Fort Jefferson – Florida, USA – In left fortress-reserve

Fort Jefferson - Florida, USAFort Jefferson - Florida, USAFort Jefferson - Florida, USAFort Jefferson - Florida, USAFort Jefferson - Florida, USAFort Jefferson - Florida, USAGarden and Bush Keys - FloridaGarden and Bush Keys - FloridaFlorida Keys - (02-05-2014)Florida Keys - (02-05-2014)

Fort Jefferson – Florida, USA – In left fortress-reserve

Fort Jefferson – On the Florida Keys, it was supposed to be a fortress for eternity, but life verified these bold plans. It gave shelter to soldiers for only a few years. This is one of the most ambitious construction projects in US history: thousands of workers worked on the Garden Key island. Who used nearly 16 million bricks for nearly 30 years to build the largest fort on the American coast. It was built on a hexagon plan, its walls were 14 m high, and the space in it was enough for: 450 cannons, 1500 soldiers.

The problem was that the fortress was named after President Thomas Jefferson. Most of the time it was simply unnecessary. That is why the government began to use it as a place of isolation for political prisoners in the Civil War. That was until 1867.
When an epidemic of yellow fever broke out in the fort. One of her first victims was a prison doctor. So, to stop the rampant disease, he began, Dr. Samuel Mudd – serving life imprisonment for participating in the plot for the life of Abraham Lincoln. He succeeded: he saved hundreds of prisoners and guards. Mudd was pardoned and the prison was soon closed.

Today there is a bird sanctuary in the abandoned fortress. It is also one of the favorite diving spots on the Florida Keys.

Hashima – Kyushu, Japan – Island is hell

Hashima - Kyushu, JapanHashima - Kyushu, JapanHashima - Kyushu, JapanHashima - Kyushu, JapanHashima - Kyushu, JapanHashima - Kyushu, JapanGunkanjima - NagasakiGunkanjima - NagasakiGunkanjima - NagasakiGunkanjima - Nagasaki

Hashima – Kyushu, Japan – Island is hell

Hashima – Kyushu, Japan – Five kilometers from the coast of Japan in the Kyushu region. An island emerges from the water that resembles, a rather powerful ship. No wonder Hashima is called Battleship by local residents. Or Ghost Island – because hundreds of people were killed cruelly. From the end of the 19th century, there were Mitsubishi concern mines. In which underwater coal seams were exploited.

During World War II:

Chinese and Korean forced laborers came to this Japanese island. As a result of inhuman living conditions and over-work. Almost 1,300 prisoners died here.
Later, workers came voluntarily, and the island itself expanded.
Reaching a length of 480 meters and a width of 160 meters. At its peak, this allowed over five thousand people to live there. With the cessation of mining in 1974, the inhabitants hurriedly left the island.

Despite the ideas of transforming island into a tourist attraction. Severe weather conditions and high costs of reconstruction, mean that only gloomy ruins threaten there – and the secrets hidden in them…

St Kilda – Hirta – Atlantic, Scotland – Exiled people

St Kilda - Hirta - Atlantic, ScotlandSt Kilda - Hirta - Atlantic, ScotlandSt Kilda - Hirta - Atlantic, ScotlandSt Kilda - Hirta - Atlantic, ScotlandMap of archipelago - (15-08-2007)Fulmars hunting - (01-01-1898)Mailboat - (01-01-1898)Puffins hunting - (01-01-1898)

St Kilda – Hirta – Atlantic, Scotland – Exiled people

St Kilda – Hirta – To reach the place called „the edge of the world”. You have to bounce off the west coast of Scotland and over 60 km across the cold Atlantic. There, among windswept and waves, several small islands protrude from the sea. They are so unfriendly and distant from the mainland, that it is not surprising that they are uninhabited, so it is surprising that Hirta, part of the St Kilda archipelago, was already inhabited in the Bronze Age.

The life of indigenous peoples almost all the time concentrated on making supplies for the winter. Harvesting: Peat, which was a source of heat for them. Sheep wool for yarns and sea birds as food. There was no possibility of fishing – the waters around were treacherous enough.

Weather is so hard and unpredictable, that up to the last century for eight months of the year. Hirta was completely cut off from the world. Even in the nineteenth century, its inhabitants, whose number ranged between 100 and 200, when they wanted to make contact with the world. They threw messages in bottles, into sea, at favorable winds. Hoping that someone in Scotland will catch one.

