitKiwi Chinese gooseberry - Kiwifruit (2)Kiwi Chinese gooseberry - Kiwifruit cross section

Kiwi Chinese gooseberry – Most often cultivated Actinidia deliciosa

Kiwi Chinese gooseberry – With over 50 species of kiwi, the most popular is Actindia deliciosa. In China, the fruits of woody Actinidia vines with a green jelly-like flesh in a rough skin have been eaten for a long time. With time, this Chinese gooseberry was cultivated in New Zealand. There, American soldiers stomped on it, stationed on the island during World War II. In the 1960s, farmers introduced these fruits to their export offer. But to increase their market attractiveness, they changed their name to kiwi. Today, New Zealand is one of the largest kiwi exporters in the world, and its symbol is the non-flying kiwi birds.

Algae Chlamydomonas – Different colors of snow

Algae Chlamydomonas - Antarctique (color red)Algae Chlamydomonas - Antarctique (color green)Algae Chlamydomonas - Red snow

Algae Chlamydomonas – Different colors of snow

Algae Chlamydomonas – Freshly fallen snow seems pure white, although the snowflakes are transparent. This is because they reflect white sunlight evenly. We found 100 species of plants that live in the snow, coloring it in green, brown, purple and even blood-red. The last color is represented by monocellular algae from the Chlamydomonas species living in the colonies behind the Arctic Circle. Because they absorb more solar heat than the surroundings, so the snow around them melts, and the algae sink into the pits that cover the ice layer from above. In such micro – greenhouses a constant temperature of around 0 ° C prevails.

Ricinus communis – Castor oil plant

Ricinus communis - Southern MexicoRicinus communis - Botanic Garden (Frankfurt, Germany)Ricinus communis - Venezuela
 
 
 
 
 
Ricinus communis - Castor oil plant (1)Ricinus communis - Castor oil plant (2)

Ricinus communis – Castor oil plant

Ricinus communis – It probably comes from the north of Africa. It is a 10-meter tall plant that enjoys great popularity in gardening.

  • Deadly dose: 15 – 20 seeds
  • Death: to 1 week
  • Poison: ricin
  • Aftermath: renal, liver and spleen failure
  • Where it grows: in all tropical and subtropical areas of the world
  • Occurrence in Poland: artificially bred

The most dangerous are the bars of its seeds, about 6,000 times more aggressive than cyanide. Causes agglutination of red blood cells and damages the liver, kidneys and spleen. The first symptoms are similar to a cold, followed by headaches, mouth burning, vomiting and internal bleeding. It gradually attacks the entire human circulatory system.

History of the plant:
Castor oil is squeezed from the seeds, from which soap, ointments, drops or perfumes are made. Apparently Cleopatra applied it to her eyes to have a “wider perspective”. In 1978, a Bulgarian secret interview was used to murder the writer and journalist Georgie Markov, who after several days of the fight for his life died of kidney failure in a London hospital.

Colchicum autumnale – Protected and very poisonous

Colchicum autumnale - Jena, Germany (16-09-2007)Colchicum autumnale (1)Colchicum autumnale (2)Colchicum autumnale (3)

Colchicum autumnale – Protected and very poisonous

Colchicum autumnale – It belongs to protected as well as very poisonous plants.

  • Deadly dose: 20 – 40 mg (5 – 10 seeds)
  • Death: to 4 days
  • Poison: colchicine
  • Aftermath: paralysis, pulmonary edema, renal failure
  • Where it grows: Southern and Western Europe
  • Occurrence in Poland: yes

One flower contains more than 20 alkaloids, the most dangerous of which is colchicine and its derivatives. Thanks to the appropriate dosage, they can be used for treatments of cancers. Medicinal products for rheumatism, ascites and kidney diseases are produced from wintering seeds. However, if you carelessly handle (for example when confusing with wild garlic leaves), poisoning may occur. Fowl and goat’s milk may also be dangerous. The first symptoms of taking harmful substances appear after 2 – 6 hours after ingestion. At the beginning you can observe mouth burning, vomiting or cramps. Without proper help, a man can die.

