Olympus Mons – Highest peak of the Solar System

Mars - Mariner 9 (1971 - 1972)Martian volcano - photographed by Viking 1 spacecraft - 5000 miles away - 14.02.1979Olympus Mons - Mars - MC-2 - Diacria RegionOlympus Mons - Image from Viking 1 orbiter

Olympus Mons – Highest peak of the Solar System

Olympus Mons – An extinct volcano on the Red Planet, rises almost 22 km! However, the issue of measurement is contentious. So depending on where we measure the vertex. It can grow up to 26 km.

Its diameter is also impressive – at the base it is 624 km.

The volcanic crater itself is about 85 km long, 60 km wide, and up to 3 km deep. However, future Martian climbers will not be particularly delighted. Because Olympus has a gentle, 5-degree slope.

Impressive sizes can also boast:

Rheasilvia, huge impact crater with a diameter of 505 km. Covering up to 90% of the West’s asteroid surface (22.5 km high).
Series of almost even peaks on the Saturn’s moonIapetus, (approx. 20 km). And South Boösaule, the highest hill on Jupiter’s moon – Io (approx. 18 km).

Space probe Voyager 1 – Duration and range record

Voyager1 - Space simulatorSpace probe Voyager 1 - digital recorderSpace probe Voyager 1 - Reencapsulated 27.08.1977Voyager 1 - Spacecraft modelHeliopause - Graphic - 11.08.2011Space probe Voyager 1 - Transitional regions

Space probe Voyager 1 – Duration and range record

Space probe Voyager 1 – It’s so far from Earth that it sends out radio signals. They need 20 hours to reach us. This is a record not only in terms of duration, but also coverage. The Voyager 1 probe, launched in 1977, is currently the furthest sent object made by our civilization.

In 2012 passed the so-called heliopause.

The area where the solar wind pressure becomes less than the interstellar wind pressure. Thus leaving the solar system. More importantly, the probe is still working and sending data. Its plutonium battery should ensure operation at least until 2025.

Even then, Voyager 1 will fly ahead.

Although it moves at a huge speed of over 60,000 km / h. If we measure it in relation to the position of the sun. Only for 30 thousand years will pass the Oort cloud – the furthest cluster of matter gravitationally connected to the solar system. He will leave us for good, heading toward the constellation Ophiuchus.

Sunspots registry – Program run since 1826

Sunspots registry - Solar rotationSunspots registry - Largest Sunspot of the Solar Cycle - NASASunspots registry - Sunspots - TaiwanSunspots registry - Surface of the Sun - HMI-NASASunspots registry - Monster Sunspot AR1476 - NASA

 

Sunspots registry - X-flares - X1.4 and X1.9 - NASA, SDOSunspots registry - Big Sunspot 1520 - Releases X1.4 flare - NASASunspots registry - Sunspot 1112Sunspots sunset - Xihu, HangzhouSunspots

 

Sunspot butterfly - graphPeriodic changes of Sunspot numbersSunspot diagramChanges in total solar irradiance and monthly sunspot numbers - 1975-2013Samuel Heinrich Schwabe Astronomer - Plaque in Dessau

Sunspots registry – Program run since 1826

Sunspots registry – The longest regular scientific research in the world is the record of the number of spots on the Sun created since 1826.
The research program was initiated by the German amateur astronomer Samuel Heinrich Schwabe. He watched the Sun regularly for 17 years because he wanted to observe a planet previously unknown to science called the Volcano.
Moving against the backdrop of the solar disk. Of course, he found nothing – only Mercury and Venus are between Earth and the Sun. Known since antiquity – but his observations have determined that the activity of our nearest star changes regularly.
Schwabe’s achievements inspired Rudolf Wolf, head of the Bern observatory. Which from 1848 continued to record spots and collected historical data on this subject. Dating back to the early 17th century

Spot counting system developed by Wolf.

Accepted astronomers around the world. Almost 100 observatories are currently observing this phenomenon. Both professionals and amateurs.

Quantity Earth moons – Two additional pseudo-moons

Quantity Earth moons - Kazimierz Kordylewski - 1964Quantity Earth moons - Libration point L4 - diagramQuantity Earth moons - Arrangement of libration points L4 and L5

Quantity Earth moons – Two additional pseudo-moons

Quantity Earth moons – Well, it has two additional, or more precisely, pseudo-moons. These are dust clouds located in the L4 and L5 libration points of the Earth-Moon system. Although it was discovered in the 1950s, it was not until 2018 that Hungarian scientists were able to measure the polarization of their light. Clearly confirming these objects. For the first time they were noticed by the Polish astronomer Kazimierz Kordylewski and hence their name – the moons of Kordylewski. In 1956, he noticed the dust structure that he managed to photograph five years later. Specialists for decades have tried to find hard evidence for their presence. Which was not an easy task: K.Kordylewski was observing from Kasprowy Wierch and this winter. Only a few times they were observed and photographed

Aurora Borealis – Causes lightning by making noises

Aurora BorealisAurora Borealis - AuroraAurora Borealis - Northern lightsAurora Borealis - Amundsen-Scott - South Pole stationAurora Borealis - Aurora Australis from ISSAurora Borealis - Aurora Australis

Aurora Borealis – Causes lightning by making noises

Aurora Borealis – arise when the charged particles from the Sun (the so-called solar wind) hit the Earth’s magnetic field. Along its lines are directed to the poles, where they collide with molecules of air. There was a belief that between fairy tales you should put in the history that polar lights sometimes made sounds, even “whispered” – until the case was investigated by scientists from the University of Aalto in Finland. The truth is that when the nights are cold and silent, auroras create rustlings and cracks. Audible for hundreds of kilometers. The reason is the so-called inversion layer. It arises when it is colder near the surface of the planet than at higher levels of the atmosphere. It causes that negatively charged particles from the Sun are trapped in the cold zone. If their accumulation exceeds the critical point. By reacting with positive ions in the atmosphere and causing discharges, rustling and crackling.

