Air cost in New York – Real Estate market project

Manhattan from space, NYC, USA - NASAThinscraper tower in Manhattan, NYC, USAAerial view on NYC, USA - 21, 07, 2017Air cost in New York - Hi Line construction, Manhattan - New YorkAir cost in New York - Hudson Yards, Manhattan - New YorkAir cost in New York - New York City High LineAir cost in New York - 30th Street High Line


Air cost in New York – Real Estate market project

Air cost in New York – work on a major project in the US real estate market is now entering a crucial phase. Hudson Yards consists of 15 skyscrapers and fills the last big gap in New York City Tissue. Investors spent $ 25 billion on this neighborhood. Not many people know they had to pay for anything else besides the plot, steel and glass. For something you can’t see or touch – for the air.
Although not very clean, it is in this 8,5-millionaire metropolis as expensive as anywhere else in the world. The reason for this is the reform of building law from 1961 Until then, there were no height limits in the “Big Apple”. In order to prevent the “arms proliferation” of developers, the city has determined how many floors and how many surfaces can be built per square meter of land.
The fact that companies can, since then, simply buy back unused airspace from their neighbours. For example, if the building has only 20 floors and 40. is allowed, the investor can acquire air rights above it and add 20 floors to his project next door. Thanks to this solution, New York schools, theatres and churches are unable to make use of their rights. They gain a lucrative source of income: they can sell rights to space not only to their immediate neighbours, but also to those across the street. In 2014 the church of st. Thomas in Manhattan for the rights to air above the roof received $ 72 million when Goldman Sachs needed an extra area for his skyscrapers.
Hudson Yards Investors couldn’t handle this cheap. They had to pay $ 265 million. But despite construction explosion, the air in New York won’t be long. Statistically speaking, unused rights to space over roofs would be enough to set up about 1300 skyscrapers of the Empire State Building.

432 Park Avenue - 57th Street432 Park Avenue

In New York City, the maximum permissible height of the skyscrapers is decided by the area of the plot. To be able to rise 432 Park Avenue, 426 m high. On a square with sides only 28 at 28 m., it was necessary to buy the airspace of adjacent buildings.

Construction of 111 West 57th Street - 25-05-2019111 West 57th

Measures 438 meters and with a ratio of width of facades, up to a height of 1:24-is the most beautiful cloud in the world. The construction of this luxury skyscraper was only possible thanks to the air above the plot.

Construction of Central Park Tower - 27-04-2019Central Park Tower

The construction of the 472-Foot Central Park Tower is to be completed in 2020 This height was also achieved only because investors bought a lot of airspace rights from neighbouring skyscrapers and used them to build their own skyscrapers.

We like aggressive music – Strong, sad, full of emotions

We like aggressive music - Sabaton performing at Bloodstock Open Air 2013We like aggressive music - Satyricon performing at Bloodstock Open Air in 2016We like aggressive music - Alice Cooper performing at Bloodstock Open Air in 2012We like aggressive music - Blind WitnessWe like aggressive music - Ashes of Eden at concert in Montreal in 2005We like aggressive music - Mercy Killing - ExodusWe like aggressive music - Onslaught performing at Bloodstock in 2006We like aggressive music - Rage performing at Bloodstock Open Air in 2006

We like aggressive music – Strong, sad, full of emotions

We like aggressive music – Strong, sad, full of emotions – We are more willing to choose sad, troubling and full of anger songs. This phenomenon was observed by analysts from Lawrence Technological University. They used an automated system to evaluate the lyrics of the most popular songs listed on the Billboard Hot 100 list from the end of the 1950s until the end of 2016. In total, about 6,000 works were examined. The algorithm assigned each emotional value, and then the average for the whole year.
As Kathleen Napier and Lior Shamir, who analyzed this data, observed, the most optimistic, joyful songs are the oldest ones. From that time on, anger, fear and sadness began to take over to reach the apogee in 2015. Only the middle of the 1970s and the beginning of the 1980s breaks from this trend.
As the researchers emphasize, it does not mean that the music itself has changed

Increasing aggression in the text layer does not mean growing aggression of the creators. This is a sign that the tastes of music consumers have changed

– says Lior Shamir. –

We just want to listen such things.

