Air cost in New York – Real Estate market project

Manhattan from space, NYC, USA - NASAThinscraper tower in Manhattan, NYC, USAAerial view on NYC, USA - 21, 07, 2017Air cost in New York - Hi Line construction, Manhattan - New YorkAir cost in New York - Hudson Yards, Manhattan - New YorkAir cost in New York - New York City High LineAir cost in New York - 30th Street High Line

 

Air cost in New York – Real Estate market project

Air cost in New York – work on a major project in the US real estate market is now entering a crucial phase. Hudson Yards consists of 15 skyscrapers and fills the last big gap in New York City Tissue. Investors spent $ 25 billion on this neighborhood. Not many people know they had to pay for anything else besides the plot, steel and glass. For something you can’t see or touch – for the air.
Although not very clean, it is in this 8,5-millionaire metropolis as expensive as anywhere else in the world. The reason for this is the reform of building law from 1961 Until then, there were no height limits in the “Big Apple”. In order to prevent the “arms proliferation” of developers, the city has determined how many floors and how many surfaces can be built per square meter of land.
The fact that companies can, since then, simply buy back unused airspace from their neighbours. For example, if the building has only 20 floors and 40. is allowed, the investor can acquire air rights above it and add 20 floors to his project next door. Thanks to this solution, New York schools, theatres and churches are unable to make use of their rights. They gain a lucrative source of income: they can sell rights to space not only to their immediate neighbours, but also to those across the street. In 2014 the church of st. Thomas in Manhattan for the rights to air above the roof received $ 72 million when Goldman Sachs needed an extra area for his skyscrapers.
Hudson Yards Investors couldn’t handle this cheap. They had to pay $ 265 million. But despite construction explosion, the air in New York won’t be long. Statistically speaking, unused rights to space over roofs would be enough to set up about 1300 skyscrapers of the Empire State Building.


432 Park Avenue - 57th Street432 Park Avenue

In New York City, the maximum permissible height of the skyscrapers is decided by the area of the plot. To be able to rise 432 Park Avenue, 426 m high. On a square with sides only 28 at 28 m., it was necessary to buy the airspace of adjacent buildings.
 
 

Construction of 111 West 57th Street - 25-05-2019111 West 57th

Measures 438 meters and with a ratio of width of facades, up to a height of 1:24-is the most beautiful cloud in the world. The construction of this luxury skyscraper was only possible thanks to the air above the plot.
 
 

Construction of Central Park Tower - 27-04-2019Central Park Tower

The construction of the 472-Foot Central Park Tower is to be completed in 2020 This height was also achieved only because investors bought a lot of airspace rights from neighbouring skyscrapers and used them to build their own skyscrapers.

World journalists – Committee to Protect Journalists alarm

World journalists - CPJ - logoWorld journalists - CPJ(2017)World journalists - CPJ(2016)World journalists - Reporters Without Borders - logo

World journalists – Committee to Protect Journalists alarm

World journalists – At the end of 2018, 251 journalists were held in prisons in relation to their work. Most of them are serving judgments for anti-state activities, such as belonging to groups considered to be terrorist in a given country. As many as 28 have been punished for allegedly spreading fake news. Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ), an international non-governmental organization claiming the rights of representatives of this profession. Alarms that independent journalists are exposed to legal sanctions. The situation in Turkey, China and Egypt since 2016 is tragic. Only these three countries are responsible for more than half of the cases of detention of media workers.

Long ago forbidden – Today completely normal

Long ago forbidden – Today completely normal

Long ago forbidden – Today something completely normal:
 
 

Long ago forbidden - Football - icon

1. Football: 4 bln fans

In the XIV century England men have to train archery,
and do not waste time on games. Effect: banning football.
 
 
 

Long ago forbidden - Christmas in art

2. Christmas

England, between 1644 and 1660: the Puritans forbid festivities in days
winter solstice – already celebrated by pagans.
 
 
 

Long ago forbidden - Chess

3. Chess

Year 1254: King of France Louis IX considers this strategy game
too boring and useless, so it is forbidden to think about it.
 
