Svalbard Global Seed Vault – On Spitsbergen island

Svalbard Global Seed Vault

Svalbard Global Seed Vault

Svalbard Global Seed Vault

Svalbard Global Seed Vault

Svalbard Global Seed Vault

Storage containers - (27-02-2008)

Aluminium bags for seed storage - (20-05-2007)

Global Seed Vault in Spitsbergen - (30-09-2011)

Svalbard Global Seed Vault – On Spitsbergen island

Svalbard Global Seed Vault – Global seed bank on the island of Spitsbergen, in the Norwegian Svalbard archipelago. In the Arctic Sea, approx. 1000 km north of the Scandinavian Peninsula. In permafrost, a tunnel was drilled for about 150 meters and a warehouse with an area of ​​1000 m². There is room for 4.5 million seeds. Only for edible plants that are important for scientific research or biodiversity. Currently there are just over a million, representing about 5,000. species. Seed storage is free – donors (individual countries and scientific organizations) are still the owners of the seeds. The Kingdom of Norway only provides a place for storage. The location and construction of the bank protect valuable seeds against wars, natural disasters and climate change.

The building is monitored by motion sensors and cameras. Access to the interior of the warehouse is protected by armored doors, digital locks and walls of reinforced concrete, 1 m thick. It is located at a depth of 90 meters below the Plataberget mountain. Covered with snow and permafrost. It has been designed so that even without power the seeds will remain frozen for 200 years.

Only visible element of the structure is a concrete gate with armored doors. Above which is an artistic installation with 200 optical fibers.

St Kilda – Hirta – Atlantic, Scotland – Exiled people

St Kilda - Hirta - Atlantic, ScotlandSt Kilda - Hirta - Atlantic, ScotlandSt Kilda - Hirta - Atlantic, ScotlandSt Kilda - Hirta - Atlantic, ScotlandMap of archipelago - (15-08-2007)Fulmars hunting - (01-01-1898)Mailboat - (01-01-1898)Puffins hunting - (01-01-1898)

St Kilda – Hirta – Atlantic, Scotland – Exiled people

St Kilda – Hirta – To reach the place called „the edge of the world”. You have to bounce off the west coast of Scotland and over 60 km across the cold Atlantic. There, among windswept and waves, several small islands protrude from the sea. They are so unfriendly and distant from the mainland, that it is not surprising that they are uninhabited, so it is surprising that Hirta, part of the St Kilda archipelago, was already inhabited in the Bronze Age.

The life of indigenous peoples almost all the time concentrated on making supplies for the winter. Harvesting: Peat, which was a source of heat for them. Sheep wool for yarns and sea birds as food. There was no possibility of fishing – the waters around were treacherous enough.

Weather is so hard and unpredictable, that up to the last century for eight months of the year. Hirta was completely cut off from the world. Even in the nineteenth century, its inhabitants, whose number ranged between 100 and 200, when they wanted to make contact with the world. They threw messages in bottles, into sea, at favorable winds. Hoping that someone in Scotland will catch one.

Community lived in great isolation

To the extent that her genetic pool has been weakened: brought from outside, quite innocent diseases. Which destroyed her almost completely. The last 36 survivors surrendered in the 1930s. After the decision of the British Parliament, they left a sinister place. It was the end of the settlement, which lasted over two thousand years…

Jakovlev Jak-25 – Top 10 night fighter planes

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Jakovlev Jak-25 – Top 10 night fighter planes

  • Place: Russia
  • First flight: 1952
  • Built: 483 + 155 pcs.

Jakovlev Jak-25 – The first in the USSR created to operate on the areas of Siberia and the Far East. A twin-engine long-range fighter, adapted to all weather conditions. And for day and night flights. The prototype was ready for factory testing in October 1947, and from 1954 the first units were in constant readiness close to the northern border of the USSR.

Top 10 night fighter planes – WWI & WWII and post-war era

Top 10 night fighter planesTop 10 night fighter planesTop 10 night fighter planesTop 10 night fighter planesTop 10 night fighter planesTop 10 night fighter planesTop 10 night fighter planesTop 10 night fighter planesTop 10 night fighter planesTop 10 night fighter planes

Top 10 night fighter planes – WWI & WWII and post-war era

Top 10 night fighter planes:


  • World War I:


  • Royal Aircraft Factory B.E.2c

    Top 10 night fighter planes - Royal Aircraft Factory B.E.2cRoyal Aircraft Factory B.E.2cRoyal Aircraft Factory B.E.2c – Night flights were already taking place during World War I. It was not machines specially designed for these purposes. But fighters usually reworked. Such an example was a single-engine, two-seat, biplane – Royal Aircraft Factory B.E.2c.

