Dead Sea salinity – Salt lake without outflow

Dead Sea salinityDead Sea salinityDead Sea salinityDead Sea salinityDead Sea salinityDead Sea salinityDead Sea salinityDead Sea salinityDead Sea salinityIsrael - (07-07-2016)Sunset - Jordan - (2013)View from U.S. Space Shuttle mission-STS-28 - (01-08-1989)Stones at shore - IsraelBeit-HaArava - Before the 1948 Arab–Israeli WarNatural Bitumen from shoreCobble with rock-salt - from Israel

Dead Sea salinity – Salt lake without outflow

Dead Sea salinity – 33.7%, which is 10 times higher than for normal water use. About 40 billion tons of salt are contained in the sea. By evaporating one liter of its water, you can get about 250 grams of this mineral. Due to the high salinity in the Dead Sea, which is actually a salt lake without outflow. There is no right life. For comparison, the salinity of the Baltic Sea is only about 7 ‰.

Dead Sea mud has antiseptic and bactericidal properties.

MT Prestige – Biggest oil spills

MT Prestige - Sinking tankerMT Prestige - Beach cleanup after oil spill - MuxiaPrestige fuel tankMT Prestige - Sinking shipMT Prestige - Monument to volunteers cleaning beaches - GaliciaMonument with thanksMonument in Muxía - Spain

MT Prestige – Biggest oil spills

  • Place: Nth. shores of Iberian Peninsula
  • Date: 19 November 2002
  • Amount of spill: 63 000 000 liters
  • Costs: EUR 8 billion

MT Prestige – 19 November 2002 the tanker sank off the northern shores of the Iberian Peninsula. 63 thousand tons of oil, spilled from it. And the cost of their removal amounted to over EUR 8 billion.

MT Exxon Valdez – Biggest oil spills

MT Exxon Valdez - Coast cleanupMT Exxon Valdez - Oil spillInterview with Dennis KelsoSea birds in oil - After spill from tanker

MT Exxon Valdez – Biggest oil spills

  • Place: Alaska
  • Date: 24 March 1989
  • Amount of spill: 41 000 000 liters
  • Costs: $ 4 billion

MT Exxon Valdez – 24 March 1989 the tanker crashed off the coast of Alaska. About 257,000 barrels of oil leaked out. Which is a fraction of biggest oil spill. But the disaster severely affected the local ecosystem . It happened in Prince William’s Bay, where the ship crashed into a cliff. Having a full oil tank. It is estimated that 250,000 seabirds, 2,800 sea otters, 300 seals, 250 eagles and about 22 whales, and billions of salmon and herring eggs were killed as a result of this spill.

Drunken captain

Over 11,000 people participated in the liquidation of the effects of activities. According to the investigation, captain Joe Hazelwood caused the accident himself. Giving chaotic orders when he wanted to apply blows to rocks. Reach tests that had high blood alcohol levels. The resulting stretch stretched along 2,000 km of coastline and touched 28,000 km² of the ocean. The investigation also showed that the ship was not in good condition and had a damaged radar. Who was supposed to alert the crew of danger.

Tanker Odyssey – Biggest oil spills

Tanker Odyssey - Oil spill and fire - 1988Tanker Odyssey - Oil stain after spill - 1988Tanker Odyssey - Art presenting tragedy of animals after oil spill in 1988Odyssey - Animals after oil spillOdyssey - Aerial view

Tanker Odyssey – Biggest oil spills

  • Place: Canada
  • Date: 19 November 1988
  • Amount of spill: 162 180 000 liters
  • Costs: $ 86,7 mln

Tanker Odyssey – An American ship exploded about a thousand kilometers, off the east coast of Canada. About 162 million liters of crude oil spilled out of it into the open sea. That fateful day he sailed from Shetland to Canada. About 2,000 km off the coast of Newfoundland, a sea storm caught him. There was an explosion on the ship. As a result, it broke into two parts and sank. The Passat ship arrived the fastest, after an hour. But because of the flames, he couldn’t get close to one kilometer. 27 crew members were killed on board.

Amoco Milford Haven – Biggest oil spills

Amoco Milford Haven - Fire of sinking tankerAmoco Milford Haven - Sinking tankerMT Haven - Burning tankerMT Haven - Tanker fire

Amoco Milford Haven – Biggest oil spills

  • Place: Genoa, Italy
  • Date: 11 April 1991
  • Amount of spill: 159 000 000 liters
  • Costs: $ 85 mln

Amoco Milford Haven – The tanker was built in Cardiz shipyards in 1973. The ship was 334 meters long and 51 meters wide. In 1991 a catastrophic explosion took place near Genoa, Italy. During routine pumping operations, a part of the load. To adjust the draft of the ship. At one point, a powerful explosion shook the front tanks, and a few minutes later a huge fire began on board. Although sailors and firemen fought together with fire. They could do nothing.

Precautions did not help

Flames reached 100 meters in height and a total of six crew members were killed. To prevent a major ecological disaster. Experts recommended towing the ship as far as possible into the open sea and leaving it at the bottom. It also happened. After another explosion, the ship broke into two parts and sank after three days. Spilled fuel reached the coasts of Italy and France. Despite immediate action after installing 10 km long barriers. Oil flooded local beaches and caused great damage.

