Christian relics – Aspects canonical and criminal law

Christian relics - Orthodox Church of the Holy Spirit in Vilnius

Christian relics - Crown of Thorns - Late 19th Century Reliquary

Christian relics - Footprints of Jesus - Quo-Vadis

Christian relics - Cathedral Lady of Guadalupe - LA, USA - (01-10-2008)

Christian relics - Reliquary of the True Cross - Notre-Dame Cathedral
 
 

Christian relics - Louise de Marillac - Paris

Reliquary of the True Cross - Notre-Dame Cathedral - Paris, France

Saint Prospero martyr mortal remains - Catenanuova

St Claire of Assisi relics - hairs and sandal etc - Assisi Basilica di Santa Chiara

Volterra Cathedral - Italy

Christian relics – Aspects canonical and criminal law

Christian relics – Although the canon law protects them. Which considers their sale unworthy and forbids their permanent transfer or disposal of their condition without the consent of the Holy See. In their case, secular law also applies. I am talking primarily about first-degree relics, in the context of which questions are asking about the legal status of human corpses.
Should relics dating back to several hundred years be treating as a corpse and should be treating with the appropriate legal criteria, or as a cultural monument? How should human remains on display be dealing with? The decision to display them always requires weighing the goods: on the one hand, respect for the corpse or remains, on the other – the scientific or didactic (educational) benefits. Associated with showing object to a wider audience.
Another problem is dividing the relics into smaller parts. Doesn’t the corpse be desecrated in this context? In the light of the provisions of criminal law. Insulting a corpse consists not only in profaning, damaging, destroying and dismembering a body. But also an arrangement inconsistent with cultural requirements, as well as exposition, spit on, eating or simply taking out of the grave. Therefore, dividing the relics fulfills these marks.

However, as Jacek Mazurkiewicz and Piotr Szymaniec, authors of the work “Not all of me will die, much of me will stay here … Legal aspects of human remains as cultural goods and the integrity of the corpse in the cultural tradition”, point out. Interpretation of these laws depends on time, place and environment. “In different social groups, different behaviors may or may not be considered abusive. It is therefore a crime that is highly dependent on customs and culture.
The subjective side of the act, i.e. the perpetrator’s mental attitude, is also very important. It is assumed that this act can be committed intentionally. What does it mean? If there is no desire to desecrate, there is no legal crime. A similar problem is faced with the use of bodies for scientific purposes. After all, donating the body for scientific purposes is also associated with its use and dismemberment “- the authors write.

Svalbard Global Seed Vault – On Spitsbergen island

Svalbard Global Seed Vault

Svalbard Global Seed Vault

Svalbard Global Seed Vault

Svalbard Global Seed Vault

Svalbard Global Seed Vault

Storage containers - (27-02-2008)

Aluminium bags for seed storage - (20-05-2007)

Global Seed Vault in Spitsbergen - (30-09-2011)

Svalbard Global Seed Vault – On Spitsbergen island

Svalbard Global Seed Vault – Global seed bank on the island of Spitsbergen, in the Norwegian Svalbard archipelago. In the Arctic Sea, approx. 1000 km north of the Scandinavian Peninsula. In permafrost, a tunnel was drilled for about 150 meters and a warehouse with an area of ​​1000 m². There is room for 4.5 million seeds. Only for edible plants that are important for scientific research or biodiversity. Currently there are just over a million, representing about 5,000. species. Seed storage is free – donors (individual countries and scientific organizations) are still the owners of the seeds. The Kingdom of Norway only provides a place for storage. The location and construction of the bank protect valuable seeds against wars, natural disasters and climate change.

The building is monitored by motion sensors and cameras. Access to the interior of the warehouse is protected by armored doors, digital locks and walls of reinforced concrete, 1 m thick. It is located at a depth of 90 meters below the Plataberget mountain. Covered with snow and permafrost. It has been designed so that even without power the seeds will remain frozen for 200 years.

Only visible element of the structure is a concrete gate with armored doors. Above which is an artistic installation with 200 optical fibers.

