Great Sphinx in Giza – Egypt

Great Sphinx in Giza - Egypt - (01.01.1871)Great Sphinx in Giza - Egypt - (05.04.2007)Great Sphinx in Giza - Egypt - backGiza - Egypt - (18.03.2010)Giza - Egypt - (10.11.2015)Sphinx in Egypt - (08.09.2006)

Great Sphinx in Giza – Egypt

Great Sphinx in Giza – Egypt – Archaeologists discover centimeter by centimeter of the Sphinx itself and its surroundings. Ramps appeared before their eyes, from which through the gate entered the corridors of monumental temples . One of them is directed directly towards the Chefren Pyramid. The pharaoh’s funeral scene suddenly becomes clearer. Did they carry the mummy before the Sphinx? Did they bring before the death gate to the Sphinx Temple for the last goodbye? That’s what most scientists assume.

The canals dried up, and Giza was covered with sand.

It is not clear where the corridors leading from the temple end. Most of them are covered by sand. Just like the Sphinx 150 years ago. After the last funeral in the Giza necropolis, the real end of the world took place here. Workers left the construction site in the middle of work. The canals on which the boats previously sailed dried up. According to geologists, the sphinx sank into the swamp a few meters. The rest did the sand.

Curiosities:

  • To this day, it was not possible to determine what the ancient Egyptians called the Sphinx.
  • The ancient sphinx was invented by ancient Greeks. Apparently it comes from the Egyptian word “szesepankh”, meaning “living image”.
  • Egyptian Arabs used the term “Abul-Hol” for the Great Sphinx in Giza, which means “Father of fear”.

Pitch drop – The longest laboratory experiment

University of Queensland - AustraliaUniversity of Queensland - ExperimentPitch drop experiment with demarcation of yearsPitch drop experiment with demarcation of years and monthsPitch drop experiment - Chart of months between drops (1938 - 2014)

Pitch drop – The longest laboratory experiment

Pitch drop – Prof. Thomas Parnell from the Australian University of Queensland wanted to show students that some substances, although they appear to be constant. In fact, they are very viscous liquids. He poured hot tar into the glass, sealed funnel . More precisely the so-called coal tar, which is forming by distillation of tar. He waited three years and opened the funnel.
The tar began to flow down at such a slow pace that only after a few years a drop formed at the end of the funnel. After a decade, it broke away and fell into the dish. This has happened nine times since 1927.

The last drop fell in 2014, another should fall in about nine years.

Pitch drop experiment conducted in Australia in 2005 got Ig Nobel. Project recognized as the longest-lasting laboratory experiment. It went to the “Guinness Book of Records”. They can even be viewed using a webcam (broadcasts are monitored by several hundred people a day).

Gary Gabelich – Exceeded by car 1000 km/h in 1970

Gary Gabelich - Blue FlameBlue Flame - 2Blue Flame - 3Gary Gabelich - The Blue Flame - Goodwood 2007Gary Gabelich - The Blue Flame - 1Auto und Technik Museum Sinsheim - Blue Flame

 

Gary Gabelich – Exceeded by car 1000 km/h in 1970

Gary Gabelich – Exceeded with „Blue Flame” 1000 km/h in 23.10.1970. The average speed was 1001.011968 km / h. Mile, which is measured the speed of the vehicle must overcome two times: back and forth.
The big shiny „The Blue Flame” to save fuel even more. Was pushed by the service car at the start. It further helped him to accelerate to 60 km / h.
During the first run, Gabelich achieved a speed of 993.722 km / h as a result. He drove in the opposite direction, but a little faster – that’s why the speed was 1009.305 km / h.

Until then, records were set with jet engines.

„The Blue Flame” rocket engine was powered by a combination of hydrogen peroxide, and liquid natural gas. Chilled to a temperature of -161 degrees Celsius. As a result, achieved 58 000 HP.
In this way, the engine was running with maximum thrust for 20 seconds. „Blue Flame” was similar to a rocket, except with additional catches at the front and rear for attaching wheels.
Tires, specially designed by Goodyear, had a rather smooth surface to reduce heat.
The vehicle was 11.4 m long and 2.3 m wide. He weighed 1814 kg, with fuel – 2994 kg. One of the biggest troubles just before the start. There was burning through the engine, braking parachute ropes. If you had to stop the car with only disc brakes. You would probably need stretch, a 19 km length.

„The Blue Flame” designed and built by Reaction Dynamics.

With the help of the Illinois Institute of Technology lecturers and students. Dr. T. Paul Torda and Dr. Sarunas C. Uzgiris, professors at IIT, worked on the aerodynamics of the car. While other IIT students and lecturers, they mainly dealt with:
– construction,
– engine,
– steering system,
– brakes.