World journalists – Committee to Protect Journalists alarm

World journalists - CPJ - logoWorld journalists - CPJ(2017)World journalists - CPJ(2016)World journalists - Reporters Without Borders - logo

World journalists – Committee to Protect Journalists alarm

World journalists – At the end of 2018, 251 journalists were held in prisons in relation to their work. Most of them are serving judgments for anti-state activities, such as belonging to groups considered to be terrorist in a given country. As many as 28 have been punished for allegedly spreading fake news. Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ), an international non-governmental organization claiming the rights of representatives of this profession. Alarms that independent journalists are exposed to legal sanctions. The situation in Turkey, China and Egypt since 2016 is tragic. Only these three countries are responsible for more than half of the cases of detention of media workers.

Sans Forgetica – Font that improves memory

Sans Forgetica - formSans ForgeticaSans Forgetica - example

Sans Forgetica – Font that improves memory

Sans Forgetica – Font that streamlines memory – Australian researchers from the RMIT University (Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology) have found that our brain reads the fonts that it already knows more quickly, such as Arial or Times New Roman. By which, however, it remembers less content contained in a given text. Therefore, in collaboration with ethologists, psychologists and professor of typography, they have developed a font that is harder to read. Sans Forgetica called it – which in translation means more or less “without forgetting”.
The letters have gaps, are slightly tilted to the left and are in contradiction with the typical way of reading. Deciphering them requires more effort from the brain. Which activates the gray cells and forces you to stop at each word for a little longer. It improves memory and allows you to learn about 7% more information!

Long ago forbidden – Today completely normal

Long ago forbidden – Today completely normal

Long ago forbidden – Today something completely normal:

Long ago forbidden - Football - icon

1. Football: 4 bln fans

In the XIV century England men have to train archery,
and do not waste time on games. Effect: banning football.

Long ago forbidden - Christmas in art

2. Christmas

England, between 1644 and 1660: the Puritans forbid festivities in days
winter solstice – already celebrated by pagans.

Long ago forbidden - Chess

3. Chess

Year 1254: King of France Louis IX considers this strategy game
too boring and useless, so it is forbidden to think about it.

Long ago forbidden - Popcorn

4. Popcorn

In the era of silent film popcorn is considered a cheap snack of the street people,
therefore it is banished from the “luxury” cinemas.

Long ago forbidden - Bowling game

5. Bowling game

In the years 1366-1477 in England only aristocrats can play bowling.
You have to pay 100 pounds for running the bowling alley.

Long ago forbidden - Trousers for women

6. Trousers for women

For 214 years law prohibits Parisiennes wearing trousers.
The law finally disappears in 2013.

Long ago forbidden - Credit card - front

7. Credit cards for women

Until 1974, American women can get a credit card,
only with the consent of her husband.

Long ago forbidden - Coffee - Antoccino Espresso

8. Coffee shops

In 1675, King of England Charles II tries to forbid coffee shops – from fear
that his critics could plan a rebellion there.

Long ago forbidden - Swimsuit

9. Swimsuits

In the early XX century, American cities issue regulations
with a minimum length of swimsuits.

Long ago forbidden - Scrabble

10. Scrabble

Communist dictator of Romania, Nicolae Ceausescu,
forbids this game as “over-intellectualized”.

