New type of clouds – Asperitas (Undulatus asperatus)

New type of clouds - AsperitasNew type of clouds - AsperitasNew type of clouds - AsperitasNew type of clouds - Asperitas

New type of clouds – Asperitas (Undulatus asperatus)

New type of clouds – Asperitas (formerly known as Undulatus asperatus). Meteorologists distinguish 10 types of clouds. But a certain mysterious formation discovered a decade ago. We are stubbornly involved in this degree that a separate variety has been introduced especially for it – for the first time in 60 years! It was introduced to the classification by the founder of cloud appreciation society, Gavin Pretor-Pinney. This is the first since 1951 (after cirrus intortus) added to the New International Cloud Atlas of the World Meteorological Organization. Which new edition appeared in 2017 What separates the so-called. Asperitas (what in translation means as much as “Stormy”) from other clouds, is their uneven and very uneven basis. This formation rarely appears in Poland, for this in the USA is observed regularly. Especially in the areas of the Great Plain, East of the Rocky Mountains.
Since their discovery, in the United States, there were observed m. In. In Norway, Scotland, France, Estonia and Poland.

Quantity Earth moons – Two additional pseudo-moons

Quantity Earth moons - Kazimierz Kordylewski - 1964Quantity Earth moons - Libration point L4 - diagramQuantity Earth moons - Arrangement of libration points L4 and L5

Quantity Earth moons – Two additional pseudo-moons

Quantity Earth moons – Well, it has two additional, or more precisely, pseudo-moons. These are dust clouds located in the L4 and L5 libration points of the Earth-Moon system. Although it was discovered in the 1950s, it was not until 2018 that Hungarian scientists were able to measure the polarization of their light. Clearly confirming these objects. For the first time they were noticed by the Polish astronomer Kazimierz Kordylewski and hence their name – the moons of Kordylewski. In 1956, he noticed the dust structure that he managed to photograph five years later. Specialists for decades have tried to find hard evidence for their presence. Which was not an easy task: K.Kordylewski was observing from Kasprowy Wierch and this winter. Only a few times they were observed and photographed

Aurora Borealis – Causes lightning by making noises

Aurora BorealisAurora Borealis - AuroraAurora Borealis - Northern lightsAurora Borealis - Amundsen-Scott - South Pole stationAurora Borealis - Aurora Australis from ISSAurora Borealis - Aurora Australis

Aurora Borealis – Causes lightning by making noises

Aurora Borealis – arise when the charged particles from the Sun (the so-called solar wind) hit the Earth’s magnetic field. Along its lines are directed to the poles, where they collide with molecules of air. There was a belief that between fairy tales you should put in the history that polar lights sometimes made sounds, even “whispered” – until the case was investigated by scientists from the University of Aalto in Finland. The truth is that when the nights are cold and silent, auroras create rustlings and cracks. Audible for hundreds of kilometers. The reason is the so-called inversion layer. It arises when it is colder near the surface of the planet than at higher levels of the atmosphere. It causes that negatively charged particles from the Sun are trapped in the cold zone. If their accumulation exceeds the critical point. By reacting with positive ions in the atmosphere and causing discharges, rustling and crackling.

Light pillar – Sun pillar – Optical phenomenon in atmosphere

Light pillar - Sun pillar (1) - NOAALight pillar - Sun pillar and Sun dog (parhelion) - NOAALight pillar - Sun pillar forms as the sun rises over the Arctic plain - NOAALight pillar - Sun pillar - (NOAA Photo Library)Light pillar - Sun pillar - Optical effect march sunset - NOAALight pillar - Sun pillar - Halos, arcs and sundogs - Antarctica, South Pole Station, 1981(NOAA Photo Library)Light pillar - Sun pillar - Illuminated Clean Air Facility - NOAALight pillar - Sun pillar - December sundog - NOAA
 
 
 
Light pillar - Sun Dog and Turbo TrainLight pillar - Sun pillar (2) - NOAALight pillar - Sun pillar (3) - NOAALight pillar - Sun pillar (4) - NOAALight pillar - Sun pillar (5) - NOAALight pillar - Sun Dog - Ice crystals formed in the stable morning airLight pillar - Sun pillar - Lake LucerneLight pillar - Sunset at the port of Plouhinec Pors Poulhan in Brittany
 
 
 
Light pillar - Sun pillar - Seen when the sun is still behind the horizon - False SunriseLight pillar - Sun pillar - Susak, island in Croatia, view from the islandLight pillar - Sun pillar - Seen when the sun is still behind the horizon - False Sunrise (parhelion)

Light pillar – Sun pillar – Optical phenomenon in atmosphere

Light pillar is an optical phenomenon. That arises in very cold weather when there are ice crystals in the shape of tiles in the air. They are also visible in clearly illuminated parts of cities. They are typical of the clouds of the high floor, but in the big cold they form at earth. They reflect then light from strong sources such as lanterns or fireworks on new year’s eve. As a result of such a source of light, the observer can see high light. Most often you can see them just before sunrise, or soon after his west. Another name of the whole phenomenon is a solar pillar.