The speed record broken at Bonneville Salt Flats in Utah, USA.

This place is located 160 km west of Salt Lake City. Because 32 thousand years ago there was a huge lake 305 m deep. After it disappeared and the salt substrate hardened. It was created one of the most noteworthy places on Earth, to develop enormous speeds.

Gary Gabelich (29.08.1940 – 26.01.1984)

– During 43 years of life, this Croatian by origin. First of all, he won races, and set speed records on:
– asphalt,
Earth,
– water (motorboats),
– salt tracks.

He died on a motorcycle on the streets of Long Beach in January 1984. While working on the design and construction of a vehicle capable of reaching supersonic speed (1225 km / h). Prototype named „American Way”, but because of Gabelich death. Work on it canceled.

Most dangerous volcanoes – Still unpredictable

Most dangerous volcanoes - KīlaueaMost dangerous volcanoes - Eruption of the Volcano Vesuvius - J.C.DahlMost dangerous volcanoes - Nevado del Ruiz - 1985Most dangerous volcanoes - Chaitén - Eruption 27.05.2008

 

Most dangerous volcanoes – Still unpredictable

 
Most dangerous volcanoes – Eruptions of volcanoes in ancient times were considered a divine punishment. Today, we know their causes, but they are still unpredictable. And they leave terrible havoc after themselves. Volcanoes that sow the greatest destruction and thus are the most dangerous for Earth.
 

List of the most dangerous volcanoes on Earth:

 

Mt.Etna from ISS - 2013Sailors aboard USNS Carson City - watching Mt.Etna during arrival in CataniaMost dangerous volcanoes - Mount Etna - CraterMost dangerous volcanoes - Etna in Sicily

Mount Etna – Italy, Sicily
 
 


Most dangerous volcanoes - Big Blast at Sakurajima Volcano, Japan - NASASakurajima Volcano in Kyushu, JapanMost dangerous volcanoes - Big Blast at Sakurajima Volcano, JapanView from Kagoshima - Kyushu, Japan

Sakurajima – Japan, Kyushu
 
 


Most dangerous volcanoes - Torii near summit of Mt.Fuji, Honshu, JapanMount Fuji on the island of Honshu, Japan - 2006Most dangerous volcanoes - Japan, Honshu, Mt.FujiMost dangerous volcanoes - Mount Fuji - NASA

Mount Fuji – Japan, Honshu
 
 


Most dangerous volcanoes - Mount Vesuvius - ISS - NASARAF Spitfires flying around a still steaming Vesuvius after the March 1944 eruptionVesuvius - AsterSeismograph on the Vesuvius

Mount Vesuvius – Italy
 
 


Most dangerous volcanoes - Nyiragongo and NyamuragiraMost dangerous volcanoes - Nyiragongo - Eruption 01-2002Nyiragongo - 1994Nyiragongo and Nyamuragira - 31.01.2007

Nyiragongo – Congo
 
 


Most dangerous volcanoes - Kīlauea - USGS multimedia fileKīlauea Caldera and Mauna LoaKīlauea - Lava hits the Pacific Ocean - Hawaii - 2005Kīlauea - Explosion at Halema'uma'u crater

Kilauea – United States of America, Hawaii
 
 


Most dangerous volcanoes - Mount Merapi craterMerapi ash plume - MODIS sat image - (10.11.2010)Merbabu & MerapiMost dangerous volcanoes - Merapi from space

Merapi – Indonesia, Java
 
 


Nevado del Ruiz - Summit after the eruption that caused the Armero tragedy - 11.1985Nevado del Ruiz Volcano - Colombia - NASAMost dangerous volcanoes - Nevado del Ruiz - Almost 2 weeks after its deadly eruption in 1985, Viewed from the northeastNevado del Ruiz - View from bamboo plantation

Nevado del Ruiz – Colombia
 
 


Most dangerous volcanoes - Popocatépetl - Seen from Mexico CityPopocatépetl - The active volcano located about 70 km southeast of Mexico City - 23.01.2001 - NASAPopocatépetl - Cholula PyramidMost dangerous volcanoes - Popocatépetl

Popocatépetl – Mexico
 
 


Most dangerous volcanoes - Column of ash during the Chaitén eruption, 02.05.2008Plume of ash from eruption of Chaiten volcano, Chile - 03.05.2008Chaitén - NASAAerial view of the Chaitén Town - Chile - 02-2009

Chaitén – Chile
 
 


Pico del Teide - Volcano on Canary Islands, SpainMost dangerous volcanoes - Pico del Teide - PanoramaPico del Teide volcano, on Tenerife, Canary Islands - from planePico del Teide in clouds

Pico del Teide – Spain, Tenerife
 
 


