CME – Coronal mass ejection – Eruptions on the Sun
CME – Coronal mass ejection – Every second the Sun emits around two million tons of particulate matter – or at least that’s usually the case. In the atmosphere, however, sometimes there are enormous eruptions from the corona (Coronal Mass Eruptions, CME). These types of hurricanes are among the most spectacular phenomena in our part universe . In the process, the Sun loses much more weight than usual. The speed of winds reaches even 10 million / h. CME is a cloud of gas built of electrically charged particles (physicists call it plasma gas). Plasma hurricanes can reach Earth and call the so-called geomagnetic storms that affect electronic devices, causing short circuits and equipment damage.
It is impossible to predict how dangerous it can be for satellites. The Internet and computer-controlled objects, such as nuclear power plants. The last really strong solar storm took place in the telegraph age, i.e. long before the appearance of PCs. Although astronomers are constantly observing the behavior of the Sun, they can anticipate it only slightly ahead of time. This means that in the future we will have at least 24 hours to disable all sensitive systems (even those in nuclear power plants) and secure computers. But geomagnetic storms are not the only problem facing us by the most important star …
ALMA – Atacama Large Millimeter Array
ALMA – Atacama Large Millimeter Array – 5000 meters above sea level in the Atacama Desert in Chile. So in one of the driest places in our globe. Also one of the least friendly places on our planet. Especially Chajnantor plateau. Here, in northern Chile, the temperature can drop from 20 degrees Celsius to -20 at night. A strong wind rages over the infertile, red-shining plateau, lashing sharp rocks and few bushes that survive here. The air contains half as much oxygen as at sea level. Humidity is almost zero, which makes the atmosphere more transparent. What penetrates from space, reaches the plateau almost unfiltered. Thanks to this, the Atacama desert is the Mecca of astronomers.
The largest radio telescope in the world was created on it. Using the Atacama Large Millimeter Array, a device with revolutionary design. Scientists can reach extremely cold and dark areas in the universe for the first time. Thanks to this network of radio telescopes, specialists are even able to penetrate the impenetrable nebulae. In this way, discover the stars that were created shortly after the Big Bang.
Sixty-six ALMA antennas were mounted in the base at a height of 3000 meters and trucks were transported to the plateau. There they were set with millimeter precision. After their launch and connection, a receiver with an area of approx. 16 km² was created.
Penguin galaxy – Estimated collisions, deformations
The Penguin Galaxy – Two cosmic telescopes, Spitzer and Hubble, took a photo of a caring penguin who looks as if he was looking after his egg. This rather unusual duo for space is in the constellation of Hydra. The “Penguin” (also known as NGC 2936), and its “egg” (NGC 2937), were originally galaxies with a spiral structure. However, under the influence of gravitational interaction, they were deformed. They will collide with each other and combine, which will result in the creation of many new star formation. No wonder that NGC 2936 and NGC 2937 were cataloged in:
Atlas of peculiar galaxies
– Halton Arp’s. In which there are arrangements of stars with the most original shapes.
Yueyaquan – Lake surrounded by desert dunes
Yueyaquan – literally means “a half-moon lake”. The reservoir really has a crescent shape of 200 m long and 50 m wide. According to the Chinese legend, long ago in the place where it is located, general Li Kuang’s soldiers were so thirsty that they did not have the strength to march on. Then the general struck the sand so much with the sword that water spurted out of him, which gradually formed a crescent-shaped lake. Yueyaquan for at least 2,000 years is a unique oasis, surrounded by the desert dunes of Takla Makan.
It is provided with an underground source, and moisture strengthens its banks, protecting the lake from covering with sand. In the oasis area the amount of precipitation is negligible, therefore the lake gradually dries up. According to measurements carried out in the 60’s. The average depth of the lake was then about 5 meters, while in the deepest place the bottom was 7 meters below the surface. In the 90’s, the depth of the lake was only 90 – 130 cm. Tourists come to the oasis on camels. In a hot and dry desert climate, staying at the lake is refreshing. The oasis is even more surprising in the winter. When the surrounding dunes are scattered with a thin layer of snow.