Amoco Cadiz – Biggest oil spills

Amoco Cadiz - Grounding and oil spill - 01.03.1978Amoco Cadiz - Sinking tanker - Brittany-France - 01.03.1978Impact of oil spill - 01.03.1978Oil spill - 01.03.1978

Amoco Cadiz – Biggest oil spills

  • Place: France
  • Date: 16 March 1978
  • Amount of spill: 254 400 000 liters
  • Costs: $ 136 mln

Amoco Cadiz – In 1978, the tanker crashed off the coast of France. On its standard route, from the Persian Gulf to the Dutch port of Rotterdam. When a 335 meter ship passed the west coast of France. It got inside a violent storm. High waves damaged the rudder and directed the tanker directly to the coast. The ship first hit a coral reef, as a result of which water flooded the engine room. Another blow to the rocks caused the oil tanks to crack. The contents of all of them spilled into the sea in 14 days.

Could the disaster be prevented

The crew was warned of a possible disaster, but they were unable to stop the ship in time. Therefore, the tanker impacted the sanding. In total, over 2.5 million liters of oil spilled near Portsall. It reached about 360 km of coastline. About 14,000 volunteers and soldiers fought the effects of the accident. However, around 37,000 birds and 6,400 oysters died. Nature returned to balance seven years after the disaster.

ABT Summer – Supertanker – Biggest oil spills

ABT Summer - Supertanker - Oil spill and fire - 1991ABT Summer - Supertanker - Oil spill - Angola - 1991Supertanker - Aerial viewOil spill - Map - 18.05.1991

ABT Summer – Supertanker – Biggest oil spills

  • Place: Angola
  • Date: 18 May 1991
  • Amount of spill: 305 280 000 liters
  • Costs: $ 178 mln

ABT Summer – Supertanker, which in May 1991 exploded almost 1500 km off the coast of Angola. The ship was built in the South Korean shipyard Ulsan. It traveled on the sea since 1974. It was over 344 meters long and 54 meters wide. The disaster took place on the route from Iran to Rotterdam. As a result of the accident, millions of liters of oil spilled. Which resulted in the formation of a 34 km long oil spot. The tanker burned for three days before sinking in the sea. Five crew members were killed at the explosion site. At ecological point of view this disaster was not very serious. Because it happened far from the coast.

Castillo de Bellver – Biggest oil spills

Castillo de Bellver - Oil spill and fire - 1983Castillo de Bellver - Oil spill and fire fighting - 1983MTCastillo de Bellver - Left sideMTCastillo de Bellver - Right side

Castillo de Bellver – Biggest oil spills

  • Place: RSA
  • Date: 6 August 1983
  • Amount of spill: 286 200 000 liters
  • Costs: $ 153 mln

Castillo de Bellver – The tanker exploded unexpectedly and burned off the coast of South Africa in 1983. The ship traveled on the sea since 1978. On the memorable day of August 6, 1983, it sailed with oil from the Persian Gulf to Spain. Through an area where many sea birds live and where important fisheries are found. The coast was seriously threatened. Unfortunately, the wind changed and moved the stain towards the ocean. Ultimately, the environmental impact was minimal and no one was killed on board.

Atlantic Empress – Aegean Captain – Biggest oil spills

Atlantic Empress - Aegean Captain - Aerial viewAtlantic Empress - Aegean Captain - In the dockyardAtlantic Empress & Aegean Captain - Oil spill and fireAtlantic Empress & Aegean Captain - Oil spill and fire fightingAegean Captain in portCollision of Atlantic Empress and Aegean Captain - Map

Atlantic Empress – Aegean Captain – Biggest oil spills

  • Place: Tobago
  • Date: 19 July 1979
  • Amount of spill: 349 800 000 liters
  • Costs: $ 187 million

Atlantic Empress – Aegean Captain – An accident that occurred near Tobago. It was not caused by the failure of the oil rig, but the collision of two tankers during a tropical storm. Greek ship Atlantic Empress with Aegean Captain. Both ships broke, leaving behind a huge amount of oil. Fortunately, the disaster happened quite far from the mainland. So the nearest islands were not threatened by this huge pollution

Accident could not be avoided

Due to the storm, none of the ships had the chance to avoid failure. Because it was raining that day and a strong wind was blowing. According to witness statements, the tankers registered their mutual presence only 500 meters before the start. The captain of the ship Aegean Captain, who changed the course slightly at the last moment. He prevented a major disaster. Otherwise, no one would survive. Still, at Atlantic Empress, 26 people were killed. Perhaps because the firefighters failed to take control of the fire and further explosions occurred. Finally, the tanker Aegean Captain was saved. When at that time Atlantic Empress sank in a fire.

Ixtoc 1 – Biggest oil spills

Ixtoc 1 - Oil well blowoutIxtoc 1 - Oil well blowoutOil well blowout - NOAA PhotoOil well blowout - NOAA Photo

Ixtoc 1 – Biggest oil spills

  • Place: Gulf of Mexico
  • Date: 3 June 1979
  • Amount of spill: 531 017 565 liters
  • Costs: $ 283,9 million

Ixtoc 1 – An oil well belonging to the Mexican oil company Pemex. It was in the Gulf of Mexico, almost 1,000 km off the coast of Texas. At that time, the company was extracting oil from a 3 km deep well. When a huge explosion broke out. This caused a pressure difference, resulting in the leakage of tens of thousands of barrels of oil. In a few days, a huge oil spill, 640 km long. It approached the coast of Texas.

How to stop oil

Attempts to stop the oil flow failed. Because the wind was constantly changing and the heavy oil fell below sea level. And although floating limiters were placed on the surface, the oil continued to flow through them. The United States government has been struggling with the stain for over two months. Pemex himself refused to participate in the costs of cleaning work.