Carousel for stars – At the heart of Milky Way

Carousel for stars - Sagittarius A*Carousel for stars - Sagittarius A* - Light bulbCarousel for stars - Orbits of stars around the black hole at the centre of the Milky WayCarousel for stars - Supermassive black hole - Sagittarius A* - At the center of our Galaxy

 

Carousel for stars – At the heart of Milky Way

Carousel for stars – At the heart of the Milky Way. Among the hundreds of thousands of stars, there is Sagittarius A*. Around this supermassive black hole, matter circulates at a speed of 360 million km / h. However, this process takes place in the Sagittarius A* event horizon. So in the border area of space-time. This prevents observation of spinning stars.

Worlds smallest countries – 10 record breakers

Worlds smallest countries – 10 record breakers

 
Worlds smallest countries - Vatican City - panoramaWorlds smallest countries - Vatican City - panorama (2)Worlds smallest countries - Vatican City - panorama (3) - Pope Francis in the window
 
 
 
 
 
 
1. Vatican City – The record is church enclave in Italy with an area of only 0.44 km². Official languages: Italian and … Latin.

 
Worlds smallest countries - Monaco - StadiumWorlds smallest countries - Monaco - Panorama, 2015Worlds smallest countries - Monaco - map
 
 
 
 
 
 
2. Monaco – This principality, covering only 2.02 km², has an impressive population density of 18,775 people per km².

 
Worlds smallest countries - Nauru - mapWorlds smallest countries - Nauru-parliamentWorlds smallest countries - View of Nauru (NOAA)
 
 
 
 
 
 
3. Nauru – The island state in the Pacific Ocean has an area of 21.3 km², so it is smaller than Zielona Góra.

 
Worlds smallest countries - Tuvalu - Inaba (1)Worlds smallest countries - Tuvalu - Inaba (2)Worlds smallest countries - Tuvalu - Inaba (3)
 
 
 
 
 
 
4. Tuvalu – Located also in the Pacific, the archipelago occupies 26 km², and its highest point rises only 5 meters above sea level.

 
Worlds smallest countries - San Marino - Panorama (1)Worlds smallest countries - San Marino 2008 - Panorama (2)Worlds smallest countries - San Marino - Panorama (3)
 
 
 
 
 
 
5. San Marino – The enclave, surrounded by Italy, has an area of 61 km² and is the oldest republic in the world.

 
Worlds smallest countries - Liechtenstein - BalzersWorlds smallest countries - Liechtenstein - 2017.07.16Worlds smallest countries - Liechtenstein - Castle Of Gutenberg, Balzers
 
 
 
 
 
 
6. Liechtenstein – It is the only country located entirely in the Alps. It has an area of 160 km², and up to 33% of its inhabitants are foreigners.

 
Worlds smallest countries - Marshall Islands - Photo from Bikrin IslandWorlds smallest countries - Marshall IslandsWorlds smallest countries - Marshall Islands - At Gugeegue Islands Northern Point Looking South
 
 
 
 
 
 
7. Marshall Islands – More than 1,200 islands included in this Pacific located country have a total area of 181 km².

 
Worlds smallest countries - Saint Kitts and Nevis - Caribbean CruiseWorlds smallest countries - Saint Kitts and Nevis - Caribbean Cruise, 2016.02 (2)Worlds smallest countries - Saint Kitts and Nevis - North Frigate Bay - View from Timothy Hill - Panorama
 
 
 
 
 
 
8. Saint Kitts and Nevis – This Caribbean federation covers 269 km². The islands were discovered by Christopher Columbus in 1493.

 
Worlds smallest countries - Maldives - 2008.10.24 - PanoramaWorlds smallest countries - MaldivesWorlds smallest countries - Maldives, Kandooma - Panorama (2)
 
 
 
 
 
 
9. Maldives – Located in the Indian Ocean, the archipelago includes 1196 islands. It has a total area of 300 km² and a height of max. 1 m above sea level.

 
Worlds smallest countries - Malta - PanoramaWorlds smallest countries - Malta - The Spur TowerWorlds smallest countries - Malta - Valletta at night
 
 
 
 
 
 
10. Malta – This state in the Mediterranean Sea extends over an area of 316 km² (similar to Cracow) and consists of three inhabited and several uninhabited islands.