Planetoid 3753 Cruithne – Discovered in 1986
Planetoid 3753 Cruithne – Discovered in 1986. Its the so-called quasi-moon. Its orbit is irregular and resembles a horseshoe shape. The full trajectory lasts 770 years. In less than 3000 years, the asteroid may collide with Earth. He approaches our planet for a minimum distance of about 15 million. km. The last such approximation took place in 1900, the next one will be in 2285. If this does not happen, Cruithne is in danger of collision with Venus in 8,000 years. In the vicinity of Earth there are also two other quasi-moons named 2006 FV35 and 2010 SO16. Humanity has not come up with an effective way to prevent the possible collision of asteroids with Earth.
Supersensitive cameras – Detects threats for Earth
Supersensitive cameras – Will be the heart of the NEOSTEL ground-based telescope, whose task will be to detect dangerous for Earth objects. It will be part of the space situational awareness system (SSA) created by the European Space Agency (ESA). It’s about supervising space and tracking space objects. The NEOSTEL ground-based telescope is designed to help you with tasks that can detect various threats to objects Earth. The heart of the telescope will be the super sensitive CCD (Charge Coupled Device) cameras used for astronomical observations. Creotech Instruments S.A. is responsible for the development and production of cameras.
The cameras are cooled down to -50 ° C and maintained in a similar environment to the vacuum, so that when installed on the telescope it can observe the object of the size of a tennis ball, from a distance of 1000 km. This will not only detect asteroids that threaten Earth, but also space debris that can threaten functioning satellites and damage or destroy International Space Station (ISS).
ISRO – Indian Space Research Organisation
ISRO – Its space program also has a second country with the largest population in the world, India. The Indian Space Research Organization began implementing the Indian space program in the 1960’s. Indian scientist Vikram Sarabhai (1919 – 1971) has the greatest contribution to the development of this field. It was known that India couldn’t perform such tasks as landing on the moon or sending a man into space. Therefore, the focus was on less complex, achievable goals. Currently, ISRO is working on the development of its own space shuttle, which could repeatedly fly into space, transporting loads and transporting the crew.
It is assumed that all technological issues will be resolved within 15 years. India has behind it the first experimental model of the RLV-TD space shuttle (Reusable Launch Vehicle Technology Demonstration Program). The machine took off from the Sriharikota spaceport located on an island in the Bay of Bengal. The test flight lasted 770 seconds and the space shuttle reached a height of 65 km. The rocket was designed in such way, the ISRO could collect important data during the flight. Concerning for example: hypersonic speed, autonomous landing.
Tectonic plates – Moving very slowly
Tectonic plates – The Earth looks fixed, but the development of our planet is still not completed,
and the earth is still working. The main reason is the movement of tectonic plates.
Plates are moving very slowly, a few centimeters per year. If will move up rapidly,
there is an earthquake. In the history of geological face of the Earth has changed several times.
With Pangea formed several continents we know today. The plates can move in several directions.
They can glide along each other, and then the friction releases huge amounts of energy in the
form of earthquakes. When the plates glide against each other, then either one plate thrusts
under the second or push against each other, causing uplift – this is how the Himalayas,
the highest mountains in the world. The plates can also move away from each other,
such as plates in the African Great Rift Valley.
Moonless development – Earth without Moon
Moonless development – Earth without Moon – Simulations 4 billion years of
development of the Earth without the presence of the Moon. Were performed in the
Research Center of NASA in Moffett Field, California by Jack Lisauer. In the developed model,
the maximum angle at which leaned to the axis of the Earth, turned out to be much smaller
than assumed earlier studies. The conclusions of the study were: Earth would be the Earth,
even without his extremely large satellite.
Stars turnover – Speed of stars rotation
Stars turnover – Speed of stars rotation – The Sun rotates at the equator at a speed of 2 km / s.
Astronomers have discovered that the star of the Tarantula Nebula – VFTS102,
rotates at a record speed of 600 km/s.