Dead Sea salinity – Salt lake without outflow

Dead Sea salinityDead Sea salinityDead Sea salinityDead Sea salinityDead Sea salinityDead Sea salinityDead Sea salinityDead Sea salinityDead Sea salinityIsrael - (07-07-2016)Sunset - Jordan - (2013)View from U.S. Space Shuttle mission-STS-28 - (01-08-1989)Stones at shore - IsraelBeit-HaArava - Before the 1948 Arab–Israeli WarNatural Bitumen from shoreCobble with rock-salt - from Israel

Dead Sea salinity – Salt lake without outflow

Dead Sea salinity – 33.7%, which is 10 times higher than for normal water use. About 40 billion tons of salt are contained in the sea. By evaporating one liter of its water, you can get about 250 grams of this mineral. Due to the high salinity in the Dead Sea, which is actually a salt lake without outflow. There is no right life. For comparison, the salinity of the Baltic Sea is only about 7 ‰.

Dead Sea mud has antiseptic and bactericidal properties.

Fort Jefferson – Florida, USA – In left fortress-reserve

Fort Jefferson - Florida, USAFort Jefferson - Florida, USAFort Jefferson - Florida, USAFort Jefferson - Florida, USAFort Jefferson - Florida, USAFort Jefferson - Florida, USAGarden and Bush Keys - FloridaGarden and Bush Keys - FloridaFlorida Keys - (02-05-2014)Florida Keys - (02-05-2014)

Fort Jefferson – Florida, USA – In left fortress-reserve

Fort Jefferson – On the Florida Keys, it was supposed to be a fortress for eternity, but life verified these bold plans. It gave shelter to soldiers for only a few years. This is one of the most ambitious construction projects in US history: thousands of workers worked on the Garden Key island. Who used nearly 16 million bricks for nearly 30 years to build the largest fort on the American coast. It was built on a hexagon plan, its walls were 14 m high, and the space in it was enough for: 450 cannons, 1500 soldiers.

The problem was that the fortress was named after President Thomas Jefferson. Most of the time it was simply unnecessary. That is why the government began to use it as a place of isolation for political prisoners in the Civil War. That was until 1867.
When an epidemic of yellow fever broke out in the fort. One of her first victims was a prison doctor. So, to stop the rampant disease, he began, Dr. Samuel Mudd – serving life imprisonment for participating in the plot for the life of Abraham Lincoln. He succeeded: he saved hundreds of prisoners and guards. Mudd was pardoned and the prison was soon closed.

Today there is a bird sanctuary in the abandoned fortress. It is also one of the favorite diving spots on the Florida Keys.

Hashima – Kyushu, Japan – Island is hell

Hashima - Kyushu, JapanHashima - Kyushu, JapanHashima - Kyushu, JapanHashima - Kyushu, JapanHashima - Kyushu, JapanHashima - Kyushu, JapanGunkanjima - NagasakiGunkanjima - NagasakiGunkanjima - NagasakiGunkanjima - Nagasaki

Hashima – Kyushu, Japan – Island is hell

Hashima – Kyushu, Japan – Five kilometers from the coast of Japan in the Kyushu region. An island emerges from the water that resembles, a rather powerful ship. No wonder Hashima is called Battleship by local residents. Or Ghost Island – because hundreds of people were killed cruelly. From the end of the 19th century, there were Mitsubishi concern mines. In which underwater coal seams were exploited.

During World War II:

Chinese and Korean forced laborers came to this Japanese island. As a result of inhuman living conditions and over-work. Almost 1,300 prisoners died here.
Later, workers came voluntarily, and the island itself expanded.
Reaching a length of 480 meters and a width of 160 meters. At its peak, this allowed over five thousand people to live there. With the cessation of mining in 1974, the inhabitants hurriedly left the island.

