Battle of Somme – The attack of French and British

Battle of Somme - Lochnagar Crater (1)Battle of Somme - Lochnagar Crater (2)Battle of Somme - Lochnagar Crater (3)Battle of Somme - Lochnagar Crater (4)Battle of Somme - Lochnagar Crater (5)Battle of Somme - Cheshire Regiment trench Somme 1916Battle of Somme 1916 - MapBattle of Somme - Lochnagar Crater Map

Battle of Somme – The attack of French and British

Battle of Somme – The great Somme offensive planned by the French and the British. Was to finally break the German resistance and end the war within a few weeks. The decisive significance in this plan was played by a series of secret tunnels. Dug up by the whole company for months. Leading the artillery fire of German trenches, the British imperceptibly placed under enemy positions 19 explosives.

On the first of July 1916, mines under German lines almost simultaneously exploded. The largest load was broken in the earth by a crater with a depth of 21 meters and a diameter of 91 meters. Contrary to the expectations of the generals, however, the enemy forces were not destroyed. And the offensive became a deadly trap for the soldiers.

Already in the first 30 minutes of the fire from German machine guns, thousands of Britons were killed. On the first day of the attack on German positions. About 21000 British and French soldiers died. The fights continued for another five months. Consuming over a million lives. Only to get a 35-kilometer piece of the front. Approx. 10 kilometers deep into the enemy’s territory.

Bowling game – One of the oldest sports of world

Bowling game - Bowling ball looking good for a strikeBowling game - Bowling joyBowling game - Bowling ball

Bowling game – One of the oldest sports of world

Bowling game – As with most games, the exact beginning date of the bowling game is unknown. It is assumed that it has roots in the Stone Age and is associated with the creation of man. The first discovered instruments for this game come from Egypt, and they were found in 1932 by the expedition of the British Egyptologist Matthew Flinders Petrie (1853-1942). Among the things buried with a small boy was found a stone ball, which was probably thrown in nine stone bowling pins. Their age was estimated at 5,200 years BC. But even if Petrie was not right, bowling is still one of the oldest sports in the world. Today it is played in not 90 countries around the world, the number of players is around 100 million a year.

Andre-Marie Ampere – Thoughtful and versatile scientist

Andre-Marie AmpereAndre-Marie AmpereAndre-Marie AmpereAndre-Marie Ampere - Museum of Ampere - Poleymieux, Mont d'Or, France, 2007Andre-Marie Ampere - Ampere grave in Montmartre, Paris, 2006Andre-Marie Ampere - Ampere grave (detail) - Montmartre, Paris, France, 2006Andre-Marie Ampere - Museum of Ampere - Poleymieux, Mont d'Or, FranceAndre-Marie Ampere - Museum of Ampere - Poleymieux, Mont d'Or, France

Andre-Marie Ampere – Thoughtful and versatile scientist

Andre-Marie Ampere – (1775 – 1836) – The ancestor of electrodynamics did not go to primary school, his father taught him alone. Ampere sent his first scientific work to the Lyon Academy of Sciences (Academie de Lyon) at the age of 13! A quiet life and urgent studies were interrupted when his father was guillotined in 1793 for the Jacobin dictatorship. Eighteen-year-old Ampere has suffered this trauma. After the period of mourning, he returned to science and spiritual work. He was interested in mathematics and physics as well as in philosophy, botany, chemistry, as well as Latin, Italian and Greek.

Son Jean-Jacques Ampere (1800 – 1864) after his father’s death finished his work. Which was to classify the sciences –

Sketches from the philosophy of science, or an analytic representation of the general classification of all human knowledge

But his greatest merit is description of magnetism and subsequent establishment of the theory of electromagnetic phenomena as the basis of electrodynamics. He also created the first magnetic coil, which became the basis for the later telegraph.

At the age of 22, he began to teach mathematics in Lyon and later became a professor of chemistry and physics. For nineteen years he taught at the Polytechnique in Paris. During his lifetime he belonged to many scientific societies and he was also appreciated abroad. Unfortunately, his financial situation did not reflect merit. He often lacked money for experiments, which delayed his work.
He spent most of his life traveling, while on one of them in Marseilles, on June 10, 1836, he died. On the gravestone, according to his wishes, engraved: Tandem felix – Finally happy.