  • Sopwith Camel “Comic” Nightfighter

    Top 10 night fighter planes - Sopwith Camel Sopwith Camel Sopwith Camel – “Comic” Nightfighter – A modified version of the British military aircraft Sopwith Camel also participated in World War I. Manufactured by Sopwith Aviation Company. Equipped with an improved Neame sight.


  • World War II:


  • Messerschmitt Bf 110 G-4

    Top 10 night fighter planes - Messerschmitt Bf 110 G-4Messerschmitt Bf 110 G-4Messerschmitt Bf 110 G-4 – Was a heavy twin-engine fighter aircraft. One of the best machines for conducting night raids. Because the machine was poorly manoeuvrable, the Germans decided to use it as a bombing and intercepting fighter.

  • Heinkel He 219 UHU

    Top 10 night fighter planes - Heinkel He 219 UHUHeinkel He 219 UHUHeinkel He 219 UHU – In the summer of 1943, the German Luftwaffe I/NJG 1 with a base in Venlo, the Netherlands, received a prototype of the Heinkel He 219 UHU night fighter. During tests it proved to be reliable and quickly gained recognition in battle. Throwing down 15 enemy bombers.

  • Focke-Wulf Ta 154

    Top 10 night fighter planes - Focke-Wulf Ta 154Focke-Wulf Ta 154Focke-Wulf Ta 154 – Nazi Germany, for the third time. This time with a machine inspired by a hostile multi-purpose aircraft: de Havilland Mosquito. The original had a fairly old wooden structure. But it troubled the Germans so much that they decided to build something similar.

  • Northrop P-61 Black Widow

    Top 10 night fighter planes - Northrop P-61 Black WidowNorthrop P-61 Black WidowNorthrop P-61 Black Widow – The “Black Widow” aircraft from the manufacturer Northrop Corporation was the only fighter of World War II. From the beginning, designed exclusively for night flying.


  • Post-war era:


  • Northrop F-89 Scorpion

    Top 10 night fighter planes - Northrop F-89 ScorpionNorthrop F-89 ScorpionNorthrop F-89 Scorpion – Trying to replace the “Black Widow” Northrop P-61. A slightly better night fighter, American designers developed the F-89. It was a self-supporting medium wing.

  • Gloster Javelin

    Top 10 night fighter planes - Gloster JavelinGloster JavelinGloster Javelin – First fighter manufactured by Gloster Aircraft Company was Meteor – with a jet propulsion. The first night machine, from this factory was Gloster Javelin.

  • Sud Aviation Vautour II

    Top 10 night fighter planes - Sud Aviation Vautour IISud Aviation Vautour IISud Aviation Vautour II – The first test flight of the French machine, took place on 16th October 1952. But it was not included in active service until 1958. The prototype was improved and finally created in three versions: IIA, IIB, IIN.

  • Jakovlev Jak-25

    Top 10 night fighter planes - Jakovlev Jak-25Jakovlev Jak-25Jakovlev Jak-25 – The first in the USSR created to operate on the areas of Siberia and the Far East. A twin-engine long-range fighter, adapted to all weather conditions. And for day and night flights.


During the war, the time of day does not matter. The fight lasts around the clock, regardless of weather conditions or time. That’s why the designers created night fighters. Which could have carried out the attack when most people calmly rest.

Sud Aviation Vautour II – Top 10 night fighter planes

Sud Aviation Vautour IISud Aviation Vautour IISud Aviation Vautour IISud Aviation Vautour IIIIN - Savigny-les-Beaunes - (22.09.2007)IIN - (02-06-1991)Chateau de Savigny-lès-Beaune Côte dOr Bourgogne-France (14-10-2014)SNCASO SO4050 - (12-06-2014)

Sud Aviation Vautour II – Top 10 night fighter planes

  • Place: France
  • First flight: 1952
  • Built: 149 pcs.

Sud Aviation Vautour II – The first test flight of the French machine took place on 16th October 1952. But it was not included in active service until 1958. The prototype was improved and finally created in three versions: IIA, IIB, IIN. Only the last model was designed as a night fighter. The basic equipment includes: Radar DRAC-25AI or DRAC-32AI – located in the cockpit. Four 30 mm DEFA 552 cannons. Matra 104A missile – attached from the bottom of the fuselage. Four Matra R-511 anti-aircraft missiles – located under the wings.

Gloster Javelin – Top 10 night fighter planes

Gloster JavelinGloster JavelinGloster JavelinGloster JavelinGloucestershire-Airport - Cheltenham-England - (01.06.2006)RAF Leeming-Gate-Guard - (11.06.2012)Flixton-Aviation-Museum - UK - (06-08-2009)RAF - (07-03-2015)

Gloster Javelin – Top 10 night fighter planes

  • Place: Great Britain
  • First flight: 1951
  • Built: 436 pcs.