Carousel for stars – At the heart of Milky Way

Carousel for stars - Sagittarius A*Carousel for stars - Sagittarius A* - Light bulbCarousel for stars - Orbits of stars around the black hole at the centre of the Milky WayCarousel for stars - Supermassive black hole - Sagittarius A* - At the center of our Galaxy

 

Carousel for stars – At the heart of Milky Way

Carousel for stars – At the heart of the Milky Way. Among the hundreds of thousands of stars, there is Sagittarius A*. Around this supermassive black hole, matter circulates at a speed of 360 million km / h. However, this process takes place in the Sagittarius A* event horizon. So in the border area of space-time. This prevents observation of spinning stars.

KEPLER-442b – Stony exoplanet in superearth class

KEPLER-442bKEPLER-442b - Comparison of exoplanets from the Kepler system to EarthKEPLER-442b

KEPLER-442b – Stony exoplanet in superearth class

KEPLER-442b – Stony exoplanet in superearth class, which the parent star is the orange dwarf.

ESI: 0,84
Size: 1,3 Earth
Mass: 2,3 Earth
Equivalent temperature: -65°C

The planet KEPLER-442b, from which light has been running for 1115 years, belongs to the so-called Super-Earth. In this way, rocky exoplanets are determined whose mass does not exceed tenfolds Earth. The parent star of this planet is an orange dwarf. The star larger than a red dwarf, but smaller than a yellow dwarf, which is the Sun. This type of star has calmer youth, and therefore does not send its planetary children too much UV. In addition, the planet is in the ecosphere, so it can not be ruled out that the ocean is splashing on its rocky surface. If it has a more complex atmosphere, it does not have to be at the same time a kingdom of cold. According to some calculations, it is the smaller superearth that are most suitable for life, even more than our own planet.

GJ 273b – Exoplanet in the constellation Little Dog

GJ 273b - Artist’s impression of the exoplanet

GJ 273b – Exoplanet in the constellation Little Dog

GJ 273b – Planet orbiting the Luyten star

ESI: 0,86
Size: 1,47 Earth
Mass: 3 Earth
Equivalent temperature: -6°C

Twelve light-years from our solar system, Luyten’s star, the red dwarf, wanders from Earth in the constellation Little Dog. Astronomers have discovered two exoplanets next to it. At the same time one of them belongs to the superearth category and at the same time circulates at the edge of the ecosystem. In contrast to the many other planets whose parent star is a red dwarf, GJ273b knows what day is and what is the night. Usually, the planets move close enough that their rotation is connected, and their parent star only puts one hemisphere.

Ross-128b – 11 light years away from Earth

Ross-128b
Ross-128b

Ross-128b – 11 light years away from Earth

Ross-128b – The planetary system around the red dwarf Ross 128 for about 70,000 years will become our closest star neighbor.

ESI: 0,86
Size: 1,2 Earth
Mass: 1,3 Earth
Equivalent temperature: 7°C

Even closer than the GJ 273b is the Ross-128b exoplanet. It is away from us, just like a star. Which is a very quiet red dwarf, less than 11 light-years away and gradually approaching us. Based on the obtained data, astronomers have discovered that planet Ross 128b circulates around its star twenty times closer than Earth circulates the Sun. Despite such a short distance, the planet gets only 1.38 times more energy than our planet. Thanks to the cool and stable star, whose surface temperature in comparison with the sun is halved, the equivalent temperature on its surface is estimated to be from -60°C to 20°C.

TRAPPIST-1d – Representative of TRAPPIST-1 sys

TRAPPIST-1d - Artistic impression of exoplanetTRAPPIST-1d - Statistics tableTRAPPIST-1d - Comparison of the sizes of TRAPPIST-1 planets with Solar System bodies

TRAPPIST-1d – Representative of TRAPPIST-1 sys

TRAPPIST-1d – One of representatives of the TRAPPIST-1 planetary system

ESI: 0,91
Size: 0,8 Earth
Mass: 0,3 Earth
Equivalent temperature: 15°C

The relatively small weight of this planet indicates that its surface can be flooded by a deep ocean.
According to some speculations, here is 250 times more water than in the Earth’s oceans.
The first measurements showed that the planet is moving outside of the living zone, but now it seems that it will enter it safely. Exoplanet can boast a dense atmosphere and is so close to its star that it circulates in four days. It only drops by 4.3% more light than on Earth. Although TRAPPIST-1d circulates its star in synchronous rotation, a dense atmosphere in which there should be a lot of water vapor helps in thermal exchange. The difference between the illuminated and the dark hemisphere is not like that of other celestial bodies.