 
 

Long ago forbidden - Popcorn

4. Popcorn

In the era of silent film popcorn is considered a cheap snack of the street people,
therefore it is banished from the “luxury” cinemas.
 
 
 

Long ago forbidden - Bowling game

5. Bowling game

In the years 1366-1477 in England only aristocrats can play bowling.
You have to pay 100 pounds for running the bowling alley.
 
 
 

Long ago forbidden - Trousers for women

6. Trousers for women

For 214 years law prohibits Parisiennes wearing trousers.
The law finally disappears in 2013.
 
 
 

Long ago forbidden - Credit card - front

7. Credit cards for women

Until 1974, American women can get a credit card,
only with the consent of her husband.
 
 
 

Long ago forbidden - Coffee - Antoccino Espresso

8. Coffee shops

In 1675, King of England Charles II tries to forbid coffee shops – from fear
that his critics could plan a rebellion there.
 
 
 

Long ago forbidden - Swimsuit

9. Swimsuits

In the early XX century, American cities issue regulations
with a minimum length of swimsuits.
 
 
 

Long ago forbidden - Scrabble

10. Scrabble

Communist dictator of Romania, Nicolae Ceausescu,
forbids this game as “over-intellectualized”.

Hammurabi Codex – Set of laws of ancient Babylon

Hammurabi Codex - Set of laws of ancient BabylonHammurabi Codex - Museum in Louvre, Paris, FranceHammurabi Codex - Set of laws of ancient Babylon

Hammurabi Codex – Set of laws of ancient Babylon

Hammurabi Codex – It was a set of laws that were valid in Babylon. The text of the codex was engraved in the diorite with a cuneiform script in the Babylonian dialect of the Akkadian language. He covered all areas of life – inheritances, adoptions, thefts, medical and many more. With the exception of the king, society was divided into three layers: nobles, plebeians and slaves. In all the layers men were higher than women. Penalties were performed according to the “eye for an eye” principle – if someone damaged the eye of a Babylonian nobleman, he was deprived of his eye. However, when a nobleman who damaged the plebeian’s eye was a nobleman, he was only fined. Robbing the house during a fire was punished with burning, while adultery resulted in throwing connected lovers into the river.

Michael Calce – He worked on network as Mafiaboy

Michael Calce - He worked on network as MafiaboyMichael Calce - He worked on network as Mafiaboy

Michael Calce – He worked on network as Mafiaboy

Michael Calce – born 1984, Montreal, Canada. Nickname: “Mafiaboy.” He became a hacker thanks to dating sites. During puberty, he spent a lot of time on web chats. When he started using harsher words, the moderator blocked his access several times. Michael was so afflicted that he learned to download various programs and soon he could block others in chat rooms by means of various applications.

He was famous for the failure of one of the most stable portals – Yahoo. When he boasted about it in the hacker forum, nobody believed him. His next “trophy” were the pages of CNN, which in a few hours ceased to work. He also attacked eBay, Amazon and Dell. Losses that he caused were valued at 1.2 billion dollars. Mafiaboy was arrested and sentenced to 8 months in prison.

Boris Floricic – German hacker died mysterious death

Boris Floricic - German hacker died mysterious deathBoris Floricic - German hacker died mysterious death

Boris Floricic – German hacker died mysterious death

Boris Floricic – born 8.06.1972, West Berlin, Germany. In the hacker’s underground he was known under the pseudonym: “Tron”. He was fascinated by technology from an early age. Unlike others, he did not mean money, but to reveal the shortcomings of computer systems. In his diploma thesis he dealt with the so-called cryptophone – a device used to encrypt the voice – which he did not manage to finish. He could independently make a phone card and a SIM card reader.

He made attacks on pay TV channels and telephone companies. In October 1998, Floricic was lost in unexplained circumstances. Five days later he was found dead in a park in Berlin. Hanged on the trouser belt wrapped around the neck. It was found that it was suicide, but family and friends have big doubts. They argue that Boris could have been murdered because of his hacker activity and information about his voice encryption.