Gloster Javelin – We are slowly entering the post-war era, in which the first night machine was Gloster Javelin. Manufactured by Gloster Aircraft Company. The first fighter from this factory was Meteor – with a jet propulsion. The next improved version was just Gloster Javelin. In which the place for two pilots was prepared. In 1953, machine production began. Which in the number of 436 pieces, served until 1968.

Northrop F-89 Scorpion – Top 10 night fighter planes

Northrop F-89 Scorpion - (01-01-1954)Northrop F-89 Scorpion - (14-10-2006)Northrop F-89 ScorpionUSAF - Northrop F-89 Scorpion - 59th Fighter-Interceptor-Squadrons437th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron - (01.01.1955)119th Fighter Group - The Happy Hooligans - North Dakota-(01.01.1965)433d Fighter-Interceptor Squadron - Ladd-AFB-Alaska-(01.01.1956)USAF-Dyess Linear Air-Park - Dyess - AFB-Texas-USA - (28-04-2009)

Northrop F-89 Scorpion – Top 10 night fighter planes

  • Place: USA
  • First flight: 1948
  • Built: 1050 pcs.

Northrop F-89 Scorpion – Trying to replace the “Black Widow” Northrop P-61. A slightly better night fighter, American designers developed the F-89 Scorpion. It was a self-supporting medium wing, capable of operating regardless of weather conditions. It had: 2 seats, 2 Allison J35 engines, all-metal construction. It was the first aircraft armed with nuclear weapons – intended for aerial combat.

Northrop P-61 – Top 10 night fighter planes

Northrop P-61 Black WidowNorthrop P-61 Black WidowNorthrop P-61 Black Widow - NACANorthrop P-61 Black Widow - CaliforniaBlack Widow - 427th Night Fighter Squadron - (01-01-1944)Black Widow - 548th Night Fighter Squadron - The Spook - (01-01-1944)Green airborne - (05-06-2005)Black Widow - San-Diego - Air-and-Space-Museum - (01-07-2016)

Northrop P-61 Black Widow – Top 10 night fighter planes

  • Place: USA
  • First flight: 1942
  • Built: 742 pcs.

Northrop P-61 Black Widow – The “Black Widow” aircraft from the manufacturer Northrop Corporation was the only fighter of World War II. From the beginning, designed exclusively for night flying. The basic equipment included: a large American SCR-720 Al radar mounted on the bow, a turret with 4 12.7 mm machine guns, and four 20 mm cannons mounted permanently under the fuselage. Immediately after the war, several dozen of these aircraft were rebuilt to the F-15 Reporter version. Dedicated only to take photographic images. From 1955, the US withdrew both types of aircraft.

Focke-Wulf Ta 154 – Top 10 night fighter planes

Focke-Wulf Ta 154 - Model - Aviation-museumFocke-Wulf Ta 154 - ModelFocke-Wulf Ta 154Horizontal - (15-03-2012)Profil3D view - (20-08-2012)

Focke-Wulf Ta 154 – Top 10 night fighter planes

  • Place: Germany
  • First flight: 1943
  • Built: approx. 8 pcs.

Focke-Wulf Ta 154 – Nazi Germany, for the third time. This time with a machine inspired by a hostile multi-purpose aircraft: de Havilland Mosquito. The original had a fairly old wooden structure. But he troubled the Germans so much that they decided to build something similar. In this way Focke-Wulf Ta 154 was created. Which had a partly wooden skeleton. During test flights, it won with stronger competitors: Junkers Ju 388 and Heinkel He 219 UHU. It should be added here that, it was the only one not armed. Weapons received only the third version of the aircraft: 2 30 mm pistols, 2 20 mm cannons, good quality FuG 212 Lichtenstein C-1 radar. In 1944 the program was completed.

Heinkel He 219 UHU – Top 10 night fighter planes

Heinkel He 219 UHUHeinkel He 219 UHUHeinkel He 219 UHUHeinkel He 219 UHU219 UHU - 2013Fuselage with wings - (30-07-2018)Fuselage with wings and powerplants - (30-07-2018)UHU - Fuselage - (25-09-2007)

Heinkel He 219 UHU – Top 10 night fighter planes

  • Place: Germany
  • First flight: 1942
  • Built: approx. 300 pcs.

Heinkel He 219 UHU – In the summer of 1943, the German Luftwaffe I / NJG 1 with a base in Venlo, the Netherlands, received a prototype of the Heinkel He 219 UHU night fighter. During tests it proved to be reliable and quickly gained recognition in battle. Throwing down 15 enemy bombers. At the beginning of 1942, in response to the increasing air attacks on Germany, the aircraft was transformed into a night fighter.