Community lived in great isolation

To the extent that her genetic pool has been weakened: brought from outside, quite innocent diseases. Which destroyed her almost completely. The last 36 survivors surrendered in the 1930s. After the decision of the British Parliament, they left a sinister place. It was the end of the settlement, which lasted over two thousand years…

Annapurna – Himalayas, Nepal – Risky for climbers

Annapurna - Himalayas, NepalAnnapurna - Himalayas, NepalAnnapurna - Himalayas, NepalAnnapurna - Himalayas, NepalAnnapurna - Himalayas, NepalAnnapurna - Himalayas, NepalNepalese Mountains and a twinkling skyAaron Benson - Nepal - (27-01-2017)South Mountain - (17-01-2005)Base of Mount - (17-01-2017)

Annapurna – Himalayas, Nepal – Risky for climbers

„Annapurna takes life” – wrote in the diary Mingma Sherpa, conqueror of the Himalayan Crown and Karakoram. „To climb this mountain, you need perseverance – and happiness.” Before the start, the expedition leader once again looked deeply into the eyes of each member of his team. Everyone knew well that there are nine higher peaks than rising 8091 meters above sea level Annapurna. But none of them killed so many daredevils – statistically every fourth climber never returns from it.To this day more than 60 people have lost their lives there, and the bodies of many of them lie frozen somewhere in rocky cracks or under the snow. Extracting them is too risky.
For comparison: on the much more frequented Mount Everest mortality is only 4%. There is a reason why climbers call Annapurna the mountain of death. On the 2.6 km steep southern wall, there are avalanches – apart from altitude sickness, loss of orientation and freezing. Also for the 13-man expedition led by Mingma Sherpa. This eight-thousander turned out to be unlucky: although they all reached the top, but two of its members died on the way back. In the dark of night they fell into the abyss …

Annapurna is dangerous not only when climbing.

In October 2014, at least 43 people died during snowstorms and avalanches in the area. Including many himalaists. It was the most tragic accident in history of Nepal.

Centralia – Pennsylvania, USA – Under city eternal fire

Centralia - Pennsylvania, USACentralia - Pennsylvania, USACentralia - Pennsylvania, USAPennsylvania - (01-01-2005)Columbia County, Pennsylvania, USACity Skyline (06-07-2010)

Centralia – Pennsylvania, USA – Under city eternal fire

Centralia – Although a fire goes crazy underneath, a handful of residents still refuse to leave it. They hide from the authorities, which gives the city a mysterious aura. Until the 1960s, Centralia was a town like many in the east of Pennsylvania. About 1500 people lived and worked there. Most of them were employed in the mines – until in 1962 the spark from a nearby garbage dump jumped to the adit, setting fire to coal.

In the following years

Flames gradually expanded under the city. In buildings suddenly started fires, whose flames ​​penetrated earth. Embracing home gardens, and the trees turned into ashes from day to day. Centralia’s underground has become a hell. The government announced the evacuation – it was estimated that the flames had enough fuel to burn for 250 years. Putting out this fire would cost over $ 660 million. That is why politicians decided on a much cheaper option: resettlement of residents.

Great Sphinx in Giza – Egypt

Great Sphinx in Giza - Egypt - (01.01.1871)Great Sphinx in Giza - Egypt - (05.04.2007)Great Sphinx in Giza - Egypt - backGiza - Egypt - (18.03.2010)Giza - Egypt - (10.11.2015)Sphinx in Egypt - (08.09.2006)

Great Sphinx in Giza – Egypt

Great Sphinx in Giza – Egypt – Archaeologists discover centimeter by centimeter of the Sphinx itself and its surroundings. Ramps appeared before their eyes, from which through the gate entered the corridors of monumental temples . One of them is directed directly towards the Chefren Pyramid. The pharaoh’s funeral scene suddenly becomes clearer. Did they carry the mummy before the Sphinx? Did they bring before the death gate to the Sphinx Temple for the last goodbye? That’s what most scientists assume.

The canals dried up, and Giza was covered with sand.

It is not clear where the corridors leading from the temple end. Most of them are covered by sand. Just like the Sphinx 150 years ago. After the last funeral in the Giza necropolis, the real end of the world took place here. Workers left the construction site in the middle of work. The canals on which the boats previously sailed dried up. According to geologists, the sphinx sank into the swamp a few meters. The rest did the sand.

Curiosities:

  • To this day, it was not possible to determine what the ancient Egyptians called the Sphinx.
  • The ancient sphinx was invented by ancient Greeks. Apparently it comes from the Egyptian word “szesepankh”, meaning “living image”.
  • Egyptian Arabs used the term “Abul-Hol” for the Great Sphinx in Giza, which means “Father of fear”.