Julian Assange – WikiLeaks spokesman, chief editor

Julian Assange - WikiLeaks spokesman, chief editor

Julian Assange – WikiLeaks spokesman, chief editor

Julian Assange – born 7.03.1971, Townsville, Australia. Nickname: “Mendax”. J.Assange became a hacker at the age of 11. He participated in the creation of Rubberhose software, which was to protect the data of persecuted dissidents after their arrest. The protection system consisted in the fact that the encrypted data could not be distinguished from accidental noise.

Assange allegedly broke into an account in one of the banks, but it has never been proved.

In 2006, Asssange became famous for the creation of WikiLeaks websites, on which he published a lot of classified information, mainly from the US government. The documents concerned, for example, the war in Afghanistan, Iraq, Guantanamo prison. He received several awards for journalists for his work.

Vladimir Leonidovich Levin – Caught by partner help

Vladimir Leonidovich Levin - Caught by partner help

Vladimir Leonidovich Levin – Caught by partner help

Vladimir Leonidovich Levin – born in 1971, St. Petersburg, Russia. He carried out the largest computer theft for 100 dollars. This hacker really stands out from the others. It is not widely known, but he was the initiator and executor of the largest computer theft in history .

After studying, Levin for $ 100 bought access codes and passwords from the ArkanoiD hacking group to the American Citibank. It was gradually transferring the sum of 10.7 million dollars to bills in the USA, the Netherlands, Finland, Germany and Israel. Any transactions were made during rush hour. At the bank, this was noticed when 400,000 dollars were missing. The Russian police did not want to cooperate with the FBI, which is why Levin’s shot was not easy. The Americans forced his partner to invite him to London, where he was captured and taken to the USA. Vladimir Leonidovich Levin was sentenced to 3 years in prison and to pay a fine of 240,000 dollars. Since then, Citibank has one of the best security systems.

Kevin Mitnick – Broke-into US Gov. and NASA nets

Kevin Mitnick - Broke-into US Gov. and NASA nets

Kevin Mitnick – Broke-into US Gov. and NASA nets

Kevin Mitnick – b. 6.08.1963, Los Angeles, United States of America. Nickname: “Condor”. He belongs to the most famous hackers in the world. As a teenager, during a conversation with the bus driver, he learned where to get the ticket validation. He used the so-called social engineering, or manipulation to obtain information. He won it for 15 dollars. At the age of 13, he got the opportunity to travel by bus and public transport in the Los Angeles area. During IT studies he explored the secrets of IT.
He managed to get all the secret access codes for IBM computers. He broke into the Pentagon and NASA networks several times. In 1979 he copied the IT system of the DEC company. He was sentenced to one year in prison and an additional three years under the supervision of freedom. At the end of the trial period, Mitnick broke into the Pacific Bell voicemail computers. Fearing re-arrest, he hid for 2.5 years. He was employed as a security consultant.

Kevin Poulsen – Thanks to fraud won Porsche 994

Kevin Poulsen - Thanks to fraud won Porsche 994

Kevin Poulsen – Thanks to fraud won Porsche 994

Kevin Poulsen – born 30.11.1965, Pasadena, United States of America. Nickname: “Dark dante”. He started hacking as a 17-year-old in high school. He then broke into several systems on the Arpanet network, which was the predecessor of the Internet operated since 1969 by the US Defense Ministry. Telephones for Poulsen were more fascinating than computers. He managed to gain access to Bell, which was one of the best secured telephone companies in the US. In 1991 he made his biggest fraud. The KISS-FM radio station announced a competition in which competitor could win the Porsche 994. It was enough to be the 102 person who will connect with studio. Kevin and his friends took control of the telephone exchanges and at the right moment blocked the phones from other participants. Thanks to this fraud, Poulsen “won” the car. He was captured by the police in the same year. He spent 51 months in prison and had to pay a fine of $ 56,000.