Most dangerous volcanoes - Eruption of Krakatau, Indonesia - 2008Satellite image of the Krakatau volcano, Indonesia - May 18, 1992Krakatau MapSatellite image Plumes of volcanic ash - 17.11.2010

Krakatau – Indonesia
 
 


Mount Etna – Italy, Sicily

Etna - Panorama 2012Mount Etna - Crater (2)Sailors aboard USNS Carson City - watching Mt.Etna during arrival in CataniaMt.Etna from ISS - 2013Mt.Etna in Sicily
 
 
 
Mount Etna - CraterVolcanic Plumes Tower over Mt.EtnaVolcanic ash from the April 2013 eruption of Mt.EtnaEtna in winterLava flows from Mt.Etna - View from Adrano

 
 
 

Mount Etna – Italy, Sicily

 

  • Location: Italy, east coast of Sicily
  • Peak: 3350 m a. s. l.

 
Mount Etna – Is the highest active and the second most powerful volcano in Europe. It lies on the east coast of the island of Sicily, near the cities of Messina and Catania. The age of the volcano is estimated at 700,000 years. The mountain changed with subsequent eruptions, its present appearance was formed about 5000 years ago. Its height is not constant – in 1981 Etna measured 21 meters more. The reduction was caused by eruption and lava flow.

Etna’s volcanic activity is the longest documented of all volcanoes. The oldest eruptions took place in antiquity (135 A.D.). The ancient Greeks called the volcano Mount of Fire and were convinced that one of the Titans was buried beneath. The explosions were meant to mean that he was trying to escape. The most powerful explosion occurred in 1669. When the lava got to Catania, which it partially destroyed. The potential danger lies in the fact that the volcano is located in a densely populated area.

From the beginnings of written historical sources, we know in total about 140 Etna explosions. The most devastating eruption in 1669 was preceded by a three-week earthquake. The volcanic eruption lasted four months.

The Etna volcano explodes on average once every 1.7 years.

Sakurajima – Japan, Kyushu

Big Blast at Sakurajima Volcano, JapanVolcano in Kyushu, JapanBig Blast at Sakurajima Volcano, Japan - NASADense plume of ash over the Japanese island of Kyushu, 23.11.2013View from Kagoshima - Kyushu, JapanSakurajima from space

 
 
 

Sakurajima – Japan, Kyushu

 

  • Location: Japan, Kyushu island
  • Peak: 1117 m a. s. l.

 
Sakurajima – The volcano is located on the Japanese island of Kyushu. It is not without reason that it is considered one of the most dangerous volcanoes on Earth. Since 1955, it has exploded almost continuously. It age is estimated at 22,000 years. Sakurajima is very close to the city of Kagoshima, inhabited by 700,000 citizens.

The historical testimonies of explosions known to us date back to the 8th century. The largest eruption took place in 1914. Until then, the volcano has not shown any activity for more than a century, so it has already been declared extinct. Due to the strong earthquake, the inhabitants of the island luckily evacuated before the eruption. The lava leak lasted for over a month. As a result of this big explosion, the island began to grow, until it finally merged with the continent.

In 2016, the volcano exploded again. A fire was coming out of it, and a cloud of smoke and volcanic dust was rising above it. Broken pieces of rock fell two kilometers further. The main concern was caused by the relatively close location of Sendai nuclear power plant.

Mount Fuji – Japan, Honshu

Japan, Honshu, Mt.Fuji - USMCMount Fuji on the island of Honshu - JapanMount Fuji on the island of Honshu, Japan - 2006Mount Fuji - ISS-NASAFuji - USMCTopographic map of Mt. Fuji and TokyoTorii near summit of Mt.Fuji - Honshu, JapanMount Fuji - NASA

 
 

Mount Fuji – Japan, Honshu

 

  • Location: Japan, Honshu island
  • Peak: 3776 m a. s. l.

 
Mount Fuji is the highest Japanese peak. Located on the island of Honshu, 100 kilometers southwest of the capital – Tokyo. It is a stratovolcano that was created by repeatedly throwing lava and ash. The mountain, which has a perfectly symmetrical shape and a snowy peak, has become the symbol of the whole of Japan. The first documented eruption took place in the year 800 BC. Since then, there have been several of them – the last known explosion occurred in 1707, when the ash covered the whole city of Edo (Today’s Tokyo).

The Japanese have been worshiping the mountain since prehistoric times, they were gaining it by courageous priests and pilgrims, mainly followers of Shintoism and Buddhism. Supporters of shinto with the mountain combine many deities and legends. Above all, the female deity Konohana-no-sakuyahime. She is a beautiful woman who stops the volcano from erupting, and on the orders of which sakura blossoms in spring. From 1558 there is even a religious sect dedicated to this mountain.

The first to climb Mount Fuji was an unknown monk in 663. From 1868, access to the summit was allowed only for men. Currently, around 200,000 people visit the mountain each year.