Pitch drop – The longest laboratory experiment

University of Queensland - AustraliaUniversity of Queensland - ExperimentPitch drop experiment with demarcation of yearsPitch drop experiment with demarcation of years and monthsPitch drop experiment - Chart of months between drops (1938 - 2014)

Pitch drop – The longest laboratory experiment

Pitch drop – Prof. Thomas Parnell from the Australian University of Queensland wanted to show students that some substances, although they appear to be constant. In fact, they are very viscous liquids. He poured hot tar into the glass, sealed funnel . More precisely the so-called coal tar, which is forming by distillation of tar. He waited three years and opened the funnel.
The tar began to flow down at such a slow pace that only after a few years a drop formed at the end of the funnel. After a decade, it broke away and fell into the dish. This has happened nine times since 1927.

The last drop fell in 2014, another should fall in about nine years.

Pitch drop experiment conducted in Australia in 2005 got Ig Nobel. Project recognized as the longest-lasting laboratory experiment. It went to the “Guinness Book of Records”. They can even be viewed using a webcam (broadcasts are monitored by several hundred people a day).

Gary Gabelich – Exceeded by car 1000 km/h in 1970

Gary Gabelich - Blue FlameBlue Flame - 2Blue Flame - 3Gary Gabelich - The Blue Flame - Goodwood 2007Gary Gabelich - The Blue Flame - 1Auto und Technik Museum Sinsheim - Blue Flame

 

Gary Gabelich – Exceeded by car 1000 km/h in 1970

Gary Gabelich – Exceeded with „Blue Flame” 1000 km/h in 23.10.1970. The average speed was 1001.011968 km / h. Mile, which is measured the speed of the vehicle must overcome two times: back and forth.
The big shiny „The Blue Flame” to save fuel even more. Was pushed by the service car at the start. It further helped him to accelerate to 60 km / h.
During the first run, Gabelich achieved a speed of 993.722 km / h as a result. He drove in the opposite direction, but a little faster – that’s why the speed was 1009.305 km / h.

Until then, records were set with jet engines.

„The Blue Flame” rocket engine was powered by a combination of hydrogen peroxide, and liquid natural gas. Chilled to a temperature of -161 degrees Celsius. As a result, achieved 58 000 HP.
In this way, the engine was running with maximum thrust for 20 seconds. „Blue Flame” was similar to a rocket, except with additional catches at the front and rear for attaching wheels.
Tires, specially designed by Goodyear, had a rather smooth surface to reduce heat.
The vehicle was 11.4 m long and 2.3 m wide. He weighed 1814 kg, with fuel – 2994 kg. One of the biggest troubles just before the start. There was burning through the engine, braking parachute ropes. If you had to stop the car with only disc brakes. You would probably need stretch, a 19 km length.

„The Blue Flame” designed and built by Reaction Dynamics.

With the help of the Illinois Institute of Technology lecturers and students. Dr. T. Paul Torda and Dr. Sarunas C. Uzgiris, professors at IIT, worked on the aerodynamics of the car. While other IIT students and lecturers, they mainly dealt with:
– construction,
– engine,
– steering system,
– brakes.

The speed record broken at Bonneville Salt Flats in Utah, USA.

This place is located 160 km west of Salt Lake City. Because 32 thousand years ago there was a huge lake 305 m deep. After it disappeared and the salt substrate hardened. It was created one of the most noteworthy places on Earth, to develop enormous speeds.

Gary Gabelich (29.08.1940 – 26.01.1984)

– During 43 years of life, this Croatian by origin. First of all, he won races, and set speed records on:
– asphalt,
Earth,
– water (motorboats),
– salt tracks.

He died on a motorcycle on the streets of Long Beach in January 1984. While working on the design and construction of a vehicle capable of reaching supersonic speed (1225 km / h). Prototype named „American Way”, but because of Gabelich death. Work on it canceled.

Most dangerous volcanoes – Still unpredictable

Most dangerous volcanoes - KīlaueaMost dangerous volcanoes - Eruption of the Volcano Vesuvius - J.C.DahlMost dangerous volcanoes - Nevado del Ruiz - 1985Most dangerous volcanoes - Chaitén - Eruption 27.05.2008

 

Most dangerous volcanoes – Still unpredictable

 
Most dangerous volcanoes – Eruptions of volcanoes in ancient times were considered a divine punishment. Today, we know their causes, but they are still unpredictable. And they leave terrible havoc after themselves. Volcanoes that sow the greatest destruction and thus are the most dangerous for Earth.
 