Despite the ideas of transforming island into a tourist attraction. Severe weather conditions and high costs of reconstruction, mean that only gloomy ruins threaten there – and the secrets hidden in them…

St Kilda – Hirta – Atlantic, Scotland – Exiled people

St Kilda - Hirta - Atlantic, ScotlandSt Kilda - Hirta - Atlantic, ScotlandSt Kilda - Hirta - Atlantic, ScotlandSt Kilda - Hirta - Atlantic, ScotlandMap of archipelago - (15-08-2007)Fulmars hunting - (01-01-1898)Mailboat - (01-01-1898)Puffins hunting - (01-01-1898)

St Kilda – Hirta – Atlantic, Scotland – Exiled people

St Kilda – Hirta – To reach the place called „the edge of the world”. You have to bounce off the west coast of Scotland and over 60 km across the cold Atlantic. There, among windswept and waves, several small islands protrude from the sea. They are so unfriendly and distant from the mainland, that it is not surprising that they are uninhabited, so it is surprising that Hirta, part of the St Kilda archipelago, was already inhabited in the Bronze Age.

The life of indigenous peoples almost all the time concentrated on making supplies for the winter. Harvesting: Peat, which was a source of heat for them. Sheep wool for yarns and sea birds as food. There was no possibility of fishing – the waters around were treacherous enough.

Weather is so hard and unpredictable, that up to the last century for eight months of the year. Hirta was completely cut off from the world. Even in the nineteenth century, its inhabitants, whose number ranged between 100 and 200, when they wanted to make contact with the world. They threw messages in bottles, into sea, at favorable winds. Hoping that someone in Scotland will catch one.

Community lived in great isolation

To the extent that her genetic pool has been weakened: brought from outside, quite innocent diseases. Which destroyed her almost completely. The last 36 survivors surrendered in the 1930s. After the decision of the British Parliament, they left a sinister place. It was the end of the settlement, which lasted over two thousand years…

Annapurna – Himalayas, Nepal – Risky for climbers

Annapurna - Himalayas, NepalAnnapurna - Himalayas, NepalAnnapurna - Himalayas, NepalAnnapurna - Himalayas, NepalAnnapurna - Himalayas, NepalAnnapurna - Himalayas, NepalNepalese Mountains and a twinkling skyAaron Benson - Nepal - (27-01-2017)South Mountain - (17-01-2005)Base of Mount - (17-01-2017)

Annapurna – Himalayas, Nepal – Risky for climbers

„Annapurna takes life” – wrote in the diary Mingma Sherpa, conqueror of the Himalayan Crown and Karakoram. „To climb this mountain, you need perseverance – and happiness.” Before the start, the expedition leader once again looked deeply into the eyes of each member of his team. Everyone knew well that there are nine higher peaks than rising 8091 meters above sea level Annapurna. But none of them killed so many daredevils – statistically every fourth climber never returns from it.To this day more than 60 people have lost their lives there, and the bodies of many of them lie frozen somewhere in rocky cracks or under the snow. Extracting them is too risky.
For comparison: on the much more frequented Mount Everest mortality is only 4%. There is a reason why climbers call Annapurna the mountain of death. On the 2.6 km steep southern wall, there are avalanches – apart from altitude sickness, loss of orientation and freezing. Also for the 13-man expedition led by Mingma Sherpa. This eight-thousander turned out to be unlucky: although they all reached the top, but two of its members died on the way back. In the dark of night they fell into the abyss …

Annapurna is dangerous not only when climbing.

In October 2014, at least 43 people died during snowstorms and avalanches in the area. Including many himalaists. It was the most tragic accident in history of Nepal.

Centralia – Pennsylvania, USA – Under city eternal fire

Centralia - Pennsylvania, USACentralia - Pennsylvania, USACentralia - Pennsylvania, USAPennsylvania - (01-01-2005)Columbia County, Pennsylvania, USACity Skyline (06-07-2010)

Centralia – Pennsylvania, USA – Under city eternal fire

Centralia – Although a fire goes crazy underneath, a handful of residents still refuse to leave it. They hide from the authorities, which gives the city a mysterious aura. Until the 1960s, Centralia was a town like many in the east of Pennsylvania. About 1500 people lived and worked there. Most of them were employed in the mines – until in 1962 the spark from a nearby garbage dump jumped to the adit, setting fire to coal.