Mount Vesuvius – Italy

Mount Vesuvius in Italy on New Years DayRAF Spitfires flying around a still steaming Vesuvius after the March 1944 eruptionJ.C.Dahl - Eruption of the Volcano VesuviusVesuvius Volcano - NASA-ISSEdward Okuń - Bay of Naples and Vesuvius - 1937Vesuvius AsterSeismograph on the VesuviusMount Vesuvius - Relief Map

 
 

Mount Vesuvius – Italy

 

  • Location: Italy
  • Peak: 1281 m a. s. l.

 
Mount Vesuvius is an active stratovolcano located on the Apennine Peninsula in Italy. It is one of the most famous volcanoes in the world. The cone of this mountain grew inside the Monte Somma massif, whose age is estimated to be several thousand years old. Vesuvius is dangerous not only because nearly 3 million people live in its vicinity, but also because its peaceful period has lasted for a very long time.

The volcano became infamous due to the eruption that took place in 79 A.D. Which led to the disappearance of the cities of Pompeii, Herculaneum, Oplontis and Stabie. During the explosion, a huge amount of dust and volcanic gases got into the atmosphere, forming a cloud probably reaching as much as 37 meters in height. During the eruption, a fiery pyroclastic avalanche (a mixture of volcanic gases, ashes and rock crumbs) was produced from the volcano, which buried 25,000 people in one moment. Death was sudden, people were dying mainly due to thermal shock.

The volcano erupted for the last time in 1944 and destroyed the funicular that took tourists to the crater. The mountain spit out lava and hot ashes for 11 days. As a result of the explosion, 26 people died, and another 1200 were without a roof over their heads.

Nyiragongo – Congo

Nyiragongo eruption - 01.2002Nyiragongo - 1994Nyiragongo and NyamuragiraNyiragongo and Nyamuragira (2)Nyiragongo and Nyamuragira - 31.01.2007

 
 

Nyiragongo – Congo

 

  • Location: Congo
  • Peak: 3470 m a. s. l.

 
Nyiragongo volcano is located in the Virunga mountain chain and although its side craters are already extinct, the main one is one of the most active in the world. This stratovolcano is formed by a group of several volcanoes at Lake Kiwu. In the crater there is a huge lava lake, still active. The temperature of the lava located there varies between 800 and 950 ° C, has a thin consistency and flows very quickly. For this reason, the volcano is a constant threat to the surrounding cities.

The most horrible eruption took place in 1977, when lava flowing down the mountainside killed thousands of people. Magma got to the city of Goma, in which she destroyed 15% of the building and killed about 150 people. A stream of lava reached the shore of Lake Kiwu, forming a peninsula. Another volcanic eruption took place in 2002.

According to legends told by local citizens, Nyiragongo is a holy mountain. The natives believe that an enchanted spirit lives on it, which is trying hard to get out of its earthly dungeon. His angry scream explodes in the form of lava geysers and dense fogs.

Kilauea – United States of America, Hawaii

Dark Ash Plume Rising from Overlook Crater - 15.05.2018Entering the top of the volcanoKīlauea - USGS multimedia fileCaldera of Kīlauea with Halemaumau craterHalema'uma'u crater and Kīlauea calderaKīlauea Caldera and Mauna LoaKīlauea caldera - Hawaii Volcanoes National ParkKīlauea - Eruptions in last 200 yearsLava hits the Pacific Ocean - Hawaii - 2005Kīlauea - Crater of volcano on HawaiiExplosion at Halema'uma'u crater

 
 

Kilauea – United States of America, Hawaii

 

  • Location: United States of America, Hawaii
  • Szczyt: 1247 m a. s. l.

 
Kilauea is located on the Hawaiian island of Hawai’i (also known as Big Island) and is one of the volcanoes that form it. It occupies 14% of this island. The mountain, on the slope of which the lava flows, belongs to the most active volcanoes in the world. According to the Hawaiian history, it spits out lava uninterruptedly since 1983, an average of 400,000 m³ per day. The volcano was created as a result of tectonic movements of the Pacific plate. Which in 70 million years resulted in the creation of a chain of 6,000 km long submarine volcanoes.

The testimonies of the first eruptions come from 1750. However, we learn from the Polynesian myth that the mountain spit out lava much earlier. The lava flows covered the area of ​​hundreds of square kilometers and affected the appearance of the whole coast line. The indigenous islanders believe that Pele, the goddess of fire, lives on the mountain. Goddess punishes anyone who dares to steal volcanic stones. Being for her like children. A thief of such a stone can expect bad luck that will never leave him.

Locals, to the honor of the goddess Pele, perform ritual dances. According to tradition, they throw flowers and food into the volcano crater, which is to give them favor.