Mostly practiced sports – 10 most popular disciplines

Mostly practiced sports – 10 most popular disciplines in the world:

Mostly practiced sports - Football - pictogram1. Football: 4 bln fans
It is practiced all over the world. In Poland, sports clubs play over 300,000 people.
Mostly practiced sports - Cricket - pictogram2. Cricket: 2,5 bln fans
A team game based on bouncing the ball with a stick. The most popular is in Great Britain and its former colonies.
Mostly practiced sports - Field hockey - pictogram3. Field hockey: 2 bln fans
Team game is popular mainly in Western Europe, South Asia, South Africa and Australia.
Mostly practiced sports - Tennis - pictogram4. Tennis: 1 bln fans
The History of tennis dates back to the 12th century. Its original form evolved in French … monasteries.
Mostly practiced sports - Volleyball - pictogram5. Volleyball: 900 mln fans
Volleyball is popular especially in Europe and America.
Mostly practiced sports - Table tennis - pictogram6. Table tennis: 875 mln fans
Also known as ping pong, it is played and is seen mainly in Europe and Asia.
Mostly practiced sports - Basketball - pictogram7. Basketball: 875 mln fans
This sports discipline is particularly popular in the USA. Around 450 million people throw in the basket all over the world.
Mostly practiced sports - Baseball - pictogram8. Baseball: 500 mln fans
Team game derived from with cricket, very popular in the United States.
Mostly practiced sports - Rugby - pictogram9. Rugby: 475 mln fans
This discipline requiring great physical effort is mainly cultivated in the Great Britain, RSA and on the antipodes.
Mostly practiced sports - Golf - pictogram10. Golf: 450 mln fans
North America, Western Europe, East Asia – golf is popular primarily in developed countries.

Battle of Somme – The attack of French and British

Battle of Somme - Lochnagar Crater (1)Battle of Somme - Lochnagar Crater (2)Battle of Somme - Lochnagar Crater (3)Battle of Somme - Lochnagar Crater (4)Battle of Somme - Lochnagar Crater (5)Battle of Somme - Cheshire Regiment trench Somme 1916Battle of Somme 1916 - MapBattle of Somme - Lochnagar Crater Map

Battle of Somme – The attack of French and British

Battle of Somme – The great Somme offensive planned by the French and the British. Was to finally break the German resistance and end the war within a few weeks. The decisive significance in this plan was played by a series of secret tunnels. Dug up by the whole company for months. Leading the artillery fire of German trenches, the British imperceptibly placed under enemy positions 19 explosives.

On the first of July 1916, mines under German lines almost simultaneously exploded. The largest load was broken in the earth by a crater with a depth of 21 meters and a diameter of 91 meters. Contrary to the expectations of the generals, however, the enemy forces were not destroyed. And the offensive became a deadly trap for the soldiers.

Already in the first 30 minutes of the fire from German machine guns, thousands of Britons were killed. On the first day of the attack on German positions. About 21000 British and French soldiers died. The fights continued for another five months. Consuming over a million lives. Only to get a 35-kilometer piece of the front. Approx. 10 kilometers deep into the enemy’s territory.

Impact of popular social networking site

Impact of popular social networking site - Instagram icon

Impact of popular social networking site

Impact of popular social networking site – Can Instagram lead to depression? Anxiety, loneliness, a negative image of your own body – these are just some of the effects of this popular social networking website on the psyche of young people. The Royal Association of Public Health in Great Britain published the report. That shows that especially Instagram and Snapchat can have a devastating effect on our self-esteem. When friends share their photos with images of expensive shopping, holidays spent with friends or personal successes. We can come to the conclusion that something is missing in our lives. Researchers indicate that the rapid increase in depression and mood disorders in recent years may be partially due to the contact with idealized images that we encounter on the web.

Men’s emancipation – Matriarchate in India

Men's emancipation - Khasi GirlsMen's emancipation - Khasi - Artistic showMen's emancipation - Public information campaign in the Meghalaya district, India (21.09.2013)

Men’s emancipation – Matriarchate in India

Men’s emancipation – Matriarchate in India – In some cultures people have a subordinate position in society. They slowly begin to rebel. Khasi’s people, who live in the Meghalaya region in the north-east of India, are demanding their rights. In this ethnic group, after the marriage, the man takes the wife’s surname. She enters her home and her mother-in-law rules. Women are the main heirs, almost all their assets are in their hands. They enjoy much more freedom than in the rest of the country.