List of the most dangerous volcanoes on Earth:

 

Mt.Etna from ISS - 2013Sailors aboard USNS Carson City - watching Mt.Etna during arrival in CataniaMost dangerous volcanoes - Mount Etna - CraterMost dangerous volcanoes - Etna in Sicily

Mount Etna – Italy, Sicily
 
 


Most dangerous volcanoes - Big Blast at Sakurajima Volcano, Japan - NASASakurajima Volcano in Kyushu, JapanMost dangerous volcanoes - Big Blast at Sakurajima Volcano, JapanView from Kagoshima - Kyushu, Japan

Sakurajima – Japan, Kyushu
 
 


Most dangerous volcanoes - Torii near summit of Mt.Fuji, Honshu, JapanMount Fuji on the island of Honshu, Japan - 2006Most dangerous volcanoes - Japan, Honshu, Mt.FujiMost dangerous volcanoes - Mount Fuji - NASA

Mount Fuji – Japan, Honshu
 
 


Most dangerous volcanoes - Mount Vesuvius - ISS - NASARAF Spitfires flying around a still steaming Vesuvius after the March 1944 eruptionVesuvius - AsterSeismograph on the Vesuvius

Mount Vesuvius – Italy
 
 


Most dangerous volcanoes - Nyiragongo and NyamuragiraMost dangerous volcanoes - Nyiragongo - Eruption 01-2002Nyiragongo - 1994Nyiragongo and Nyamuragira - 31.01.2007

Nyiragongo – Congo
 
 


Most dangerous volcanoes - Kīlauea - USGS multimedia fileKīlauea Caldera and Mauna LoaKīlauea - Lava hits the Pacific Ocean - Hawaii - 2005Kīlauea - Explosion at Halema'uma'u crater

Kilauea – United States of America, Hawaii
 
 


Most dangerous volcanoes - Mount Merapi craterMerapi ash plume - MODIS sat image - (10.11.2010)Merbabu & MerapiMost dangerous volcanoes - Merapi from space

Merapi – Indonesia, Java
 
 


Nevado del Ruiz - Summit after the eruption that caused the Armero tragedy - 11.1985Nevado del Ruiz Volcano - Colombia - NASAMost dangerous volcanoes - Nevado del Ruiz - Almost 2 weeks after its deadly eruption in 1985, Viewed from the northeastNevado del Ruiz - View from bamboo plantation

Nevado del Ruiz – Colombia
 
 


Most dangerous volcanoes - Popocatépetl - Seen from Mexico CityPopocatépetl - The active volcano located about 70 km southeast of Mexico City - 23.01.2001 - NASAPopocatépetl - Cholula PyramidMost dangerous volcanoes - Popocatépetl

Popocatépetl – Mexico
 
 


Most dangerous volcanoes - Column of ash during the Chaitén eruption, 02.05.2008Plume of ash from eruption of Chaiten volcano, Chile - 03.05.2008Chaitén - NASAAerial view of the Chaitén Town - Chile - 02-2009

Chaitén – Chile
 
 


Pico del Teide - Volcano on Canary Islands, SpainMost dangerous volcanoes - Pico del Teide - PanoramaPico del Teide volcano, on Tenerife, Canary Islands - from planePico del Teide in clouds

Pico del Teide – Spain, Tenerife
 
 


Most dangerous volcanoes - Eruption of Krakatau, Indonesia - 2008Satellite image of the Krakatau volcano, Indonesia - May 18, 1992Krakatau MapSatellite image Plumes of volcanic ash - 17.11.2010

Krakatau – Indonesia
 
 


Mount Etna – Italy, Sicily

Etna - Panorama 2012Mount Etna - Crater (2)Sailors aboard USNS Carson City - watching Mt.Etna during arrival in CataniaMt.Etna from ISS - 2013Mt.Etna in Sicily
 
 
 
Mount Etna - CraterVolcanic Plumes Tower over Mt.EtnaVolcanic ash from the April 2013 eruption of Mt.EtnaEtna in winterLava flows from Mt.Etna - View from Adrano

 
 
 

Mount Etna – Italy, Sicily

 

  • Location: Italy, east coast of Sicily
  • Peak: 3350 m a. s. l.

 
Mount Etna – Is the highest active and the second most powerful volcano in Europe. It lies on the east coast of the island of Sicily, near the cities of Messina and Catania. The age of the volcano is estimated at 700,000 years. The mountain changed with subsequent eruptions, its present appearance was formed about 5000 years ago. Its height is not constant – in 1981 Etna measured 21 meters more. The reduction was caused by eruption and lava flow.

Etna’s volcanic activity is the longest documented of all volcanoes. The oldest eruptions took place in antiquity (135 A.D.). The ancient Greeks called the volcano Mount of Fire and were convinced that one of the Titans was buried beneath. The explosions were meant to mean that he was trying to escape. The most powerful explosion occurred in 1669. When the lava got to Catania, which it partially destroyed. The potential danger lies in the fact that the volcano is located in a densely populated area.

From the beginnings of written historical sources, we know in total about 140 Etna explosions. The most devastating eruption in 1669 was preceded by a three-week earthquake. The volcanic eruption lasted four months.

The Etna volcano explodes on average once every 1.7 years.