Our planet composition – What is inside the Earth?

Our planet composition - Earth crust - cutaway

Our planet composition – What is inside the Earth?

Our planet composition – Crust, mantle and core. In this abbreviated way one could characterize three layers of Earth, which were created at the beginning of its existence.

  • Lithosphere – Top layer of Earth, which is in direct interaction with other terrestrial spheres, such as the hydrosphere, atmosphere and biosphere.
  • Crust – It consists of the oceanic and earth’s crust. The thickness of the earth’s reaches up to 70 kilometers. The oceanic is thinner and its thickness varies between five and ten kilometers.
  • Conrad’s discontinuity – Horizontal surface of the discontinuity in the earth’s crust that forms the transition between the upper and lower layers. Its depth varies in different types of crust from 5 to 30 km.
  • Mohorovićic’s discontinuity – A layer that geologically defines the passage of the earth’s crust and upper mantle. Occurs in 20-90 kilometers deep under continents, and 10-20 kilometers under the oceans.
  • Earth’s mantle – Layer consisting of upper and lower mantle. The upper reaches the depth of 90 kilometers. The lower one is assigned a depth of 650 km to the Earth’s core, and therefore approximately 2,900 km.
  • Repetti’s discontinuity – The area between the upper and the lower mantle.
  • Gutenberg’s discontinuity – Part of the Earth’s envelope, which is assigned at depth of 2,900 kilometers. Below it is the core of the Earth.
  • Core – Geosphere, located in the center of the Earth. It starts at depth of 2,900 kilometers below the surface and covers approximately 31% of the Earth’s mass, with iron and nickel being the largest part of it. The core is twice as heavy as the Earth’s mantle and consists of a semi-internal inner core, which, among other things, creates the Earth’s magnetic field.

KEPLER-442b – Stony exoplanet in superearth class

KEPLER-442bKEPLER-442b - Comparison of exoplanets from the Kepler system to EarthKEPLER-442b

KEPLER-442b – Stony exoplanet in superearth class

KEPLER-442b – Stony exoplanet in superearth class, which the parent star is the orange dwarf.

ESI: 0,84
Size: 1,3 Earth
Mass: 2,3 Earth
Equivalent temperature: -65°C

The planet KEPLER-442b, from which light has been running for 1115 years, belongs to the so-called Super-Earth. In this way, rocky exoplanets are determined whose mass does not exceed tenfolds Earth. The parent star of this planet is an orange dwarf. The star larger than a red dwarf, but smaller than a yellow dwarf, which is the Sun. This type of star has calmer youth, and therefore does not send its planetary children too much UV. In addition, the planet is in the ecosphere, so it can not be ruled out that the ocean is splashing on its rocky surface. If it has a more complex atmosphere, it does not have to be at the same time a kingdom of cold. According to some calculations, it is the smaller superearth that are most suitable for life, even more than our own planet.

GJ 273b – Exoplanet in the constellation Little Dog

GJ 273b - Artist’s impression of the exoplanet

GJ 273b – Exoplanet in the constellation Little Dog

GJ 273b – Planet orbiting the Luyten star

ESI: 0,86
Size: 1,47 Earth
Mass: 3 Earth
Equivalent temperature: -6°C

Twelve light-years from our solar system, Luyten’s star, the red dwarf, wanders from Earth in the constellation Little Dog. Astronomers have discovered two exoplanets next to it. At the same time one of them belongs to the superearth category and at the same time circulates at the edge of the ecosystem. In contrast to the many other planets whose parent star is a red dwarf, GJ273b knows what day is and what is the night. Usually, the planets move close enough that their rotation is connected, and their parent star only puts one hemisphere.

Ross-128b – 11 light years away from Earth

Ross-128b
Ross-128b

Ross-128b – 11 light years away from Earth

Ross-128b – The planetary system around the red dwarf Ross 128 for about 70,000 years will become our closest star neighbor.

ESI: 0,86
Size: 1,2 Earth
Mass: 1,3 Earth
Equivalent temperature: 7°C

Even closer than the GJ 273b is the Ross-128b exoplanet. It is away from us, just like a star. Which is a very quiet red dwarf, less than 11 light-years away and gradually approaching us. Based on the obtained data, astronomers have discovered that planet Ross 128b circulates around its star twenty times closer than Earth circulates the Sun. Despite such a short distance, the planet gets only 1.38 times more energy than our planet. Thanks to the cool and stable star, whose surface temperature in comparison with the sun is halved, the equivalent temperature on its surface is estimated to be from -60°C to 20°C.