“In my community, people are only useful for breeding, I feel useless.” He complained in the Indian magazine “Caravan” Keith Pariat, president of Syngkhong Rympei Thymmai (SRT), an organization fighting for the equal rights of Khasi men. They are obliged to maintain the household, but they can not decide on what money they will be spent on. Banks refuse to grant them loans because they do not have the right to make a pledge without holding property rights. All this leads to frustration and drunkenness. Which in turn makes them unattractive in the eyes of Khasi women who prefer men outside this community, so they threaten to be extinct.

Worlds smallest countries – 10 record breakers

Worlds smallest countries – 10 record breakers

Worlds smallest countries - Vatican City - panoramaWorlds smallest countries - Vatican City - panorama (2)Worlds smallest countries - Vatican City - panorama (3) - Pope Francis in the window
1. Vatican City – The record is church enclave in Italy with an area of only 0.44 km². Official languages: Italian and … Latin.

Worlds smallest countries - Monaco - StadiumWorlds smallest countries - Monaco - Panorama, 2015Worlds smallest countries - Monaco - map
2. Monaco – This principality, covering only 2.02 km², has an impressive population density of 18,775 people per km².

Worlds smallest countries - Nauru - mapWorlds smallest countries - Nauru-parliamentWorlds smallest countries - View of Nauru (NOAA)
3. Nauru – The island state in the Pacific Ocean has an area of 21.3 km², so it is smaller than Zielona Góra.

Worlds smallest countries - Tuvalu - Inaba (1)Worlds smallest countries - Tuvalu - Inaba (2)Worlds smallest countries - Tuvalu - Inaba (3)
4. Tuvalu – Located also in the Pacific, the archipelago occupies 26 km², and its highest point rises only 5 meters above sea level.

Worlds smallest countries - San Marino - Panorama (1)Worlds smallest countries - San Marino 2008 - Panorama (2)Worlds smallest countries - San Marino - Panorama (3)
5. San Marino – The enclave, surrounded by Italy, has an area of 61 km² and is the oldest republic in the world.

Worlds smallest countries - Liechtenstein - BalzersWorlds smallest countries - Liechtenstein - 2017.07.16Worlds smallest countries - Liechtenstein - Castle Of Gutenberg, Balzers
6. Liechtenstein – It is the only country located entirely in the Alps. It has an area of 160 km², and up to 33% of its inhabitants are foreigners.

Worlds smallest countries - Marshall Islands - Photo from Bikrin IslandWorlds smallest countries - Marshall IslandsWorlds smallest countries - Marshall Islands - At Gugeegue Islands Northern Point Looking South
7. Marshall Islands – More than 1,200 islands included in this Pacific located country have a total area of 181 km².

Worlds smallest countries - Saint Kitts and Nevis - Caribbean CruiseWorlds smallest countries - Saint Kitts and Nevis - Caribbean Cruise, 2016.02 (2)Worlds smallest countries - Saint Kitts and Nevis - North Frigate Bay - View from Timothy Hill - Panorama
8. Saint Kitts and Nevis – This Caribbean federation covers 269 km². The islands were discovered by Christopher Columbus in 1493.

Worlds smallest countries - Maldives - 2008.10.24 - PanoramaWorlds smallest countries - MaldivesWorlds smallest countries - Maldives, Kandooma - Panorama (2)
9. Maldives – Located in the Indian Ocean, the archipelago includes 1196 islands. It has a total area of 300 km² and a height of max. 1 m above sea level.

Worlds smallest countries - Malta - PanoramaWorlds smallest countries - Malta - The Spur TowerWorlds smallest countries - Malta - Valletta at night
10. Malta – This state in the Mediterranean Sea extends over an area of 316 km² (similar to Cracow) and consists of three inhabited and several uninhabited islands.