In the following years

Flames gradually expanded under the city. In buildings suddenly started fires, whose flames ​​penetrated earth. Embracing home gardens, and the trees turned into ashes from day to day. Centralia’s underground has become a hell. The government announced the evacuation – it was estimated that the flames had enough fuel to burn for 250 years. Putting out this fire would cost over $ 660 million. That is why politicians decided on a much cheaper option: resettlement of residents.

Jakovlev Jak-25 – Top 10 night fighter planes

Jakovlev Jak-25 - Museum-Monino - Moscow-RussiaJakovlev Jak-25 - Interceptor - Museum-Monino - Moscow-RussiaJakovlev Jak-25 - Museum-Monino - Moscow-Russia - (27-08-2017)Jakovlev Jak-25 - Central-Air-Force - Museum-Monino - Moscow-RussiaMuseum-Monino - Moscow-Russia - (13-08-2004)Yakovlev - (01-01-1978)Technical-Museum - Arkhangelskoye - Moscow-Russia - (14-08-2012)Museum-Monino - Moscow-Russia - (17-08-2016)

Jakovlev Jak-25 – Top 10 night fighter planes

  • Place: Russia
  • First flight: 1952
  • Built: 483 + 155 pcs.

Jakovlev Jak-25 – The first in the USSR created to operate on the areas of Siberia and the Far East. A twin-engine long-range fighter, adapted to all weather conditions. And for day and night flights. The prototype was ready for factory testing in October 1947, and from 1954 the first units were in constant readiness close to the northern border of the USSR.

Top 10 night fighter planes – WWI & WWII and post-war era

Top 10 night fighter planesTop 10 night fighter planesTop 10 night fighter planesTop 10 night fighter planesTop 10 night fighter planesTop 10 night fighter planesTop 10 night fighter planesTop 10 night fighter planesTop 10 night fighter planesTop 10 night fighter planes

Top 10 night fighter planes – WWI & WWII and post-war era

Top 10 night fighter planes:


  • World War I:


  • Royal Aircraft Factory B.E.2c

    Top 10 night fighter planes - Royal Aircraft Factory B.E.2cRoyal Aircraft Factory B.E.2cRoyal Aircraft Factory B.E.2c – Night flights were already taking place during World War I. It was not machines specially designed for these purposes. But fighters usually reworked. Such an example was a single-engine, two-seat, biplane – Royal Aircraft Factory B.E.2c.

  • Sopwith Camel “Comic” Nightfighter

    Top 10 night fighter planes - Sopwith Camel Sopwith Camel Sopwith Camel – “Comic” Nightfighter – A modified version of the British military aircraft Sopwith Camel also participated in World War I. Manufactured by Sopwith Aviation Company. Equipped with an improved Neame sight.


  • World War II:


  • Messerschmitt Bf 110 G-4

    Top 10 night fighter planes - Messerschmitt Bf 110 G-4Messerschmitt Bf 110 G-4Messerschmitt Bf 110 G-4 – Was a heavy twin-engine fighter aircraft. One of the best machines for conducting night raids. Because the machine was poorly manoeuvrable, the Germans decided to use it as a bombing and intercepting fighter.

  • Heinkel He 219 UHU

    Top 10 night fighter planes - Heinkel He 219 UHUHeinkel He 219 UHUHeinkel He 219 UHU – In the summer of 1943, the German Luftwaffe I/NJG 1 with a base in Venlo, the Netherlands, received a prototype of the Heinkel He 219 UHU night fighter. During tests it proved to be reliable and quickly gained recognition in battle. Throwing down 15 enemy bombers.