Long-lived companies – Record holders are real Methuselah’s

Kongo Gumi

Long-lived companies - Kongo Gumi

Nishiyama Onsen Keiunkan

Staffelter Hof

Zum Roten Bären

Long-lived companies

The Olde Bell

Long-lived companies

Sudo Honke

Sudo Honke

Long-lived companies - Sudo-Honke

Frapin

Long-lived companies - Frapin

R. Durtnell and Sons

R. Durtnell and Sons

Long-lived companies - Poundsbridge-Manor

Long-lived companies – Record holders are real Methuselah’s

Long-lived companies – Record holders are real Methuselah’s, operating continuously for over ten centuries. Tokyo Shoko Research agency dealing with market research since 1892. It found over 5.5 thousand enterprises that have existed for at least 200 years.
More than half of long-lived companies operate in Japan. There are six in the top ten. Among the aforementioned 5.5 thousand – up to 3100. As the reason for this dominance, scientists point to the island’s location of the country and centuries-old isolation.
Most of these long-lived businesses are family businesses, emphasizes prof. Toshio Goto from Japan University of Economics. He sees the root cause of their longevity in the system known as Ie. It is a set of rules determining the position of individual family members, and most importantly – the rules of inheritance of property.

Ie system

It began to take shape in the XII century, when Japan plunged into the chaos of civil wars. The survival of families living in constant danger depended on the strength and intellect of their leaders. According to eternal tradition, the eldest son should be the head of the family. In wartime, however, this only worked if he had the warrior’s qualities and talents. If he did not have them, the family was in grave danger.
To prevent it, the so-called adoption Ie. It consisted in the fact that the aging patriarch of the family found a young, promising man. Which he provided with appropriate education. When the chosen one met his expectations and proved himself in battle, he became the official heir. All other family members had to submit to him. The Ie system thus replaced traditional blood ties and prevented the division of property between heirs. As a result, the estate, workshop, and trading company passed from generation to generation in an unchanged form.
Rules tested in warrior families were adopted by other social groups, especially merchants and craftsmen. In the XVII century, Ie was formally introduced into the legal system and was in force until the end of World War II. When civil law changed under pressure from Americans, it gave all children equal shares in the parents’ estate. This threatened old family businesses, but the tradition turned out to be strong enough that many of them survived to this day. Professor Toshio Goto calls them the Japanese treasure.

Record holders list:

Kongo Gumi – Japanese construction company is record holder. 1427 years of existence,

Nishiyama Onsen Keiunkan – Traditional Japanese hotel – ryokan. 1315 years of existence,

Staffelter Hof – Oldest winery in Europe. 1158 years of existence,

Zum Roten Bären – Hotel The Red Bear. 900 years of existence,

The Olde Bell – Oldest english hotel in Hurley. 885 years of existence,

Sudo Honke – Sake brewery oldest of world. 879 years of existence,

Frapin – Cognac producer from Grande Champagne. 750 years of existence,

R. Durtnell and Sons – Oldest european construction company. 429 years of existence,

R. Durtnell and Sons – Oldest european construction company

R. Durtnell and Sons

R. Durtnell and Sons

Poundsbridge Manor - 1995

R. Durtnell and Sons – Oldest european construction company

R. Durtnell and Sons – Oldest european construction company. Founded in England in 1593. The carpentry brothers John and Brian Durtnell built an impressive house from oak wood for their father. The object named Poundsbridge Manor destroyed during World War II. It was rebuilt by the same company that built it. Centuries ago, he aroused such interest that later the builders were immediately overwhelmed with orders.
The company has grown, but despite the changing architectural fashions, it remained faithful to wood. Although it has now fallen out of the market and has focused on paying off its debt, it still remains in the hands of the Durtnell family.

Frapin – Cognac producer from Grande Champagne

Frapin

Johannes Malling - bottle of cognac - (21-07-2010)

Frapin – Cognac producer from Grande Champagne

Frapin – Cognac producer from Grande Champagne region. The Frapin family has 240 ha of planting vines in the Grande Champagne region near Segonzac. Twenty generations of the French family have been producing its cognac since 1270.

Sudo Honke – Sake brewery oldest of world

Sudo Honke

Sudo Honke

Sake Brewery - Kasama-City, Japan

Sudo Honke – Sake brewery oldest of world

Sudo Honke – Sake brewery oldest of world. Which since 1141 leads 55 generations of the Sudo family. It survived the 2011 earthquake and tsunami. It is only 130 km from the Fukushima nuclear plant damaged during this incident.