Abrus precatorius – Originates from tropical Asia

Abrus precatorius - Leaves and pods, Northern Buton Island, IndonesiaAbrus precatorius - Kohler's Medicinal plantsAbrus precatorius - Saigon Zoo and Botanical Gardens, Ho Chi Minh City, VietnamAbrus precatorius (pods)

Abrus precatorius – Originates from tropical Asia

Abrus precatorius – The climbing plant originates from tropical Asia, it is used for the production of rosaries and jewelry.

  • Deadly dose: 3 µg of poison
  • Death: within 3 – 4 days
  • Poison: abrin
  • Aftermath: vomiting, bloody diarrhea, hallucinations, renal, liver and spleen paresis
  • Where it grows: Asia, Africa and America
  • Occurrence in Poland: no

The plant is not poisonous in its entirety, the leaves and roots are edible. The most devious are seeds that contain abrin. A small dose of a substance is enough to kill a person, and the first symptoms will appear after a few hours – problems with breathing, fever, vomiting or severe sweating. Finally, the respiratory system is completely destroyed. Asians are drinking a decoction of the root and leaves as cough and runny nosemedicine.

Conium maculatum – Related to carrots, parsley, caraway

Conium maculatum (1)Conium maculatum (2)Conium maculatum - Germany, 1910

Conium maculatum – Related to carrots, parsley, caraway

Conium maculatum – Plant related with carrots, parsley and caraway seeds. Its main weapon is the violent poison of the coniine, which causes the man to suffocate with full consciousness.

  • Deadly dose: 0,15 g (contained in 20g of the plant)
  • Death: within 2 – 3 days
  • Poison: coniine
  • Aftermath: strangulation through muscle paralysis
  • Where it grows: Europe, Africa and Asia
  • Occurrence in Poland: yes

Coniine easily penetrates the skin and respiratory system. However, the biggest danger is an easy mistake with the vegetable. At first, the poison has a stimulating effect and then starts blocking the spinal cord’s commands. In this way, muscle paralysis and strangulation occur.

History of the plant:
In ancient Greece and Rome often used during the execution. It enjoyed great popularity among the poisoners (allegedly, Socrates was executed with its help). In Europe, it appeared in the Middle Ages, and gradually disappeared during the 20th century. In the meadows and along roads, it began to grow massively in the 80’s.

Cicuta virosa – It is 150 centimeters high

Cicuta virosa - Oulu, Finland (18.07.2013)Cicuta virosa (1)Cicuta virosa (2)

Cicuta virosa – It is 150 centimeters high

The highest concentration of toxic substances is found in its rhizome.

  • Deadly dose: 2g root
  • Death: within 24 hours
  • Poison: cicutoxin
  • Aftermath: degeneration of skeletal muscles
  • Where it grows: North and South America, Europe, Asia
  • Occurrence in Poland: yes

In North America it has hundreds of poisoned sheep per year on its conscience. People can mistake its root with the parsley root, and the most common victims of harmful substances are children. Cicutoxin works very quickly, after just a few minutes you can observe irritations of mucous membranes and abdominal pain. If a man survives poisoning, it is very likely that he will struggle with damage to the central nervous system for the rest of his life. Unlike other animals, mice can without fear of poisoning eat plant seeds.

Datura stramonium – Weed appearing on fertile soils

Datura stramonium (1)Datura stramonium (2)Datura stramonium (3)Datura stramonium (4)

Datura stramonium – Weed appearing on fertile soils

Datura stramonium – It is a weed appearing on fertile soils. It is an instant poison.

  • Deadly dose: 10 – 12 leaves
  • Death: 1 – 2 days
  • Poison: atropine, scopolamine
  • Aftermath: heart failure, fever, muscle paralysis
  • Where it grows: all over the world
  • Occurrence in Poland: yes

Used both in Europe and in the New World because of the hallucinogenic and medicinal action. It was an important ingredient in the charlatanists mixtures. In India, it is considered a strong aphrodisiac – it was claimed that deprived women of shame. Alkaloids, especially in veins and petioles, tend to increase motility, arousal and cause anxiety. Then there is weakness, narcotic sleep and exhaustion. In some Indian tribes, datura is one of saint hallucinogens and is of great importance in the rituals of initiation. It also serves as anesthesia during surgery.