  • Focke-Wulf Ta 154

    Top 10 night fighter planes - Focke-Wulf Ta 154Focke-Wulf Ta 154Focke-Wulf Ta 154 – Nazi Germany, for the third time. This time with a machine inspired by a hostile multi-purpose aircraft: de Havilland Mosquito. The original had a fairly old wooden structure. But it troubled the Germans so much that they decided to build something similar.

  • Northrop P-61 Black Widow

    Top 10 night fighter planes - Northrop P-61 Black WidowNorthrop P-61 Black WidowNorthrop P-61 Black Widow – The “Black Widow” aircraft from the manufacturer Northrop Corporation was the only fighter of World War II. From the beginning, designed exclusively for night flying.


  • Post-war era:


  • Northrop F-89 Scorpion

    Top 10 night fighter planes - Northrop F-89 ScorpionNorthrop F-89 ScorpionNorthrop F-89 Scorpion – Trying to replace the “Black Widow” Northrop P-61. A slightly better night fighter, American designers developed the F-89. It was a self-supporting medium wing.

  • Gloster Javelin

    Top 10 night fighter planes - Gloster JavelinGloster JavelinGloster Javelin – First fighter manufactured by Gloster Aircraft Company was Meteor – with a jet propulsion. The first night machine, from this factory was Gloster Javelin.

  • Sud Aviation Vautour II

    Top 10 night fighter planes - Sud Aviation Vautour IISud Aviation Vautour IISud Aviation Vautour II – The first test flight of the French machine, took place on 16th October 1952. But it was not included in active service until 1958. The prototype was improved and finally created in three versions: IIA, IIB, IIN.

  • Jakovlev Jak-25

    Top 10 night fighter planes - Jakovlev Jak-25Jakovlev Jak-25Jakovlev Jak-25 – The first in the USSR created to operate on the areas of Siberia and the Far East. A twin-engine long-range fighter, adapted to all weather conditions. And for day and night flights.


During the war, the time of day does not matter. The fight lasts around the clock, regardless of weather conditions or time. That’s why the designers created night fighters. Which could have carried out the attack when most people calmly rest.

Sud Aviation Vautour II – Top 10 night fighter planes

Sud Aviation Vautour IISud Aviation Vautour IISud Aviation Vautour IISud Aviation Vautour IIIIN - Savigny-les-Beaunes - (22.09.2007)IIN - (02-06-1991)Chateau de Savigny-lès-Beaune Côte dOr Bourgogne-France (14-10-2014)SNCASO SO4050 - (12-06-2014)

Sud Aviation Vautour II – Top 10 night fighter planes

  • Place: France
  • First flight: 1952
  • Built: 149 pcs.

Sud Aviation Vautour II – The first test flight of the French machine took place on 16th October 1952. But it was not included in active service until 1958. The prototype was improved and finally created in three versions: IIA, IIB, IIN. Only the last model was designed as a night fighter. The basic equipment includes: Radar DRAC-25AI or DRAC-32AI – located in the cockpit. Four 30 mm DEFA 552 cannons. Matra 104A missile – attached from the bottom of the fuselage. Four Matra R-511 anti-aircraft missiles – located under the wings.

Gloster Javelin – Top 10 night fighter planes

Gloster JavelinGloster JavelinGloster JavelinGloster JavelinGloucestershire-Airport - Cheltenham-England - (01.06.2006)RAF Leeming-Gate-Guard - (11.06.2012)Flixton-Aviation-Museum - UK - (06-08-2009)RAF - (07-03-2015)

Gloster Javelin – Top 10 night fighter planes

  • Place: Great Britain
  • First flight: 1951
  • Built: 436 pcs.

Gloster Javelin – We are slowly entering the post-war era, in which the first night machine was Gloster Javelin. Manufactured by Gloster Aircraft Company. The first fighter from this factory was Meteor – with a jet propulsion. The next improved version was just Gloster Javelin. In which the place for two pilots was prepared. In 1953, machine production began. Which in the number of 436 pieces, served until 1968.