The Olde Bell – Oldest english hotel in Hurley

The Olde Bell

Hotel in Hurley, England - (01-01-1908)

The Olde Bell – Oldest english hotel in Hurley

The Olde Bell – Oldest english hotel in Hurley. Built in 1135, as a hostel at a nearby monastery. Both buildings were connected by a secret tunnel, which was used – of course for an appropriate fee – by people forced to hide from the authorities. For example, fleeing from the soldiers chasing them entered the hotel and disappeared without a trace.
Thanks to the profits from this practice, the owners were able to systematically raise the standard of services and as a result, the hotel has become one of the most valued and prestigious in the British Isles. During World War II, it hosted, among others Winston Churchill and Dwight Eisenhower.

Staffelter Hof – The oldest winery in Europe

Staffelter Hof

Staffelter Hof – The oldest winery in Europe

Staffelter Hof – The oldest winery in Europe. Established when the king of Lorraine gave the Cistercians earth on the Moselle. That’s how it rolled history a company from the German town of Kröv, which in 2012 celebrated its 1150 anniversary. Its origins date back to 862, when a Cistercian estate founded a vineyard on their estate. They dealt with it for almost a thousand years – until 1804. When Napoleon’s decision deprived them of earth. The confiscated vineyard was bought by the French court clerk Peter Schneiders.
Heirloom after him was taken over by children and grandchildren. When the male line expired, great-granddaughter Maria Schneiders married the winemaker Kilian Klein in 1894 – their descendants run the company to this day. They stopped at a modest family business, skillfully responding to the challenges of the times. In 1960, they built a small guest house at a 10-hectare vineyard, in 2014 they obtained an ecological certificate for their wines.
Staffelter Hof is one of the most typical companies with longevity. Brilliant inventors or fashion creators did not set up businesses that survived several centuries. Almost exclusively ventures that met the basic needs of customers had a chance to do so.

Zum Roten Bären – Hotel The Red Bear

Zum Roten Bären

The Red Bear - Freiburg, Germany - postcard (01-01-1893)

Zum Roten Bären – Hotel The Red Bear

Zum Roten Bären – Hotel The Red Bear in Freiburg. Is the oldest hotel in Germany and in Europe. During the very turbulent history of European inns, which is well illustrated by history of the oldest of them.
Built in 1120, it survived the plague pandemic, which certainly decimated Western Europe. Several wars, rebellions and revolutions, and border changes. The city was occupied by the Spaniards, Swedes, French and Austrians. Over 900 years, the owners of Red Bear changed about 50 times. Who stood up to save him from destruction. They served everyone: during the peasant uprising in 1727, they first made it available to rebel leaders, then hosted army commanders suppressing rebellion.
Tactics proved to be so effective that the modernized hotel stands today, and guests can see the basement and a fragment of the floor from nine centuries ago through the glass window.

Nishiyama Onsen Keiunkan – Japanese hotel-ryokan

Nishiyama Onsen Keiunkan

Nishiyama Onsen Keiunkan – Traditional Japanese hotel – ryokan

Nishiyama Onsen Keiunkan – Traditional Japanese hotel – ryokan. In 2011, this hotel, located about 130 km from Tokyo. Was entered in the Guinness Book of Records as the oldest in the world. The top 100 companies that have the longest existence have 20 hotels and inns. The list opens with Japanese Nishiyama in the town of Hayakawa, which after the fall of Kongo Gumi became the oldest enterprise in the world.
Founded in 705 by a court clerk Fujiwara Mahito. Currently managed by the 52th generation of his descendants – natural and adopted. Although you can use Wi-Fi and television and other achievements of civilization. In addition, it has kept the decor of a traditional Japanese hotel – ryokan.
It was built near hot springs, which the owners were able to use even during civil wars. They touted bathing in warm water as an excellent remedy for sore muscles. Which certainly attracted exhausted samurai and even powerful shoguns. Their stay was then used for advertising, because who would not like to immerse in the bath tub, in which they took baths the most important characters in history of Japan. With the great shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu?