Andre-Marie Ampere – Thoughtful and versatile scientist
Andre-Marie Ampere – (1775 – 1836) – The ancestor of electrodynamics did not go to primary school, his father taught him alone. Ampere sent his first scientific work to the Lyon Academy of Sciences (Academie de Lyon) at the age of 13! A quiet life and urgent studies were interrupted when his father was guillotined in 1793 for the Jacobin dictatorship. Eighteen-year-old Ampere has suffered this trauma. After the period of mourning, he returned to science and spiritual work. He was interested in mathematics and physics as well as in philosophy, botany, chemistry, as well as Latin, Italian and Greek.
Son Jean-Jacques Ampere (1800 – 1864) after his father’s death finished his work. Which was to classify the sciences –
Sketches from the philosophy of science, or an analytic representation of the general classification of all human knowledge
But his greatest merit is description of magnetism and subsequent establishment of the theory of electromagnetic phenomena as the basis of electrodynamics. He also created the first magnetic coil, which became the basis for the later telegraph.
At the age of 22, he began to teach mathematics in Lyon and later became a professor of chemistry and physics. For nineteen years he taught at the Polytechnique in Paris. During his lifetime he belonged to many scientific societies and he was also appreciated abroad. Unfortunately, his financial situation did not reflect merit. He often lacked money for experiments, which delayed his work.
He spent most of his life traveling, while on one of them in Marseilles, on June 10, 1836, he died. On the gravestone, according to his wishes, engraved: Tandem felix – Finally happy.
Kayan tribe women – Secret of women giraffes
Kayan tribe women – In northern Thailand, in the province of Mae Hong Son in mountain villages, you can meet the so-called giraffe women from the Kayan tribe. They wear brass coils of thick wire on the necks, weighing about 10 kg. The first hoops are assumed for girls at the age of 5, and more are added successively. The spiral rests on the shoulders and puts pressure on the collarbones, creating the illusion of the elongated neck. This is really just an illusion, because the necks of women are of normal length. The spiral can be removed, and women sometimes do it, but not for long. Because the flaccid muscles of the neck make it impossible to keep the head without support. The custom of establishing a spiral is very old, the first mention comes from the 11th century. They are associated with the legend of the first woman Kayan, who was the daughter of a sea dragon.
Tungsten – Developed in plastic form in 20th century
Tungsten – At the beginning of the 20th century. Team of engineers from the American conglomerate General Electric developed a plastic tungsten. Which rapidly replaced metal fibers in classic light bulbs. The extraction and production of tungsten quickly increased. Many other applications for this metal were found, for example, for the production of anti-tank missiles or cemented carbide, i.e. popular widya. In less than 20 years, tungsten has shifted from the “interesting but useless” column. To the group of the most important industrial materials.
Minor metals – Breakthrough in perception of metals
Minor metals – Even before the World War II, many metals were known for which there was no practical use. It belonged to a kind of laboratory curiosities, obtained in a small amount and at enormous cost. It was so-called minor metals (rare metals) – unlike basic metals, which has been used en masse, the industry did not know how to use them. In those days, it was all the same, how rarely these metals occur in nature. It was not mined because it wasn’t needed for anything. A classic example of minority metals was nickel, up to the time when in 1919 stainless steel began to be manufactured. Then nickel became a very valued element.
Ponte Vecchio – Old Bridge connects two Arno banks
Ponte Vecchio – Old Bridge connects two Arno banks. It is also known as the Bridge of Goldsmiths. It managed to survive long centuries, wars and floods. Thanks to which, became a symbol of Florence. It was based on the design of the architect Neri di Fioravante. The original tenants of the picturesque stalls, however, were not artisans who dealt with the production of artistic objects from precious metals, but fish traders, tanners and butchers. The Arno River served them as a garbage dump, to which they threw all waste. This was what the space with the arcades under the central arches of the bridge served. At the end of the sixteenth century, Prince Ferdynand I of the Medici family removed from the stalls representatives of “smelly” professions, and offered their place to jewelers and goldsmiths. On the orders of Cosimo Medici over their studios, a covered corridor was created that connected his Florentine palaces.
It resisted destruction during World War II. When in 1944 the Germans withdrew from Italy, Adolf Hitler ordered the commanding German forces to the field marshal Albert Kesselring not to destroy the bridge. Who took him with his beauty while traveling to Italy.
Isaac Newton – English physicist and mathematician
Isaac Newton – Died 20.03.1727 (born in 1643), English physicist and mathematician.
Developed the law of universal gravity and other laws of mechanics. He formulated the
principle of conservation of momentum and angular momentum. He created the calculus
of variations. 10. 12. 1684 – His work “De Motu Corporum” about the concept of gravity
and its effect on the orbits of the planets, referring to Kepler’s laws, was read to the
Royal Society by Edmund Halley.
Christian Doppler – Austrian physicist and mathematician
Christian Doppler – Died 17.03.1853 (born in 1803), Austrian physicist and mathematician.
Discoverer of the phenomenon of the impact of approaching and receding source of sound waves,
or light on its frequency.