Hammurabi Codex – Set of laws of ancient Babylon

Hammurabi Codex - Set of laws of ancient BabylonHammurabi Codex - Museum in Louvre, Paris, FranceHammurabi Codex - Set of laws of ancient Babylon

Hammurabi Codex – Set of laws of ancient Babylon

Hammurabi Codex – It was a set of laws that were valid in Babylon. The text of the codex was engraved in the diorite with a cuneiform script in the Babylonian dialect of the Akkadian language. He covered all areas of life – inheritances, adoptions, thefts, medical and many more. With the exception of the king, society was divided into three layers: nobles, plebeians and slaves. In all the layers men were higher than women. Penalties were performed according to the “eye for an eye” principle – if someone damaged the eye of a Babylonian nobleman, he was deprived of his eye. However, when a nobleman who damaged the plebeian’s eye was a nobleman, he was only fined. Robbing the house during a fire was punished with burning, while adultery resulted in throwing connected lovers into the river.

Kayan tribe women – Secret of women giraffes

Kayan tribe women - Young girl giraffeKayan tribe women - Woman giraffeKayan tribe women - Young woman giraffeKayan tribe women - Women with rings on necksKayan tribe women - Women giraffes with childrenKayan tribe women - Women with elongated necks

Kayan tribe women – Secret of women giraffes

Kayan tribe women – In northern Thailand, in the province of Mae Hong Son in mountain villages, you can meet the so-called giraffe women from the Kayan tribe. They wear brass coils of thick wire on the necks, weighing about 10 kg. The first hoops are assumed for girls at the age of 5, and more are added successively. The spiral rests on the shoulders and puts pressure on the collarbones, creating the illusion of the elongated neck. This is really just an illusion, because the necks of women are of normal length. The spiral can be removed, and women sometimes do it, but not for long. Because the flaccid muscles of the neck make it impossible to keep the head without support. The custom of establishing a spiral is very old, the first mention comes from the 11th century. They are associated with the legend of the first woman Kayan, who was the daughter of a sea dragon.

Tungsten – Developed in plastic form in 20th century

Tungsten - Developed in plastic form in 20th century

Tungsten – Developed in plastic form in 20th century

Tungsten – At the beginning of the 20th century. Team of engineers from the American conglomerate General Electric developed a plastic tungsten. Which rapidly replaced metal fibers in classic light bulbs. The extraction and production of tungsten quickly increased. Many other applications for this metal were found, for example, for the production of anti-tank missiles or cemented carbide, i.e. popular widya. In less than 20 years, tungsten has shifted from the “interesting but useless” column. To the group of the most important industrial materials.

Minor metals – Breakthrough in perception of metals

Minor metals - Metal element from Late Bronze AgeMinor metals - Manufacturing opportunities in the state of Washington, USA, 1918

Minor metals – Breakthrough in perception of metals

Minor metals – Even before the World War II, many metals were known for which there was no practical use. It belonged to a kind of laboratory curiosities, obtained in a small amount and at enormous cost. It was so-called minor metals (rare metals) – unlike basic metals, which has been used en masse, the industry did not know how to use them. In those days, it was all the same, how rarely these metals occur in nature. It was not mined because it wasn’t needed for anything. A classic example of minority metals was nickel, up to the time when in 1919 stainless steel began to be manufactured. Then nickel became a very valued element.

Ponte Vecchio – Old Bridge connects two Arno banks

Ponte Vecchio - Florence, Italy, 2004Ponte Vecchio - Florence bridges

Ponte Vecchio - Snowy

Ponte Vecchio – Old Bridge connects two Arno banks

Ponte Vecchio – Old Bridge connects two Arno banks. It is also known as the Bridge of Goldsmiths. It managed to survive long centuries, wars and floods. Thanks to which, became a symbol of Florence. It was based on the design of the architect Neri di Fioravante. The original tenants of the picturesque stalls, however, were not artisans who dealt with the production of artistic objects from precious metals, but fish traders, tanners and butchers. The Arno River served them as a garbage dump, to which they threw all waste. This was what the space with the arcades under the central arches of the bridge served. At the end of the sixteenth century, Prince Ferdynand I of the Medici family removed from the stalls representatives of “smelly” professions, and offered their place to jewelers and goldsmiths. On the orders of Cosimo Medici over their studios, a covered corridor was created that connected his Florentine palaces.

It resisted destruction during World War II. When in 1944 the Germans withdrew from Italy, Adolf Hitler ordered the commanding German forces to the field marshal Albert Kesselring not to destroy the bridge. Who took him with his beauty while traveling to Italy.

Isaac Newton – English physicist and mathematician

Isaac Newton

Isaac Newton – English physicist and mathematician

Isaac Newton – Died 20.03.1727 (born in 1643), English physicist and mathematician.
Developed the law of universal gravity and other laws of mechanics. He formulated
the
principle of conservation
of momentum and angular momentum. He created the calculus
of variations
. 10. 12. 1684His work “De Motu Corporumabout the concept of gravity
and its effect on the orbits of the planets, referring to Kepler’s laws, was read to the
Royal Society
by Edmund Halley.